U-Arturo Sánchez Sanz. Ukuxoxisana nombhali weBelisarius: Magister militum yoMbuso WaseMpumalanga WaseRoma

Izithombe: U-Arturo Sánchez Sanz. Facebook.

U-Arturo Sanchez Sanz Ungudokotela Wezomlando Wasendulo nezifundo zakhe emhlabeni wezemfundo futhi njengombhali wendatshana ofundisayo ubanzi njengoba kubalulekile. Umsebenzi wakhe wakamuva, I-Belisarius: Magister militum yoMbuso WaseMpumalanga WaseRoma. Kulokhu ingxoxo usitshela ngakho futhi usinika ne- isigaba esiphakeme ngalolu hlobo kungasetshenziswa kakhulu ngabafundi. Ngibona kakhulu yesikhathi sakho nomusa.

U-Arturo Sánchez Sanz. Ingxoxo

  • IZINDABA ZOMBHALO: Udokotela Wezomlando Nezemivubukulo eComplutense University, indatshana yakho yokugcina eshicilelwe ngu I-Belisarius: Magister militum yoMbuso WaseMpumalanga WaseRoma. Ukhuluma ngani kuwo?

I-ARTURO SÁNCHEZ SANZ: Umhlaba wokushicilela ugcwele ama-eseyi omlando anikelwe ezihlokweni ezifanayo kaninginingi, futhi eSpain leli qiniso licace bha. Cleopatra, Caesar, the Tercios, Auschwitz… yingakho, selokhu indatshana yami yokuqala sizamile ukunikela ngokuningi, okuthile okusha nokuhlukile. Izincwadi ze-Anglo-Saxon zinamaphutha ambalwa kulokhu, kepha ngeSpanishi kunezindatshana ezimbalwa ezinikelwe ezinye izihloko, yize zaziwa futhi. Empeleni, Izazi-mlando ngokwazo zivame kakhulu ukugxila emhlabeni wezemfundo ovaliwe. Uhlelo olukhona lwamanje lwemfundo ephakeme lusiphoqa ukuthi sibhale izindatshana kuphela nama-eseyi akhethekile kangangokuba akekho omunye ngaphandle kozakwethu ongakwazi ukugaya.

Ukudalulwa okungokomlando kuyabukelwa phansi, futhi yingakho ngaso sonke isikhathi sinemisebenzi efanayo emakethe, izikhathi eziningi ezibhalwa izintatheli, abameli, njll. abagcwalisa lokho kuswela ngenkohliso yabo yomlando, kepha ababona izazi-mlando noma abavubukuli, futhi hhayi njalo umbono odluliselwa emphakathini uwonke awulungile noma awulungile.

Ngikholwa ukuthi umsebenzi wethu, futhi ngokubanzi, Umsebenzi wethu njengezazi-mlando ukukhuluma ngomlando hhayi emkhakheni wezemfundo kuphela, kodwa umhlaba wonke, ukuze uwenze usondele, ube lula futhi ufinyeleleke. Kuyo yonke impilo yami ngihlangane nabantu abambalwa okuthi, noma bezinikezela kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezentengiselwano, bangawuthandi uMlando, futhi ekugcineni lokho abakufundayo akuveli kwizazi-mlando eziqeqeshiwe, ezikwazi ukwenza ucwaningo oluhle ngemvelaphi, futhi lokho kudala imikhuba emibi ngezihloko ezahlukahlukene.

Ngaleso sizathu ngicabange nokubhala ukudalulwa noma ngabe kudingeke ukuthi ngibhukude ngiphikisane nesikhathi samanje, nginombono wokudiliza lezo zinganekwane ezingamanga ezenziwe ngemisebenzi engaphelele noma ebhalwe phansi, yokunikeza ama-eseyi anikezelwe ezifundweni ezingaziwa kakhulu noma angakaze aphathwe ngeSpanishi, futhi lokhu bekulokhu kunjalo kusuka isiqalo.

Nganikezela incwadi yami yokuqala kuPhilip II waseMakedoniya (2013), impela ngoba isibalo sakhe besilokhu sigcwele indodana yakhe, u-Alexander omkhulu, futhi ukubaluleka abenakho emlandweni kuvame ukukhohlwa. Eqinisweni, ngihlala ngisho ukuthi ngaphandle kukaFiliphu bekungeke kube khona u-Alexander. Kwenzeka okufanayo nge indatshana yami yokuqala ye-Sphere of Books, abazinikele konompempe (2017).

Isibalo salesi sigungu samasosha aseRoma ebesilokhu simnyama futhi simbi, ikakhulukazi ngokufa kwababusi abahlobene nabo, kepha akukho okunye okuqhubekayo. Amabutho aketula ababusi abaningi ukwedlula abaQaphi Bombusi, futhi ngisho nakulezo zimo, uzungu ababelwenza lwalwaziwa kuphela ngamalungu abo ambalwa uma kuqhathaniswa nezinkulungwane zamasosha avela ku-Praetorian ayesebenza embusweni. Ukulahla wonke umzimba ngalokhu kungafana nokulahla sonke isikhungo samaphoyisa ngezenzo zabambalwa.

Lezi ezinye zezibonelo, futhi esimweni se UBelisarius kwenzeka okufanayo. Ababaningi abantu abasaziyo isibalo sakhe, futhi iningi lalabo abakwenzayo kuvame njalo ngokusebenzisa inoveli ukuthi uRobert Graves omkhulu usishiyile. Besifuna ukubhekana nempilo yakhe yangempela, ukulwa kwakhe, izingqinamba ezisenkantolo yaseByzantine, njll. ngale kwenoveli, futhi akekho owayeke wabhala ngakho ngaphambili ngeSpanishi. Lowo ngumbono oyinhloko osishukumisela njalo, ukuqhubekela phambili nokuthi sithemba ukuqhubeka nemisebenzi elandelayo engisanda kuyiqeda nengingakashicilelwa.

  • AL: Kungani ubhala ama-eseyi nokungafani (okwamanje)?

Izimbongolo: Ngokwengxenye kuhlobene nokuqeqeshwa esikutholayo njengezazi-mlando. Sifundiswa kusuka kumzuzu wokuqala ukuphenya ngenhloso yokwandisa ulwazi olujwayelekile, hhayi ukubhala inoveli, noma i-eseyi efundisayo njengoba ngishilo ngaphambili. Ulimi okufanele silusebenzise luyimfihlo kakhulu kumphakathi jikelele, lukhetheke kakhulu, asifundeli ukubhala, kepha ukubuza ngokwedlule, futhi lokho kudala ukushiyeka okuningi okuvelayo lapho kubhalwa lo msebenzi.

Umthelela omkhulu ufakwa ezicini ezingekho kule noveli, njengezinto ezisetshenziswayo ezibucayi, incwadi yezincwadi, njll., Kepha akekho umuntu osifundisa ukubhala ngendlela elula, elula, ukudala abalingiswa, ukungabaza, noma nokwenza plot, manje lokho akudingekile. Ngakho-ke Ngicabanga ukuthi ukubhala inoveli, okungenani inoveli enhle, kunzima kakhulu kunokubhala i-eseyi, futhi kudinga ukufunda, ukulungiselela nolunye ulwazi engithemba ukuluthola ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Zimbalwa kakhulu izazi-mlando ezibhala amanoveli, futhi kithina ngicabanga ukuthi kulindeleke okungaphezulu kithina uma sizama. Ingabe i- umthwalo omkhulu futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu ngibona ukuthi kubalulekile ukukwenza kahle.

Ngaleso sizathu ngiyazilungiselela, futhi sengivele ngiqale ngombono wokuthi benginesikhathi eside ngisebenza, kepha kusesekuseni. Ngifuna ukunikeza indaba engabhalwanga kahle kuphela, kodwa ebhaliwe, ukuze kungadingeki ukuthi kusungulwe ngalokho esaziyo ukuthi kwenzekile, kepha kuphela ukugcwalisa lezo "zikhala" ezihlala zikhona emlandweni. Abalingiswa abaningi basinikeze izindaba ezingajwayelekile okungekho muntu owaziyo, kepha asinalo ulwazi oluningi ngazo. Kungenzeka uyakhe kabusha ukuze uyinikeze umphakathi ngaphandle kwesidingo sokusungula izindaba eziqanjiwe, yize zidingeka kakhulu. Ngicabanga ukuthi njengesazi-mlando kuyinkambiso engokwemvelo, kepha ngicabanga ukuthi kungenye yezindlela zokwethula umlando ngendlela eyiqiniso futhi ekhangayo emphakathini jikelele.

  • AL: Njengomfundi, uyayikhumbula leya ncwadi oyifunde ngolunye usuku futhi yakumaka ikakhulukazi?

I-ASS: Ngiyikhumbula kahle, futhi ihlobene kakhulu nalokhu ebesikusho, futhi mhlawumbe yingakho ngizibona ngingumlandeli ongenamibandela wombhali wayo. Kuyinoveli engokomlando enikezelwe kuma-Amazon asenganekwaneni ngu USteve Pressfield (Ama-Amazons okugcina, 2003). Indlela yakhe yokuphatha umlando, ngisho nezinganekwane njengoba kunjalo kuleli cala, yangithinta kakhulu kangangokuthi ngaqala ukufunda umlando, noma isihloko somqondo wami wobudokotela siphathelene nama-Amazons, kodwa hhayi lokho kuphela, kepha ikakhulukazi ukubabaza kwami ​​okujulile ngobulili besifazane. Isibindi sakhe, ukuqina kwakhe, isibindi nobukhulu bakhe kuhlale kwehliswa emvelaphi yoMlando.

Ngalesi sizathu bengifuna ukufaka inhlama yami yesihlabathi, impela ukuphatha isithombe sangempela sezibalo zasenganekwaneni ezinememori eye yahlanekezelwa kakhulu emcabangweni wobumbano kodwa amandla abo awugcine uphila iminyaka eyizinkulungwane kusukela izindaba zabo zaqala. Eqinisweni, kungenxa yalokho esikuphawulile ngaphambili, ngisho nasemhlabeni wezemfundo ngesinye isikhathi Izinkinga ezinjengalezi zisetshenziswe ngendlela ehlukanisayo ngenxa yokwanda kwezifundo zobulili.

Ngenye yezimpi engikholelwa ukuthi kumele siyihole njengezazi-mlando, noma kwesinye isikhathi siphambi kozakwethu lapho izintshisekelo zabo zithinta iqiniso ngoMlando ngosonhlamvukazi. Futhi lokho kubalulekile ngoba ngikholelwa ukuthi isithombe esingelona iqiniso senziwa emphakathini jikelele okumele sifake isandla ekushintsheni.

Eminye imisebenzi eminingi ingimake ikakhulukazi, kufaka phakathi yonke eminye ebhalwe yiPressfield, noma I-Posteguillo, ukuthi ngikholelwa ngokunembile baphumelele ngoba abadingi ukusungula lutho ngaphandle kwemininingwane ukuthi imithombo yoqobo ayisishiyanga noma ilahlekile ezindabeni zangempela, ezikodwa nje esezidlulile.

Inkinga yezazi-mlando ukuthi sazi kahle kakhulu ukubaluleka kokuziqopha kahle ukubhekana nanoma yisiphi isihloko, futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu anginaso isikhathi seminyaka sokuchitha umzuzu nje ngifunda ngenjabulo yokwenza lokho. Nginezincwadi ezingamakhulu ezilindile ithuba, engithemba ukukunikeza lona maduzane.

  • AL: Umbhali wezindatshana oholayo? Futhi umbhali wezincwadi? Ungakhetha ngaphezu kweyodwa nakuzo zonke izinkathi. 

Izimbongolo: Thucydides iye yaba ngezinzuzo zayo ubaba wenkulumo yomlando eqinile kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi lapho isiko elalikhona laliyindumezulu noma, noma kunjalo, izindaba zazingelona iqiniso futhi zigxeka kakhulu. Wayengu-Athene, futhi hhayi noma ngubani, kepha wayengenankinga ngokuvuma amaphutha abantu bakhe ngokuqala izimpi ezingadingekile noma ukwenza ubulwane ngaphandle kwesizathu.

Mhlawumbe ngenxa yobungcweti bami emlandweni wasendulo angikwazi ukwehluleka ukusho omunye ubaba wohlobo lwemibhalo manje, olwakhe Homer, owabeka izisekelo zendaba yasenganekwaneni eqanjiwe cishe eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezintathu edlule. Kusuka kubo kube nezibalo eziningi ezingavamile ezithuthukise zombili izinhlobo zezinhlobo ezinhle kakhulu njenge UShakespeare, uDante, uCervantes, uPoe, uTolstoy... nabanye engizizwa ngibazisa ngokukhethekile njengaye UVerne.

  • AL: Yimuphi umuntu womlando obungathanda ukuhlangana naye? 

IMBONGI: Umbuzo onzima. Kunzima kakhulu, njengoba kuningi. Ngingasho igama le-spartan hero Leonidas, kuya ezinganekwaneni Alejandro noma okungavamile UHannibal Barca, uCesare, uCleopatra, u-Akhenaten, uMuhammad noma iNdlovukazi uBoudica. Ngisho nangezinye izikhathi lapho cid uya Columbus, muva nje kuze Gandhi.

Ngifisa sengathi ngabe ngahlangana ne- I-AmazonUkube bebekhona ngokweqiniso Kodwa-ke, uma bengingakhetha eyodwa kuphela, ngicabanga ukuthi kungaba njalo UJesu waseNazaretha, ikakhulukazi kukho konke lokho obekungasho nje kuphela ngesikhathi sakhe, kepha nakuMlando Wezobuntu, ukwazi umuntu ngale kwenganekwane, njengesazi-mlando. Eqinisweni, ungumlingiswa odlulayo obehlala eceleni eceleni kwezazi-mlando ngenxa yazo zonke izinganekwane ezabhalwa kamuva ngempilo yakhe, kepha ngokungangabazeki wayengomunye wabantu abakhulu emlandweni ngakho konke lokho okukushoyo.

  • AL: Noma imuphi umkhuba okhethekile noma umkhuba uma kukhulunywa ngokubhala noma ukufunda? 

Izimbongolo: Akunjalo ngempela. Izihloko okufanele zibhalwe zivela ngokuzenzekelayo futhi indaba isivele ikhona, ilinde othile ukuthi ayidlulisele kubantu ngendlela engcono kakhulu. Ngicabanga ukuthi ngamanoveli ahlukile, ngoba adinga ukulungiswa okuningi, ukunwetshwa nomsebenzi, ngakho-ke kujwayelekile ukuthi ababhali bezwe lezi zinhlobo zamasiko, ngoba badinga usizo lwe-muses kanye nogqozi kwesinye isikhathi olutholakala kuphela izimo ezithile. Kuze kube manje Ngidinga nje izincwadi nendawo ethule ukubhala, kepha lapho kufika isikhathi sokweqa, ngubani owaziyo?

  • AL: Futhi indawo yakho oyithandayo nesikhathi sokwenza? 

I-ASS: Ngicabanga ukuthi ingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu yokubhala i-eseyi yiyona ucwaningo olukhulu lwangaphambili ukuthi kuyadingeka ukubhekana nokukhuluma ngendaba ngolwazi lwamaqiniso. Eqinisweni, ngicabanga ukuthi kunesidingo sokuchitha isikhathi esiningi kukho kunombhalo wokugcina wombhalo ohlose ukuwunikeza. Ngaphandle kwalokho singashicilela umsebenzi ongaphelele, onganembile noma ngubani onolwazi oluthile angawuphikisa ngokuzethemba, futhi kuyadingeka ukuzama ukugwema leso simo.

Kungakho ngivame ukuvakasha imitapo yolwazi eminingi, izisekelo, njll. lapho begcina khona leyo mithombo engatholakali ekhaya, nangezikhathi eziningi Ngibhala ngqo lapho. Ngale kwalokho nginenhlanhla yokuthola okuncane ihhovisi ekhaya, yize ngithanda ukubhala ngaphandle, futhi noma nini lapho isimo sezulu sivuma, ngifuna izindawo ezinokuthula ukuze ngijabulele imvelo ngenkathi ngisebenza.

  • AL: Ingabe zikhona ezinye izinhlobo ozithandayo? 

I-ASS: Ngiyayithanda i-eseyi ngalokho ekushoyo, ukunikeza iqiniso ngomlando, futhi Ngiyayithanda le noveli ngoba isisiza ukubalekela iqiniso, kwesinye isikhathi kungalungile, ukusithuthela ezweni elihlukile ngendlela esondele kakhulu. Kepha kwenzeka okufanayo nge izinkondlo, engikuthandayo, ngisho nangezindlela zayo ezibonakala zilula, njengezinkondlo haiku, yize kungenjalo ngempela. Zonke izinhlobo zinenhloso yazo futhi zonke zibalulekile.

  • AL: Ufundani manje? Futhi ukubhala?

I-ASS: Uma ngithembekile, ubhadane luguqule izimpilo zethu kancane, futhi phakathi nezinyanga zokuboshwa ngangibe nesikhathi esiningi sokuchitha ngicwaninga futhi ngibhala, ngaphezu kwalokho enginakho ngokuvamile, ngakho Sengiqale ukuzilolonga kaningana Ngiyethemba bayakubona ukukhanya ngesikhathi esifushane.

Kulo nyaka ngisanda kushicilela i-biography kaFlavio Belisario, kepha nami ngikhona ngiphinde ngakhipha ezinye izindatshana zami zokuqala njengoba zishicilelwe kuphela ephepheni naseSpain, kepha abangani abaningi abavela kwamanye amazwe abakwazanga ukufinyelela kuzo, ngakho-ke ngizinikele ekubavuseleleni ukuze ngiphinde ngibanikeze ngohlobo lwe-elekthronikhi, kufaka phakathi izithombe eziningi, amamephu nemifanekiso, kanye nokuqukethwe okungeziwe. Nakulo nyaka kuzoba khona i- i-eseyi enikelwe indlovukazi yase-Eceni, iBoudica yenganekwane, owesifazane wokuqala ukubhekana namaRoma njengomholi enkundleni yempi ukukhulula iBrithani ekunqotshweni amaRoma.

Ngonyaka ozayo i- ingxenye yesibili yomlando ophelele engiwunikele kuMlando waseCarthage, kusukela esisekelweni sawo kuya ekubhujisweni komuzi ngemuva kweMpi yesithathu yamaPunic, nezinye ukuhlolwa abazinikele ngokuphelele ezehlakalweni zobudlova ezikhathini zasendulo, kusukela ezindabeni ezinikezwa yimithombo yakudala. Angibhekiseli kuphela ezindabeni ezikhuluma ngezilo zasenganekwaneni noma amadolobha alahlekile njenge-Atlantis edumile, kodwa futhi nezindaba ezimayelana nezibukeli, amadimoni, ukuzalwa kabusha, ama-werewolves, izindlu ezihuqwayo, izimpahla kanye nokukhipha imimoya, iziphonso nobuthakathi, imicimbi engajwayelekile, njll. eGrisi lasendulo, eRoma naseMesopotamiya. Ukuhlanganiswa okuphelele kokungachazeki endulo.

Futhi ekugcineni, indatshana ebhalwe kuBoudica izoba ngeyokuqala kweziningana enginqume ukuzinikezela ngazo kwabesifazane abakhulu bakudala, ngakho-ke izophuma enye enikezelwe kuNdlovukazi uZenobia, kumholi wasenganekwaneni waseBerber owabhekana nokuqhubekela phambili kobuSulumane eMaghreb, eyaziwa ngokuthi iKahina. Futhi enye inikezelwe kuma-onna-bugeishas nase-kunoichis, ama-samurai nabesifazane be-shinobi emlandweni waseJapan., ukuthi babekhona futhi benza izinto ezingavamile. Ngale ndlela ngithemba ukuthi ngizokwazi ukunikela ngohlamvu lwami lwesihlabathi olwazini nasekubalulekeni komlando wabesifazane.

  • AL: Ngabe ucabanga ukuthi indawo yokushicilela ingeyehlobo oluthile olukhethekile njengezindatshana?

Izimbongolo: Isithombe sithi Kumnyama kakhuluyize ngendlela ebelokhu kunjalo. Sisesimweni esinzima kakhulu kunokujwayelekile, nokuningi. Endabeni yama-eseyi kubi kakhulu, ngoba abafundi abajwayelekile bavame ukufuna ngaphezu kwazo zonke izindaba ezibasizayo babe nesikhathi esihle futhi babalekele impilo yansuku zonke, ikakhulukazi ngamanoveli. Ukuzijwayeza kwehliselwa izethameli ukhonkolo kakhulu, intshisekelo ikakhulukazi esihlokweni somsebenzi ngamunye, ngakho umthelela wale misebenzi mncane kakhulu.

Futhi uma lokho bekunganele, eSpain izindatshana eziningi zomlando zikhuluma ngezindikimba ezifanayo osekuvele kwaziwa ngaphezu kwalokho, okunikelwe ezikhathini ezithile ezinjengeMpi Yezokwelapha noma abalingiswa ababalulekile abanjengoCleopatra ngoba banethemba lokuthi bazokwamukelwa kakhulu, yize kunamakhulu emisebenzi asevele ebhaliwe ngawo izindaba ezinganikela okuncane noma lutho, ngenkathi akekho obhala ngezihloko ezingaziwa kangako.

Ngaleso sizathu ekugcineni sigcine ukuhumusha imisebenzi yababhali bakwamanye amazwe abaziwayo ngethemba lokuthi udumo lwakhe luzosiza ekwandiseni umsebenzi, esikhundleni sokunikeza ithuba kubabhali abangajwayelekile ukuthi mhlawumbe abasoze baba nethuba lokuthumela. Kuyihlazo, empeleni, futhi akubonakali sengathi isimo sizolunga.

Yingakho ngithanda ukwethemba abashicileli abanjengo-HRM Ediciones noma uLa Esfera de los Libros, abangasabi ukuthatha leso sinyathelo futhi bazi kahle indawo yocwaningo eSpain ukuze baqale le misebenzi ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ukuhumusha. Futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu angiyekanga ukusebenzisana nabo.

Ngokuvamile, izwe lokushicilela belilokhu ligxile ezibalweni ezidume kakhulu, noma kunjalo ithuba lokushicilelwa kwedeskithophu likhiqize amathuba amaningi kubabhali abaningi bokuqala. Kodwa-ke, ubunzima beminyaka embalwa eyedlule, ubhadane lwamanje kanye nokuthambekela komphakathi maqondana nokufunda kwenza kube nzima kakhulu kubashicileli abanesizotha kakhulu noma ababhali abaningi ukuthi baphile, okungekho abakwazi ukuziphilisa ngemisebenzi yabo.

Iningi lethu libhala ngenjabulo enkulu yokwenza lokho futhi, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ukwaba noma ukufundisa, kepha bambalwa kuphela abakwazi ukuzinikezela ngokuphelele kulo futhi baziphilise ngezincwadi. Ukuthi uBelén Esteban uthengise izincwadi eziningi kunomzuzi kaNobel njengoVargas Llosa kusho okuningi ngalezi zindlela, futhi abantu abaningi bakhetha ukukhetha okuqukethwe okungasindi okulula nokushesha ukukufinyelela ngaphezu kokuqala amahora namahora encwadini.

Ukukhuthazwa kwesiko kuyisihloko esisalindile, futhi ngaphezu kwakho konke ukuthuthukiswa koBuntu, kuhlala kuthukwa ngisho nasemalungwini ohulumeni okuthi, ukube bekuya ngabo, bacindezelwe. Ngaphandle kwakho konke ngifuna ukuba nethemba, futhi lapho ubhekene nobunzima kuhlale kunenkohliso yababhali abaningi abangayeki ukubhala ngaphandle kokulindela ukubuyiselwa okuthile. 


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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