UFernando de Rojas: umbhali wemithetho

UFernando de Rojas

UFernando de Rojas (c. 1470-1541) waziwa ngokuba umbhali wencwadi. Celestine (1499), i-universal classic yezincwadi zesi-Spanish. Kodwa-ke, ubunikazi bayo buye babuzwa kakhulu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi lo msebenzi ungathathwa njengongaziwa kuye kwacatshangelwa. Yize kube nokungabaza okuningi ngempilo yalo mbhali nokuthi ngubani obhale ngothando lukaCalisto noMelibea, sekucacile ukuthi uRojas ungumdali weqiniso Celestine.

Nokho, bekungenzeki ukuthi kubhalwe kuye eminye imisebenzi yemibhalo ngale kwalokhu. Inani le Celestine sekuvele kwaba ngaphezu kokwanele ukufaka isazi somthetho uFernando de Rojas ohlwini lwababhali ababaluleke kakhulu bezincwadi zesiSpanishi. Futhi lapha sikutshela okwengeziwe ngalo mbhali.

UFernando de Rojas: umongo kanye nempilo

Ingxoxo ngemvelaphi yobuJuda yombhali

UFernando de Rojas kucatshangwa ukuthi unemvelaphi yobuJuda. Le nkolelo-mbono inikezwa ubuqiniso obanele, nakuba kungeyona yodwa. Ngokufanayo, uRojas wayezoba kude nezihlobo zakhe zokugcina ezingamaJuda. Futhi kungenxa yokuthi umbhali ufinyelele ukuphakama kwamandla emsebenzini womphakathi okungenakwenzeka kumuntu ovela emndenini osanda kuguqulwa. Khona-ke kulinganiselwa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi wayengumJuda wesizukulwane sesine.

Ngo-1492 aMakhosi AmaKatolika ayala ukuxoshwa kwamaJuda eSpain. Imindeni eminingi yaphoqeleka ukuba iguqukele enkolweni yobuKristu, kodwa nakuba yenza kanjalo, abantu abambalwa babekwa icala lobuJuda, noma ukuba ama-crypto-Jews, futhi baqhuba inkolo yobuJuda ezindlini zabo. Lokhu kusola kuphinde kwaba nesisindo emndenini kaFernando de Rojas. Nakuba kukhona enye inguqulo ethi uyise wayeyi-hidalgo okuthiwa uGarcía González Ponce de Rojas.. Eqinisweni, kunezicelo ezivela emndenini ukuthi zibonise izikhulu zabo.

Abanye abantu abaningi bashushiswa izakhamuzi ezingamaKristu ngokwazo okwathi ngokucabangela okuncane nje, zagijimela ukulahla omakhelwane bazo. Kwakuyindaba yomndeni wezombangazwe wakwaRojas. Ngoba washada noLeonor Álvarez de Montalbán, owayeyindodakazi yomuntu owayeguqukile owayesolwa ngokuqhuba inkolo yobuJuda, u-Álvaro de Montalbán. Le ndoda yazama ukuthola umkhwenyana wayo, isazi somthetho esidumile, ukuba asisize. Kodwa uFernando de Rojas wayengamenzeli lutho umkhwe wakhe.

Lesi kwakuyisimo sezulu esaphefumulelwa ngesikhathi somlobi futhi, nakuba njengoba sesibonile wayengeyena neze owezizwe kulo mongo wokungabekezelelani ngokwenkolo, UFernando de Rojas wakwazi ukuphila ukuphila okunethezekile nomndeni wakhe, ehlanganyela empilweni yomphakathi.

Isifanekiso Sobulungiswa

impilo yombhali

UFernando de Rojas wazalelwa eLa Puebla de Montalbán, eToledo, phakathi kuka-1465 no-1470.. Mayelana nemvelaphi yayo sekube nezingxoxo eziningi mayelana nokuthi ngabe bekungumndeni wama-hidalgos noma abaguqukile. Kuncane kakhulu okwaziwayo ngobuntwana bakhe nobusha bakhe.. Ukuze ufunde okwengeziwe mayelana nokuqeqeshwa kwakhe, noma uma ukwakheka komsebenzi okuwukuphela kwakhe okuthiwa kuye kungokweyakhe, Celestine, kufanele siye ekufundeni nasekufundeni imibhalo yangaleso sikhathi.

Ngokwesibonelo, wayeneziqu zaseyunivesithi, yiqiniso, ngoba wayengummeli futhi enezikhundla ezihlukene eziphathelene nomphakathi, njengeMeya yaseTalavera de la Reina (Toledo). Futhi, embhalweni we Celestine kukhona inkulumo ye-bachelor Fernando de Rojas, namuhla ezoba isihloko somuntu oneziqu noma oneziqu. Bese kuthiwa uqede izifundo zakhe ngaso leso sikhathi aqamba ngalo lo msebenzi ngoba ubevele ethweswe iziqu cishe ngesikhathi uphuma. Celestine ngo-1499. Ngenxa yokuqukethwe kulo msebenzi ofanayo, kukholakala ukuthi wafunda eNyuvesi yaseSalamanca. Ngemva kwesikhathi esithile wayezoya eTalavera de la Reina.

Washada ngo-1512 noLeonor Álvarez de Montalban. futhi ngaphambili kakade wayezinze eTalavera de la Reina lapho akwazi khona ukujabulela ukuqashelwa umsebenzi. Lapha kunemibhalo eminingi mayelana nombhali obesebenza njengommeli kanye nemeya kuleli dolobha, enza imisebenzi yodumo emphakathini. Enomkakhe wayenezingane eziyisikhombisa sezizonke.

Wanakekela umtapo wezincwadi omkhulu, nomsebenzi wakhe usaqhubeka Celestine babonise uthando lwabo lwezincwadi nezincwadi, ngaphezu kokusebenza kwabo emthethweni. Kodwa-ke, ayixhunyiwe kweminye imibhalo noma ababhali, amaphrinta noma imibuthano yemibhalo. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi umbhalo owodwa ukwazile ukumphakamisa kanjani ezincwadini zeSpanishi, ebhale umsebenzi wakhe omkhulu esemncane.

UFernando de Rojas washona ngo-1541, egcizelela eTestamenteni lakhe ukholo lobuKristu ayelusho..

Izincwadi ezindala

Okunye okucatshangelwayo ngeLa Celestina

Ukhuluma ngomuntu wakhe njengombhali we Celestine zivela ikakhulukazi kubantu abaseduze kwazo. Kunoma ikuphi, akekho omunye owathi ungomnikazi womsebenzi, kodwa ngisho negama likaFernando de Rojas alizange livele kukhava yezinhlelo zokuqala zale ncwadi.

Umsebenzi uphume ngenguqulo yokuqala njenge Amahlaya kaCalisto noMelibea bese kuba kwenye enesihloko esithi I-Tragicomedy ye-Calisto ne-Melibea, mhlawumbe njengomphumela oqondile womlingiswa womsebenzi, futhi ngokungaqondile ngenxa yomoya womphakathi waseSpain. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umbhalo wenziwa izinguquko esakhiweni nasekuqukethweni ngoba unyukile usuka ezenzweni eziyi-16 waya kwezingu-21. Zimbalwa kakhulu izinhlelo zazo zonke ezigciniwe futhi imibono nezahlulelo zihlukene ngazo, kuhlanganisa. Kusabuzwa ukuthi ngabe kwakunguFernando de Rojas owayephethe ngempela zonke lezi zinguquko; njengoba kukhulunywa ngokuba khona kwabanye ababhali ababili.

Igama uluthi lukamentshisi, okubonakala kusichazamazwi ngencazelo elandelayo: "i-pimp (owesifazane ohlela ubuhlobo bothando)", ivela kulo msebenzi oye wangena emlandweni naphezu kwazo zonke izimfihlakalo ezizungezile umbhali wawo. Kungumdlalo osevesini okuphumelela kwawo kubonakala kusukela ekuqaleni ngezinguqulo zawo eziningi nezikhishiwe kabusha. ngesiNtaliyane, isiJalimane, isiNgisi, isiFulentshi, isiDashi nesiLatini.

Indaba engokoqobo futhi eqinile, kodwa eyamukelwe, eyabangela ukumangala ngaleso sikhathi futhi yakhuthaza amanye alandelayo.. Kuphinde kwaba nomthelela kwabanye ababhali nemisebenzi. Celestine Iphinde yaba nokuguquguquka okuningi kumafomethi wobuciko ahlukene futhi isaphila njengomsebenzi wendawo yonke empilweni namasiko eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-500 ngemva kokushicilelwa kwayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1.   Luciano kakhulu kusho

    Umbhedo ongokwesiko waseSpain mayelana nokuthi ubani-bani noma ukuthi-nokuthi, ngisho nabalingiswa bomlando, njengombhali we-La Celestina, babengamaJuda...

    1.    Belen Martin kusho

      Yebo, kunjalo, Luciano. Ukuphindaphinda indaba efanayo njalo. Siyabonga ngokuphawula!