U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Indawo yolwandle yaseZanzibar

Indawo yolwandle yaseZanzibar

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah ungumbhali waseTanzania owazuza uMklomelo KaNobel Wezincwadi Ka-2021. I-Swedish Academy yathi umbhali ukhethelwe "incazelo eshukumisayo yemiphumela yobukoloni kanye nesiphetho sababaleki egebeni eliphakathi kwamasiko namazwekazi ... " . Bese kuphele iminyaka engu-18 umAfrika wokugcina - uJohn Maxwell Coetzee ngo-2003 - awina le ndondo ebalulekile.

UGurnah ugqame ekuchazeni ngendlela ebucayi neluhlaza ukuthuthwa kwalabo abasuswa yindlala nempi besuka ogwini lwase-Afrika beya eYurophu, nokuthi bafinyelela kanjani “ezweni lesethembiso” kusafanele banqobe ulwandle lokucwasa, izithiyo nezingibe. . Namuhla useshicilele amanoveli ayishumi kanye nenani elikhulu lezindaba nezindaba ezimfushane, zonke ezibhalwe ngesiNgisi. —Nakuba isiSwahili kuwulimi lwakhe lwendabuko. Kusukela ngo-2006 ube yilungu leRoyal Literature Society, okuyinhlangano eseGreat Britain ezinikele ekutadisheni nasekusabalaliseni izincwadi.

Imininingwane yomlando wombhali, u-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Ubuntwana nezifundo

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah wazalwa ngoDisemba 20, 1948 esiqhingini saseZanzibar (iqoqo leziqhingi zaseTanzania). Lapho eneminyaka engu-18, kwadingeka abaleke ezweni lakubo aye e-United Kingdom ngenxa yokushushiswa amaSulumane. Usuvele usemhlabeni wamaNgisi, wenza izifundo eziphakeme eChrist Church College kwathi ngo-1982 waqeda iziqu zobudokotela e-University of Kent.

Uprofesa wasekolishi

Amashumi eminyaka, UGurnah unikele impilo yakhe ekufundiseni ezingeni lenyuvesi endaweni yezifundo zesiNgisi.. Iminyaka emithathu ilandelana (1980-1983) wafundisa eNigeria, eBayero University Kano (BUK). Wayenguprofesa wezincwadi zesiNgisi kanye nezincwadi ze-postcolonial, futhi engumqondisi womnyango wesiNgisi eNyuvesi yase-Kent, imisebenzi ayenza waze wathatha umhlalaphansi.

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Imisebenzi yakhe yophenyo igxile ku-postcolonialism, kanye nakubukoloniyali obuqondiswe e-Afrika, eCaribbean naseNdiya. Okwamanje, amanyuvesi amakhulu asebenzisa imisebenzi yakhe njengezinto zokufundisa. Izifundo ezifundiswa othisha abanolwazi ziyagqama, njengalezi: Patricia Bastida (UIB), Maurice O'Connor (UCA), Antonio Ballesteros (UNED) noJuan Ignacio de la Oliva (ULL), uma sibala ezimbalwa.

Umuzwa wombhali

Emsebenzini wakhe njengombhali udale izindaba ezimfishane nezindatshana, nokho, amanoveli akhe yiwo amnike ukuqashelwa kakhulu. Kusukela ngo-1987 kuze kube manje useshicilele izincwadi ezilandisayo eziyi-10 kulolu hlobo. Imisebenzi yakhe yokuqala emithathu -Inkumbulo Yokusuka (1987), AmaPilgrim Way (1988) futhi Dottie (1990) - anezindikimba ezifanayo: akhombisa ukuhluka okuhlukile kokuhlangenwe nakho kwabokufika eGreat Britain.

Ngo-1994 washicilela enye yezincwadi zakhe ezaziwa kakhulu, IPharadesi, owayengowamanqamu emncintiswaneni ohlonishwayo weBritish Booker Prize ngo-2001. Lo msebenzi kwaba ngeyokuqala ukulethwa olimini lweSpanishi -Ini IPharadesi-, yashicilelwa e-Barcelona ngo-1997 futhi yahunyushwa nguSofía Carlota Noguera. Ezinye izihloko ezimbili zeGurnah ezilethwe olimini lweCervantes yilezi: Ukuthula okuyingozi (1998) futhi Ogwini (2007).

I-Gurnah - ethathwa "njengezwi labaxoshwa" - iphinde yagqama kwamanye amanoveli, afana nalawa: Ngasolwandle (2001), Ukulahla (2005) futhi Inhliziyo yeGravel (2017). e 2020 wethule umsebenzi wokugcina wokulandisa: Ngemva kokufa, kubhekwe ngabagxeki baseBrithani njengo: "Umzamo wokunikeza izwi kwabakhohliwe."

Isitayela sombhali

Imisebenzi yombhali ibhalwe ngephrozi ngaphandle kokumosha; kuzo intshisekelo yabo ezindabeni ezinjengokudingiswa, ubuwena kanye nezimpande kuyabonakala. Izincwadi zakhe zikhombisa imiphumela yokubuswa kwamakoloni eMpumalanga Afrika nokuthi izakhamuzi zakhona zihlupheka kanjani. Lokhu kuthathwa njengesibonakaliso sempilo yakhe njengomuntu wokufika, into esemqoka eyehlukanisa nabanye ababhali base-Afrika bezindawo ezihlala kwamanye amazwe ezihlala endaweni yaseBrithani.

Ngokunjalo, u-Anders Olsson - uSihlalo weKomidi likaNobel - ubheka ukuthi izinhlamvu ezidalwe nguGurnah zakhiwe kahle kakhulu. Ngokuphathelene nalokhu, uthi: “Phakathi kokuphila abakushiya ngemuva nokuphila okuzayo, babhekana nokucwasa nobandlululo, kodwa futhi baziqinisekisa ngokulithulisa iqiniso noma basungule kabusha imibhalo yabo yokuphila ukuze bagweme izingxabano namaqiniso.”

UNobel owamangaza umhlaba

Umklomelo kaNobel Ezincwadini

Umklomelo kaNobel Ezincwadini

Ngisho nasemhlabeni wezincwadi, abaningi bayabuza ukuthi "Ubani u-Abdulrazak Gurnah?" noma "Kungani umbhali ongaziwa ewine umklomelo?" Iqiniso liwukuthi kunezizathu eziningana ezanele zokuthi kungani uGurnah waba 2021 ungowase-Afrika wesihlanu ukunqoba umqhudelwano Izincwadi zeNobel. Kodwa-ke, yonke into ikhombisa ukuthi ijaji lenze isinqumo ngokususelwa endikimbeni ekhulunywe ngumbhali.

Gurnah Amandla

Iqiniso lokuthi abaningi abawazi umkhondo wombhali waseTanzania aliliphazamisi ikhono lakhe njengombhali. Umyalo wakhe ocebile wolimi, kuhambisana nokuzwela akwazi ukukuthwebula kulayini ngamunye, kumenza abe ngumbhali osondele kumfundi.. Emisebenzini yakhe ukuzibophezela kwakhe eqinisweni lezwe lakubo kanye nabantu bakubo kubonakala, okuthuthukisa isimo sobuntu sepeni lakhe kanye nokuxhumana phakathi kokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe nomsebenzi wakhe wokubhala. Indaba ngayinye ikhombisa umongo ophawulwa izimpi ezahlupheka ezwenikazi.

Kodwa kungani uGurnah ehlukile? Umbhali uyenqaba ukuphinda enze izindaba ezingafuneki ngokwenzekile phakathi kweNgilandi ne-Afrika. Ngezincwadi zakhe ukhombise umbono omusha ngezwekazi lase-Afrika kanye nabantu balo, enama-nuances aminyene abambalwa abaye bawacabangela, eye yaphula imibono yabantu futhi yagomela ngesibalo salabo abasusiwe emehlweni alabo abafundayo. U-Abdulrazak uphakamisa iqiniso le-colonialism kanye nemiphumela yako namuhla - ukufuduka kungenye yazo, kodwa inyama negazi.

Umklomelo ophethwe ezinye izizwe

Akumangazi ukuthi selokhu kwasungulwa uMklomelo KaNobel Wezincwadi ngo-1901, iningi labaphumelele bekungabaseYurophu noma eNyakatho Melika. IFrance ikleliswe kuqala ngababhali abawine imiklomelo abayi-15, ilandelwa eduze i-United States ene-13 neGreat Britain enangu-12. Futhi, njengoba kushiwo kusengaphambili, bahlanu kuphela abantu base-Afrika asebehlonishwe ngaleli ndondo edumile.

Kwase kudlule iminyaka eyishumi nesishiyagalombili kusukela eOwokugcina wase-Afrika se ukhuliswe ngale ndondo ebalulekile: John Maxwell Coetzee. Ngaphambi kowakuleli, wemukelwa ngo-1986 nguWole Soyinka waseNigeria, ngo-1988 nguNaguib Mahfouz waseGibhithe nowesifazane wokuqala wase-Afrika, uNadine Gordimer, ngo-1991.

Kulungile manje Kungani kunokungafani okungaka?; ngaphandle kokungabaza, kunjalo into okunzima ukuyiphendula. Kodwa-ke, kulindeleke ukuthi le minyaka ezayo izobona izinguquko e-Swedish Academy, ngenxa, ngokuyinhloko, kumahlazo mayelana nokungalingani nokuhlukunyezwa okwenzeka ngo-2018. Ngakho-ke, ngemva konyaka ikomidi elisha lakhiwa ngenhloso yoshintsho. umbono futhi ugweme izimo ezingahloniphi. Mayelana nalokhu, u-Anders Olsson wezwakalisa:

“Sivule amehlo kubabhali abangase babizwe nge-postcolonial. Ukubheka kwethu kunwebeka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. KANYE inhloso ye-Academy ukuvuselela umbono wethu wezincwadi ekujuleni. Isibonelo, izincwadi emhlabeni we-postcolonial ”.

Le mithetho emisha yanikeza abantu base-Afrika ukuthi baqashelwe ngaphambi kwamagama amakhulu. Imisebenzi yakhe eyingqayizivele —Ngezihloko ezinzima kodwa ezingokoqobo ngokwedlulele—yavumela iKomidi likaNobel ukuba likuhlukanise ngokuthi "omunye wababhali be-postcolonial abavelele kakhulu emhlabeni… ”.

Ukuncintisana okunamandla

Kulo nyaka bekunamagama abafundi abadumile kwezemvelo. Ababhali abafana no: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Haruki Murakami, UJavier Marias, Scholastique Mukasonga, Mia Couto, Margaret Atwood, Annie Ernaux, among others. Akubanga yize ukumangala ekunqobeni kukaGurnah, okuthi nakuba kufanele, kuvele ehlathini eliminyene labantu abangcwelisiwe.

UJavier Marías.

UJavier Marías.

Okuvelayo kombhali ngemuva kokuwina iNobel

Ngemuva kokuthola indondo, umbhali waseTanzania akazimisele ngokushiya ingqikithi ayenzile Umnqobi kaNobel. Ngokuqashelwa uzizwa ukhuthazwa kakhulu ukuveza umbono wakho ngezihloko ezihlukahlukene kanye nombono wakho ngomhlaba ngendlela engagwegwesi.

Engxoxweni ebiseLondon, wathi: “Ngibhala ngalezi zimo ngoba ngifuna ukubhala mayelana nokusebenzisana kwabantu nalokho abantu abadlula kukho lapho bakha kabusha izimpilo zabo ”.

Cindezela okuvelayo

Ukuqokwa kuka-Abdulrazak Gurnah njengowawine umklomelo kaNobel kumangaze insimu yaseSweden nomhlaba wonke. Umbhali wayengekho phakathi kwabangase baphumelele, ngoba imisebenzi yakhe ayizange imenyezelwe ochwepheshe ezincwadini. Lokhu kube yizinkulumo ezivele emaphephandabeni ngemuva kokuqokwa, phakathi kwazo singagqamisa:

  • "Ukukhetha okungaqondakali kwe-Swedish Academy". I-express (Expressen)
  • "Ukwethuka nokudideka ngesikhathi kwethulwa igama lomnqobi weNobel Prize in Literature." Idayari Yantambama (Aftonbladet)
  • "Halala u-Abdulrazak Gurnah! Umklomelo kaNobel wango-2021 kuLwazi ufanelekile ”. I-National EN (Jorge Iván Garduño)
  • "Isikhathi sokuqaphela ukuthi abantu okungebona abamhlophe bayakwazi ukubhala." Iphephandaba lesiSwidi (ISvenska Dagbladet)
  • "U-Abdulrazak Gurnah, inkanyezi okungekho muntu obheja ngayo ngisho indibilishi" I-Lelatria Magazine (Javier Claure Covarrubias)
  • "Izindaba zeNobel for Gurnah zagujwa ababhali bamanoveli nezazi osekunesikhathi eside bephikisana ngokuthi umsebenzi wakhe ufanelwe ukufundelwa kabanzi." I-New York Times

I-Paraíso, umsebenzi kaGurnah ovelele kakhulu

Ngo-1994 uGurnah wethula iParaíso, inoveli yakhe yesine neyokuqala imibhalo yayo yahunyushelwa olimini lweSpanishi. Ngalokhu kulandisa, umbhali wase-Afrika uthole ukuqashelwa okukhulu emkhakheni wezincwadi, njengoba kuze kube manje indalo yayo emele kakhulu. Indaba ixoxwa ngezwi eliwazi konke; kuyingxube yezinganekwane nezinkumbulo zobuntwana bukaGurnah ezweni lakubo.

Phakathi kwemigqa, UGurnah wenza ukugxeka okucacile kwemikhuba emibi yobugqila eqondiswe ezinganeni, osekuyiminyaka yenzeka endaweni yase-Afrika. Zonke zihlangene ngokushintshana nobuhle bemvelo, izilwane kanye nezinganekwane eziyingxenye yesiko lesifunda.

Ukuze kufezeke, umbhali wathuthela eTanzania, nakuba ngesikhathi elapho wathi: “Angihambanga ukuyolanda ama-data, kodwa ngifuna ukubuyisela uthuli emakhaleni ami”. Lokhu kukhombisa ukungaphiki kwemvelaphi yayo; kukhona ukukhumbula kanye nokuqashelwa kwe-Afrika enhle, nokho, ngaphansi kweqiniso eligcwele izingxabano ezinzima.

Abanye ochwepheshe baye bavuma ukuthi itulo libonisa «lubusha nokuvuthwa kwengane yase-Afrika, indaba yothando ebuhlungu kanye nendaba yenkohlakalo yesiko lama-Afrika ngenxa yobukoloniyali baseYurophu ”.

Isiqubulo

Isakhiwo izici Yusuf, umfana oneminyaka engu-12 ubudala owazalwa ekuqaleni kwawo-1900 eKawa (idolobha eliqanjiwe), eTanzania. Uyise Ungumphathi wehhotela futhi unesikweletu kumthengisi ogama lakhe lingu-Aziz, oyinjinga yase-Arab enamandla. Ngokungakwazi ukubhekana nokuzibophezela, uphoqelekile ukuthi adle indodana yakhe njengengxenye yenkokhelo.

Ngemva kohambo oluhambayo,umfana uya ogwini no"malume uAziz". Lapho iqala impilo yakhe njengoba rehani (isigqila sesikhashana esingakhokhelwa), ekanye nomngane wakhe uKhalil nezinye izinceku. Umsebenzi wakhe oyinhloko wukusebenza nokuphatha isitolo se-Aziz, lapho kuvela khona imikhiqizo ethengiswa endaweni ezungezile ngumthengisi.

Ngaphezu kwale misebenzi, UYusuf kumele anakekele ingadi yenkosi yakhe ebiyelwe ngodonga, indawo ebabazekayo lapho ezwa khona ngokugcwele. Ebusuku, ubalekela endaweni yase-Edene lapho ngamaphupho efuna ukuthola izimpande zakhe, lezo zalokho kuphila okuphuciwe kuye. U-Yusuf ukhula abe insizwa ebukekayo futhi elangazelela uthando olungenathemba, kuyilapho efunwa ngabanye.

Lapho eneminyaka engu-17 ubudala, u-Yusuf uqala uhambo lwakhe lwesibili nendlwana yomthengisi kulo lonke elase-Afrika emaphakathi kanye neCongo Basin. Kulolu hambo kuba nochungechunge lwezingqinamba lapho umbhali ebamba khona ingxenye yesiko lama-Afrika. Izilwane zasendle, ubuhle bemvelo kanye nezizwe zendawo ngezinye zezinto zomdabu ezikhona esakhiweni.

Ukubuyela eMpumalanga Afrika, iMpi Yezwe Yokuqala isiqalile futhi umphathi wakhe u-Aziz uhlangana namasosha aseJalimane. Naphezu kwamandla omthengisi ocebile, yena nabanye abantu base-Afrika bayabuthwa ukuba bakhonze ibutho laseJalimane. Kuleli qophelo, uYusuf uzokwenza isinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu empilweni yakhe.

Okufingqiwe kwamanye amanoveli kaGurnah

Inkumbulo Yokusuka (1987)

Kuyinto inoveli yokuqala yombhali, ifakiwe la indawo engasogwini eMpumalanga Afrika. Umlingiswa wayo insizwa okwathi ngemva kokubhekana nesimiso esingenamthetho ezweni lakubo, yathunyelwa eKenya nomalume wayo oyisigwili. Kuwo wonke umlando uhambo lwakhe luzobonakala nokuthi lukhula kanjani ukuba nokuzalwa kabusha okungokomoya.

Ngasolwandle (2001)

Yincwadi yesithupha yombhali, inguqulo yayo ngeSpanishi yanyatheliswa e-Barcelona ngo-2003 (nenguqulo kaCarmen Aguilar).  Kulokhu kulandisa kunezindaba ezimbili ezixhumene lapho abalingiswa besogwini lolwandle lwamaNgisi. Laba nguSaleh Omar, owashiya konke eZanzibar wathuthela eNgilandi, noLatif Mahmud, insizwa eyakwazi ukubaleka kudala futhi esehlale eLondon iminyaka.

Ukulahla (2005)

Kuyinoveli eyenzeka ngezigaba ezimbili, eyokuqala ngo-1899 bese kuba yiminyaka engama-50 kamuva. Ngo-1899, iNgisi uMartin Pearce wasindiswa nguHassanali, ngemva kokuwela ugwadule futhi efika edolobheni laseMpumalanga Afrika.. Umthengisi ucela udadewabo uRehana ukuthi apholise amanxeba kaMartin futhi amnakekele aze alulame. Ngokushesha, ukukhangana okukhulu kuzalwa phakathi kwalaba ababili futhi banobudlelwane obunothando ngasese.

Imiphumela yalolo thando olungavunyelwe izoboniswa eminyakeni engama-5 kamuva, lapho umfowabo kaMartin ethandana nomzukulu kaRehana. Indaba ixuba ukuhamba kwesikhathi, imiphumela yobukoloniyali ebudlelwaneni kanye nezinkinga ezifanekiselwa uthando.

Mayelana nale noveli, umgxeki uMike Phillips wabhalela iphephandaba lesiNgisi Umqaphi: 

«Iningi Lokuhlubuka ibhalwe kahle futhi ijabulisa njenganoma yini oyifundile muva nje, inkumbulo emnandi yobuntwana yobukholoni kanye nesiko lamaMuslim elishabalala, elichazwa imikhuba yawo ekhombisayo nejwayelekile, embozwe ikhalenda lemikhosi nemikhosi yezenkolo.

Qedela imisebenzi ka-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Novelas

  • Inkumbulo Yokusuka (1987)
  • AmaPilgrim Way (1988)
  • Dottie (1990)
  • IPharadesi (1994) - I-Paraíso (1997).
  • Ebabaza uMthulisi (1996) - Ukuthula okuyingozi (1998)
  • Ngasolwandle (2001) - Ogwini (2003)
  • Ukulahla (2005)
  • Isipho Sokugcina (2011)
  • Inhliziyo yeGravel (2017)
  • Ukuphila ngemuva (2020)

Izindatshana, izindaba ezimfishane neminye imisebenzi

  • Abaphathi (1985)
  • Amakheji (1992)
  • Izindatshana zokubhalwa kwe-Afrika 1: Ukuhlolwa kabusha (1993)
  • Amasu Aguqulayo Enganekwaneni ka-Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (1993)
  • Umdwebo Wole Soyinka ”kuWole Soyinka: Ukuhlola (1994)
  • Ukuthukuthela Nokukhetha Kwezepolitiki eNigeria: Ukucatshangelwa KwamaMadmen Nochwepheshe BakaSoyinka, Indoda Yafa, kanye Nesizini Ye-Anomy. (1994, ingqungquthela ishicilelwe)
  • Izindatshana ezimayelana nokubhala kwase-Afrika 2: Izincwadi Zesimanje (1995)
  • Indawo emaphakathi yokumemeza ': Ukubhalwa kukaDambudzo Marechera (1995)
  • Ukufuduka kanye noguquko ku-Impicabadala yokufika (1995)
  • Khipha (1996)
  • Kusuka Endleleni kaPilgrim (1988)
  • Ukucabangela uMlobi wePostcolonial (2000)
  • Umqondo Wesikhathi Esedlule (2002)
  • Izindaba Eziqoqiwe zika-Abdulrazak Gurnah (2004)
  • Umama Uhlala Epulazini E-Afrika (2006)
  • I-Cambridge Companion kaSalman Rushdie (2007, isingeniso sencwadi)
  • Izindikimba Nezakhiwo Ezinganeni Zaphakathi Kwamabili (2007)
  • Uhlamvu Lukakolweni by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (2012)
  • Inganekwane Yokufika: Njengoba Itshelwe u-Abdulrazak Gurnah (2016)
  • Isikhuthazo Sokuya ndawo: I-Wicomb neCosmopolitanism (2020)

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.