I-Leopoldo Maye, uClarín

Umusho kaLeopoldo Alas.

Umusho kaLeopoldo Alas.

U-Leopoldo Alas, owaziwa kangcono ngamagama akhe, uClarín, wayengumbhali waseSpain onomsebenzi omkhulu kakhulu futhi ocebile ngezinsizakusebenza. Iningi lezifundiswa ziyaqondana ekubekeni indalo yazo yokubhala endaweni ephakeme kaBenito Pérez Galdós. Empeleni, I-Regent (1885), ithathwa njengenye yamanoveli abaluleke kakhulu ezinhlamvu zaseSpain zekhulu le-XNUMX.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, uClarín wayeyintatheli evelele, isazi sezomthetho, futhi egxeka izindaba eziphathelene nezepolitiki, inkolo kanye nombono wemibhalo. Phakathi kwezindatshana zakhe nezindatshana, uqokomisa ukuzinikela kwakhe ezindabeni zezenhlalo nezepolitiki zesikhathi sakhe kanye nethonya lomqondo wamaKrausist emcabangweni wakhe wefilosofi. Ngakho-ke, ukuqonda ubukhulu bale ngqondo, indlela ebanzi iyadingeka.

I-Biography

Ukuzalwa nobuntwana

ULeopoldo Enrique García-Alas y Ureña wazalelwa eZamora, eSpain, ngo-Ephreli 25, 1852. Ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kwakhe, ubaba wakhe — uGenaro García-Alas — wayephethe njengombusi wedolobha. Noma kunjalo, izimpande zase-Asturian zokhokho bakhe (ikakhulukazi lezo zikanina, uLeonora) zaba nomthelela omkhulu endalweni yakhe yesikhathi esizayo.

Lapho eneminyaka eyisikhombisa wabhaliswa eKolishi lamaJesuit eSan Marcos Convent eLeón. Lapho, uLeopoldo omncane wavelela amabanga akhe amahle, isiyalo nokunamathela okholweni, kuze kube seqophelweni lokuthathwa njengomfundi oyisibonelo. Phakathi naleso sikhathi, waqala ukuthanda izincwadi ngesikhathi ehlala ekhaya lomndeni e-Oviedo.

Umfana othanda ukuzalwa

U-Leopoldo owayesengaphambi kokuba eze ngaphambili wayesekwazile ukufunda ababhali bobukhulu be Cervantes noma uFray Luis de León. Izinga layo lokuchazeka lalinjalo ukuthi ngeminyaka eyishumi nanye kuphela wavuma ezihlalweni zokulungiselela ze-University of Oviedo. Lapho athola khona imfundo ngezibalo, imfundiso yobuKrestu, izimiso zokuhle, ifilosofi, isiLatin, kanye nesayensi yemvelo.

Ngokunjalo, kuleyo ndlu yezifundo wenza ubungani nababhali besikhathi esizayo njengoTomás Tuero, uPío Rubín no-Armando Palacio Valdés. Ngo-1869 wathola iziqu ze-bachelor. Eminyakeni emibili kamuva wathuthela eMadrid ukuze athole iziqu zobudokotela njengomthetho wezomthetho. Enhlokodolobha waphinde wahlangana nabangane bakhe base-Oviedo futhi waqala ukuvama ukuhlangana kweBilis Club.

Indlela eya ku-Krausism

UGarcia-maye wafunda izimiso zobuKrausism kanye nenkululeko yezwe ngenkathi eqeda iziqu zakhe zobudokotela ngenxa yezihlalo zikaNicolás Salmerón no-Adolfo Camus. Bona laba babengamaKraus adumile kanye nabafundi besazi sefilosofi uJulián Sanz del Río, owabeka izisekelo zemibono yokwakhiwa kwe-Institución Libre de Enseñanza.

Imisebenzi yokuqala yobuntatheli

Kanye nezibopho zakhe zemfundo, uLeopoldo osemusha wakhonza njengomnikeli ephephandabeni Solfeggio, yasungulwa futhi yaqondiswa ngu-Antonio Pérez Sánchez. Leli phephandaba elasungulwa ngo-1875 lavela ngobuhlakani njengesikhulumi se-republicanism. Ngonyaka owedlule, iRiphabhulikhi Yokuqala yaseSpain yayiwile ngemuva kokugumbuqelwa kukaManuel Pavía, lapho kwaqala khona iMvuselelo Yobukhosi.

Umqondisi we Solfeggio unxuse bonke abahleli bakhe ukuthi basebenzise igama lensimbi yomculo. Ngalesi sizathu, uLeopoldo García-Alas waqala ukusayina ngaphansi kwegama lomgunyathi elithi "Clarín" ikholomu yakhe enesihloko esithi "El Azotacalles de Madrid". Kuyo, wabhala izinkondlo kanye nokugxeka kwezepolitiki okwaba nempikiswano enkulu, ngoba wahlasela ngesihluku iqembu elisha elibusayo.

Ubudokotela ku-Civil and Canon Law

Ngo-1876, uClarín wabhala izindaba zakhe zokuqala ze- I-Asturias Magazine, eqondiswe ngomunye wabangane bakhe abaseduze, uFélix Aramburu. Eminyakeni emibili kamuva kwavela incwadi okuyiyo kuphela enegama lakhe langempela: ithisisi yakhe yobudokotela enesihloko esithi Umthetho nokuziphatha. Nokho, izimfanelo zakhe zemfundo zazinganele ukuba abe ngusihlalo eNyuvesi yaseSalamanca.

Isithiyo esikhulu ezifundweni zakhe zokufundisa senziwa yi-Count of Toreno, eyake yaba yisisulu sokugxekwa okunzima okuvela kuClarín kanye noNgqongqoshe Wezomphakathi ngaleso sikhathi. Noma kunjalo, INyuvesi yaseZaragoza yamqoka njengoProfesa Wezomnotho Kwepolitiki Nezibalo ngonyaka we-1882. Ngawo lowo nyaka - Agasti 29 - washada no-Onofre García-Argüelles.

Uprofesa

Ngo-1883, uClarín wamukelwa yiRoyal Order usihlalo woMthetho wamaRoma e-University of Oviedo. Emsebenzini wakhe wokufundisa wazihlukanisa ngamasu wokuhlola abukhali kakhulu nezindlela zokufundisa umsebenzi wazo omkhulu kwakuwukwenza ukuhlaziya kunokubamba ngekhanda. Yize eqinile kakhulu, uvuse ukubabazeka okukhulu phakathi kwabafundi bakhe kanye nozakwabo.

Ukuhlanganiswa njengomgxeki omkhulu kunabo bonke besikhathi sakhe

Ngalesi sikhathi, wayevele ehlonishwa kakhulu njengomhlaziyi wezepolitiki kanye nomgxeki wezincwadi. Imibhalo kaClarín yayibonakala ngobukhali bayo, okwabenza bathandwa kakhulu (ngasikhathi sinye lapho bekhulisa uhlu lwabo lwezitha). Cishe zonke izindatshana zakhe zashicilelwa kwabezindaba ezifana Ukungakhethi, IComic Madrid y Umfanekiso, phakathi kwabanye.

Khonamanjalo, ngo-1884 umqulu wokuqala we I-Regent, ubuciko bakhe (umqulu wesibili wakhululwa ngonyaka olandelayo). Ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe omkhulu, wakwazi ukuhlanganisa umsebenzi wakhe wokufundisa kanye nezindatshana zakhe zephephandaba. kanye nokunwetshwa kwezindaba namanoveli. Sekukonke, uClarín washicilela izingcezu zemibono engaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezimbili kwaze kwaba sekupheleni kwempilo yakhe.

Iminyaka edlule

Ngesikhathi sama-1890s, uClarín waguquka ngokomoya nangokomuntu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, akazange azihlanganise ngokugcwele nanoma yiziphi izigaba zomphakathi eSpain ngaleso sikhathi. Vele, lesi simo asiwumisanga umsebenzi wakhe, okwathi, waqhubeka nokudala imibhalo yakhe ngezindaba ezahlukahlukene ngisho nomdlalo, Teresa (Kuholele ekwehlulekeni okukhulu).

Lapho kufika ikhulu lama-XNUMX, uClarín wavuma ukuhumusha okwamthatha izinyanga -Sebenzisa, ngu-Émile Zola - nalapho izimpawu zokugula kwakhe ziba zimbi. Ekugcineni, ukuxilongwa kwakungakhuthazi: isifo sofuba emathunjini sesigabeni esithuthukile (esingalapheki ngaleso sikhathi). Ngokulandelana, ULeopoldo Alas washona e-Oviedo ngoJuni 13, 1901; wayeneminyaka engama-49.

Indawo yokwakha

Novelas

I-Regent.

I-Regent.

Ungathenga inoveli lapha: Ayikho imikhiqizo etholakele.

La Regent (1884-1885)

Umsebenzi owaziwa kakhulu kaClarín ubanzi kakhulu, ugcwele izindiza ezahlukahlukene nezinhlamvu ezihambisanayo. Inokulandisa okususelwa ekugelezeni kwezinkumbulo ze-protagonist, lapho ukuphinga kuyisihloko esiyinhloko. Ngakho-ke, kuqhathaniswa nemisebenzi efana ne- Madame Bovary, nguFlaubert, Anna Karenina, kusuka eTolstoï, Noma umzala uBasilio, ngu-Eça de Queiroz noma Ukunqoba kwamaPlassansby Zola.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, incazelo yemvelo yesifundazwe inemininingwane eminingi, enezici ezibonakalayo zemvelo kanye neveli yokuzazi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, UClarín ukwazile ukukhombisa intshisekelo yakhe ezindabeni zokuziphatha (amaKrausistas). Ngesikhathi esifanayo, abafundi baqonda ngokugcwele imizwa yabalingiswa kanye nezici zomphakathi wangaleso sikhathi.

Amanye amanoveli kaClarín

  • Ekwehleni (1890-1891).
  • Ukugona kukaPelayo (1889).
  • Indodana yakhe ezelwe yodwa (1890). Kwakuyinoveli yakhe ende kunazo zonke.

Ukuhlanganiswa kokugxekwa kwezepolitiki, kwezobuciko kanye nemibhalo

  • UClarín Solos (1881).
  • Izincwadi ngo-1881 (1882).
  • Intshumayelo elahlekile (1885).
  • Umkhankaso omusha (1887).
  • Izindatshana nomagazini (1892).
  • Ukuxoxisana (1894).

Izinganekwane

INkosi nabanye bayizindaba.

INkosi nabanye bayizindaba.

Ungathenga incwadi lapha: INkosi nabanye bayizindaba

  • Usale kahle, Wundlu!; Usale kahle, Cordera!.
  • Uthando'è furbo.
  • IBurgundy.
  • Izinganekwane zokuziphatha.
  • Cuervo.
  • Kusuka kuKhomishini.
  • Kabili nge.
  • Udokotela Angelicus.
  • UDon Paco kusuka ekupakisheni.
  • UNkk Berta.
  • Amadoda amabili ahlakaniphile.
  • I-duo yokukhwehlela.
  • Iqhude likaSocrates.
  • INkosi nabanye bayizindaba.
  • UDkt Pértinax.
  • Incwadi nomfelokazi.
  • Ibhere elidala.
  • Isigqoko sompristi.
  • Esitimeleni.
  • Esitolo sezidakamizwa.
  • Imedali… inja encane.
  • Ipayipi.
  • Ubuqili.
  • Amapayipi nezigqoko.
  • Teresa.
  • Umuntu ozongenela ukhetho.
  • Umuntu obuyile.
  • Ivoti.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UGustavo Woltmann kusho

    Incazelo enomusa, i-athikili ephakeme. Umsebenzi omkhulu wokusesha nokubhala leli khasi uyadingeka.
    - UGustavo Woltmann.