Ababhali beChile Contemporary

Metonymy ezinkondlweni zikaGabriela Mistral.

Metonymy ezinkondlweni zikaGabriela Mistral.

Ababhali abaningi baseChile banamuhla bashiye uphawu olubalulekile ezincwadini zomhlaba. Eminyakeni engamakhulu amabili edlule, leli lizwe laseLatin America libone ukuzalwa kwababhali abakhulu, abaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni jikelele. Abaningana babo bathole imiklomelo ebalulekile, njengeNobel Prize, uGabriela Mistral noPablo Neruda abahlonishwa ngayo.

Ngezinhlobo ezahlukene zemibhalo, Laba babhali bakwazile ukuthumba izigidi zabafundi emhlabeni jikelele. Isebenza njengo: Abaseshi basendle (URoberto Bolaño) futhi Izinkondlo zothando ezingamashumi amabili nengoma yokuphelelwa yithemba (Pablo Neruda) ziyingxenye nje yomlando wefa elikhulu kakhulu. Okulandelayo, kuzokhonjiswa ingxenye yalokho okubhekwa njengababhali baseChile abanomthelela omkhulu emhlabeni jikelele.

Gabriela Mistral

ULucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga wazalwa ngo-Ephreli 7, 1889 edolobheni laseVicuña (esifundazweni sase-Elqui, eChile). Uvela emndenini othobekile, onokhokho baseSpain nabaseBasque. Ubuntwana bakhe babuchithelwa ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene esifundazweni i-Elqui, yize kwakunguMontegrande ukuthi wacabanga idolobha lakubo.

Yize engenazo izifundo zobuchwepheshe, kusukela ngo-1904 wasebenza njengothisha, okokuqala e-Escuela de la Compañía Baja, kwase kuba seLa Cantera naseLos Cerritos.. Ngo-1910 ulwazi nokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe kwaqinisekiswa yiNormal School No. 1 yaseSantiago, lapho athola khona isihloko sokuba nguSolwazi Wombuso.

Ngokufana nemisebenzi yakhe yokufundisa, wabhalela amaphephandaba ICoquimbo futhi ku Izwi lika-Elqui kaVicuña. Kusukela ngo-1908 wamukela igama-mbumbulu Gabriela Mistral, isetshenziswe okokuqala enkondlweni ethi "Esidlule". Ukuqashelwa kwakhe kokuqala okuphawulekayo kwafika Amanothi wokufa, lapho umlobi waseChile athola khona umklomelo wemidlalo yezimbali (1914).

Ekuhambeni kwayo, U-Mistral wadala izinkondlo eziningi, ezihlanganiswe ekuhlanganisweni okuhlukahlukene. Lokhu kufaka phakathi: Incithakalo (1922), Tala (1938) futhi I-Lagar (1954). Ngokunjalo, umbhali wayehlukaniswa ngemihlomulo ebalulekile, efana naleyo: Umklomelo KaNobel Wezincwadi (1945) kanye noMklomelo Kazwelonke Wezincwadi ZaseChile (1951). UMistral ushone eNew York ngomdlavuza wepancreatic ngoJanuwari 10, 1957.

Pablo Neruda

URicardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto weza kulo mhlaba ngoJulayi 12, 1904. Idolobha lakubo kwakunguParral, esifundeni saseMaule, eChile. Wayeyindodana kaJosé del Carmen Reyes Morales noRosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo. Unina wabulawa yisifo sofuba ngemuva kwenyanga ezele imbongi. Pablo Neruda —Njengoba ayeyozibiza kamuva— Wahlala eTemuco kusukela ebuntwaneni bakhe waze wafika ebusheni. Kulelo dolobha wenza izifundo zakhe zokuqala, futhi lokhu, kamuva, kwaba ugqozi lwemisebenzi yakhe eminingi yezinkondlo.

I-athikili yakho yokuqala, Umdlandla nokubekezela (1917), yashicilelwa ephephandabeni Ukusa kweTemuco. Ngemuva kweminyaka emibili, wahlangana nembongi uGabriela Mistral, owamethula ekufundeni futhi wamkhuthaza ukuthi azondle ngemisebenzi yababhali abadumile baseRussia. Kusukela ngo-1921 wasayina imisebenzi yakhe njengoPablo Neruda, yize kwaze kwaba ngo-1946 lapho lokhu kumenyezelwa njengegama lakhe elisemthethweni.

Ngo-1924 washicilela iqoqo lezinkondlo ezamethulela udumo: Izinkondlo zothando ezingamashumi amabili nengoma yokuphelelwa yithemba. Ukusuka lapho, Wethule imisebenzi engaphezu kuka-40 esaphila futhi wayenemisebenzi engama-20 ngemuva kokushona. Emsebenzini wakhe, uNeruda waklonyeliswa amahlandla amaningi, phakathi kwawo kukhona okulandelayo: Umklomelo Kazwelonke Wezincwadi Zezincwadi (1945), iLenin Peace Prize (1966) neNobel Prize for Literature (1971).

Ukucaphuna kukaPablo Neruda.

Ukucaphuna kukaPablo Neruda.

UNeruda wayeshade kathathu. Indodakazi yakhe okuwukuphela kwayo yazalwa emshadweni wayo wokuqala, uMalva Marina Trinidad, owashona eneminyaka eyi-8 kuphela ngenxa ye-hydrocephalus. Izinsuku zokugcina zempilo kaPablo Neruda zachitha eSantiago, lapho ashonela khona ngoSepthemba 23, 1973. kusuka kumdlavuza wesibeletho osezingeni eliphakeme.

URoberto Bolaño

URoberto Bolaño wazalwa ngo-Ephreli 28, 1953 eSantiago de Chile. Ubuntwana bakhe budlula phakathi kweValparaíso, iViña del Mar nedolobha laseLos Ángeles, lapho aqeda khona izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphansi. Lapho eneminyaka engu-15 wathuthela eMexico nomkhaya wakhe. Ezweni lama-Aztec waqhubeka nezifundo zakhe zamabanga aphakeme, ayishiya ngonyaka olandelayo ukuze azinikele kuphela ekufundeni nasekubhaleni.

EMexico City, UBolaño wahlangana nembongi uMario Santiago nabanye ababhali abasebancane. Leli qembu labelana ngezintshisekelo eziningi zemibhalo, ngakho-ke kancane kancane basondelana kakhulu. Kusukela lobu buhlobo kwazalwa ukunyakaza kwezinkondlo kwe-infrarealism, eyasungulwa ngo-1975. Ngemuva konyaka, uRoberto washicilela lo msebenzi Vuselela uthando. Leli qoqo lezinkondlo lalingelokuqala kweziyisithupha azethula kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe, kanye nezinhlelo ezimbili ngemuva kokushona kwakhe. Izincwadi zakhe zifaka: Izinja zothando (1993), Okuthathu (2000) futhi Inyuvesi Engaziwa (2007).

Incwadi yakhe yokuqala, Iseluleko esivela kumfundi waseMorrison kumlandeli kaJoyce (1984), wanikezwa nge-Literary Field award. Kodwa-ke, naphezu kokusebenza kwakhe isikhathi eside, umsebenzi owenza lo mbhali waba nodumo kwakuyincwadi yakhe yesithupha: Abaseshi basendle (1998). Le noveli imenze wawina umklomelo weHerralde de Novela (1998) -owokuqala waseChile ukuyithola- kanye ne-Rómulo Gallegos Award (1999).

URoberto Bolaño ushone eneminyaka engama-50 eBarcelona (eSpain), ngoJulayi 15, 2003, ngemuva kokuhlushwa yisibindi isikhathi eside. Umbhali waseChile washiya izincwadi eziningi ezingakaqedwa, ezashicilelwa eminyakeni eminingi ngemuva kokufa kwakhe. Umsebenzi wobungcweti waphuma kulokho kuhlanganiswa, inoveli 2666 (2004), athola ngayo izindondo ezibalulekile njenge: Salambó, Ciudad de Barcelona kanye ne-Altazor.

U-Alejandra Costamagna

U-Alejandra Costamagna Crivell weza emhlabeni ngoMashi 23, 1970, eSantiago de Chile. Njengoba ayemncane, wayethanda ukubhala, kepha kuze kube yintsha yakhe lapho awuthatha khona ngokungathi sína lo msebenzi. Uthisha wakhe uGuillermo Gómez ubehlangene kakhulu nalolu thando. Kuleso sigaba sempilo yakhe waqala ukufunda uMistral, Neruda, Shakespeare noNicanor Parra; konke kube nomthelela omkhulu kuye.

UCostamagna wafundela ubuntatheli eDiego Portales University. Esikhathini esithile kamuva, waqedela iziqu ze-master ezincwadini kuleyunivesithi efanayo. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe, uzinikele ekufundiseni imihlangano yokucobelelana ngolwazi, futhi ubuye wasebenza njengomhleli, umhlaziyi weshashalazi nombhali wamamagazini amaningi kazwelonke.

Njengombhali, wethula umsebenzi wakhe wokuqala ngo-1996, Ngokuthula, othole imibono emihle kakhulu futhi wawina indondo yeGabriela Mistral Literary Games (1996). ICostamagna wethule amanoveli aphumelele, afana nalokhu: Ubusuku obubi (2000), Imililo yokugcina (2005), futhi Izilwane zasekhaya (2011). Abagxeki abaningana bafake eminye yemisebenzi yakhe kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi Izincwadi zezingane.

U-Alberto fuguet

ISantiago de Chile yazalwa ngo-Alberto Felipe Fuguet de Goyeneche ngoMashi 7, 1964. Ubuntwana bakhe wabuchitha e-United States, futhi kuze kwaba ngo-1975 lapho abuyela ezweni lakubo. Kukhawulelwe ngolimi, umlobi wesikhathi esizayo waqala ukufunda izincwadi ngeSpanishi ukuze azijwayeze ulimi lwakhe lwebele. Ukuvumile lokho Izinto zokubhala nguMarcela Paz waba nethonya elikhulu kuye, okungabonakala encwadini yakhe yokuqala.

Ufunde eNyuvesi yaseChile. Ukukhetha kwakhe kokuqala kwakuwumkhakha wezenhlalo, owawufunda unyaka wonke, kepha-ke washintshela ebuntathelini, lapho athola khona iziqu wagcina esengomunye wezinto azithandayo. Ngaphezu komsebenzi wakhe njengombhali, wakhe umsebenzi owaziwayo njengombhali wephephandaba, umbhali wamanoveli, umbhali wesikrini, umculo kanye nomhlaziyi wefilimu. Iyaziwa ngenxa yethonya layo kubabhali besikhathi samanje, ngokubheja ezincwadini zangempela nezasemadolobheni.

Ngo-1990 wethula indaba yakhe yokuqala, Ukweqisa ngokweqile, awine ngawo uMklomelo kaMasipala Wezincwadi ZaseSantiago. Ngonyaka olandelayo washicilela inoveli eyamholela empumelelweni: Igagasi elibi. Umsebenzi wakhe uphinde uqokomise: Uyinki obomvu, Incwadi eyaguqulelwa le bhayisikobho ngo-2000. Eminyakeni emithathu kamuva, wakhipha incwadi yomlando omfishane ebizwa ngokuthi Amafilimu empilo yami, amanoveli akhe akamuva: Okungelona iqiniso (2015) futhi Umjuluko (2016).


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.