U-Edith Wharton

U-Edith Wharton ubhekwa ngabaningi njengomunye wababhali bamanoveli baseMelika abaluleke kakhulu. Umbhali unamanoveli angaphezu kwama-40, umlando wokuphila kwakhe kanye nezinye izindaba ezimfushane okumenza athole udumo; ngisho nezinye izincwadi zokubhala kwakhe zashicilelwa kwesidumbu. UWharton wayezinikele kakhulu ekwenzeni amanoveli nezindaba ezimfishane, kepha futhi wabhala nezincwadi nakwezinye izindawo ezinjengalezi: ukuhlobisa nokuhamba.

Impilo enkulu ka-Edith Wharton wayichitha eFrance, ayithatha njengekhaya lakhe lesibili. Ngalesi sizathu, izincwadi zakhe eziningi zingesiNgisi nesiFulentshi. Ngo-1921, umbhali wezincwadi washicilela incwadi yakhe: Inkathi Yobumsulwa ngawo wawina umklomelo wePulitzer. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi uWharton wayengowesifazane wokuqala ogama lakhe: Udokotela honissausa ngu-Yale University.

U-Edith Wharton Biography

U-Edith Newbold Jones wazalwa ngoJanuwari 24, 1862, eNew York City. Abazali bakhe kwakungu: George Frederic Jones noLucretia Stevens Rhinelander. Ngenxa yesimo senhlalo nomnotho womndeni wakhe, u-Edith wafundiswa ekhaya, enabafundisi abaphambili kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, Wayenelungelo lokuthola umtapo wezincwadi omkhulu unomphela, awusebenzisa ngokunenzuzo, ngoba wayehlale ekuthanda ukufunda.

Matrimonio

Ngo-1885, u-Edith washada no-Edward Robbins Wharton, lobu budlelwano babuneziphepho, kuyithinta ezicini eziningi. Ekugcineni, ngo-1913 - eseneminyaka engama-28 ubudala - u-Edith wakwazi ukwehlukana ngokusemthethweni no-Edward, ngemuva kwesikhathi eside sokungajabuli nokungathembeki okuningi kumlingani wakhe.

travel

Enye yezinkanuko zika-Edith kwakuwukuhamba, mhlawumbe kungenxa yokuthi njengoba wayeneminyaka emithathu ubudala wakwenza nabazali bakhe. Weza ukuwela i-Atlantic cishe izikhathi ezingama-66, ngoba uhambo lwakhe kulo lonke elaseYurophu lwalulokhu luqhubeka. Wahamba izikhathi eziningi waze waphila isikhathi eside ezwenikazi elidala kunasekhaya. Futhi lokhu akumangazi, ngoba impilo eNew York yayibiza kakhulu.

Okufanayo U-Edith uqokomisa emlandweni wakhe wezindawo ezinhle aye wazazi emhlabeni wonke. Phakathi kwamasayithi amthinte kakhulu iCamino de Santiago nePórtico de la Gloria yaseCathedral yaseSantiago; wayebabheka njengokumangalisa kakhulu futhi okuhle kunakho konke.

Ubungani obukhulu

Enye yezinto u-Edith Wharton aziwa ngayo ubungani bakhe nezibalo ezibalulekile zesikhathi. Omunye wabo wayenjalo umbhali kanye nomhlaziyi wezincwadi uHenry James, anikele kuye isahluko sonke emlandweni wakhe. Yena, ngaphezu kokuba ngumngani wakhe, wayengumeluleki wakhe. Abanye abangane baka-Edith kwakungu: Theodotre Roosvelt, Jean Coteau, Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald, no-Ernest Hemingway.

UWharton nempi yezwe yokuqala

Lapho iqala la Impi Yezwe Yokuqala, U-Edith Wharton wayeseRue de Varenne, eParis. Into yokuqala eyenziwe umlobi ukusebenzisa ithonya lakhe kuhulumeni waseFrance ukumvumela ukuba ahambe ngesithuthuthu aye phambili, ngenhloso yokuphatha imishanguzo yezokwelapha nokusebenzisana lapho kudingeka.

Ngendlela efanayo, wathola umhlobiso weSiphambano seLegion of Honor nguhulumeni waseFrance, lokhu kubongwa ngomsebenzi wakhe eRed Cross nomsebenzi wakhe obalulekile wezenhlalo. Konke lokhu okuhlangenwe nakho kuthathwe ngumlobi ofanayo ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene, ezabe zethulwa kuleyo eseyi Ukulwa neFrance: Kusuka eDunkerque kuye eBelfort (1915).

Ukufa

U-Edith Wharton washona eneminyaka engu-75 ubudala, ngo-Agasti 11, 1937 eSaint-Brice-sous-Forêt emazweni aseParis. Ukufa bekungenxa yengozi yenhliziyo. Izidumbu zakhe ziphumule emhlabathini ongcwele waseGonards eVersailles.

Umsebenzi ka-Edith Wharton wokubhala

Ipeni lalo mbhali omangalisayo likhiqize iqoqo elikhulu lemisebenzi, enezincwadi eziningi, izindaba, izingodo zokuhamba kanye nezinkondlo. UWharton wayenesitayela esihlukile futhi esihlukile, esichazwa ngama-tirades akhe nezigaba eziphezulu zenhlalo, yize bevela lapho. Umsebenzi wokuqala owaziwa ngawo Isigodi Sokunquma (Isigodi Sesinqumo, 1902).

e 1905 umphakathi: Indlu Yezinjabulo (The House of Joy), inoveli emenze wazitholela udumo. Saqala kanjalo-ke ku-Edith Wharton isikhathi esanele ekwakheni izincwadi ezinhle, ezinjengalezi: Izithelo Zesihlahla (1907), Madame de Treymes (1907), Ethan Frome (1911), kuze kube impumelelo yakhe enkulu ngo-1920: Inkathi Yobumsulwa, owawina i umklomelo Pulitzer.

Ezinye zezincwadi ezinhle kakhulu zika-Edith Wharton

Indlu yenjabulo (1905)

Kuyinoveli ebekwe ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX eNew York. Yindaba ka ULily bart, Owesifazane ofundile, ohlakaniphile futhi omuhle kakhulu waseNew York, owayeyintandane eneminyaka engu-19. Eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva akakashadi futhi usahlala nomalumekazi wakhe, obemnakekela selokhu kwashona unina. Inhloso enkulu kaLily ukuhlala emphakathini ophakeme, noma ngabe enza izinqumo ezimbi ukwenza njalo.

Ekuhambeni kwakhe uthandana nommeli ohlonishwayo uLawrence Selden, ongesona isicebi yingakho engakaze aluvume uthando lwakhe, yize wayephindisela. Ukuthola lokho akufunayo kuzoba nzima, esinye sezizathu kungenxa yesithunzi esibi uBertha Dorset amakhele sona, ngemuva kokumsola ngokuba nobudlelwano nomyeni wakhe. Konke kuzoholela uLily enesizungu, elinde okuthile okungakaze kufike.

Indlu yenjabulo
Indlu yenjabulo
Azikho izibuyekezo

Inkathi Yobumsulwa (1920)

Njengoba kushiwo, lesi sihloko samzuzela umklomelo wePulitzer. Le noveli yindaba yothando esekwe kunxantathu wothando owenzeka eNew York, ngonyaka we-1870. Ekuthuthukisweni kwesakhiwo, kuchazwa ngokuningiliziwe ukunethezeka namasiko amakiwe ezigaba zenhlalo yangaleso sikhathi. Abalingiswa bakhe abakhulu nguNewland Archer - ummeli -, ingoduso yakhe uMay Welland, kanye nomzala wakhe, u-Countess Olenska.

umnsalo Ungumnumzane obegxile ongafuni ukuphinda iphrofayili yamadoda ajwayelekile kabili angaleso sikhathi, abakholwayo nabazenzisi. Uthembekile ezimisweni zakhe futhi ugxeka amasiko omphakathi ophakeme.; Wayehlala ekhombisa inhlonipho ngoMeyi, kuze kube usuku abuya ngalo u-Olenska, futhi ukuba khona kwakhe okulula kwenza le ndoda yangabaza imizwa yayo. Le ndaba izokwenzeka kanjani ethinta izingqinamba ezibucayi zaleso sikhathi futhi ezophela ngezinguquko ezingalindelekile.

Thengisa Inkathi Yobumsulwa
Inkathi Yobumsulwa
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ukubheka emuva (1934)

Ngo-1934, u-Edith Wharton washicilela umlando wakhe. Emsebenzini uyabona ukuthi waphila ngokugcwele futhi ichaza ngokuningiliziwe ubuntwana bayo, ubusha nobudala bayo (ngaphandle kokuthi kuhlobene nomshado wayo). Umbhali usitshela ukuthi wakwenza kanjani konke ayethanda ukukwenza: ukufunda, ukubhala, ukuhamba nomsebenzi wezenhlalakahle. Ngaphezu kwalokho, wabona inani lomhlobiso empilweni yakhe.

Indawo yokubhala empilweni kaWharton inephuzu elibalulekile emlandweni wakhe. Kuchazwa ukunwetshwa kwemisebenzi yabo kanye nokukhuthazwa okubaholele ekutheni bayenze. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukhuluma ngokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe kwiWWI kanye nokusebenzisana akunikeze abaningi abaswele. Okunye okugqamile esihlokweni ngabangane abakhulu nabahle u-Edith Wharton ayenabo ngenkathi esaphila, anikela kuye ingxenye ebalulekile yomsebenzi.


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  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.