María Moliner noma lapho kuvulwa imitapo yolwazi engu-5.000 XNUMX eSpain

UMaria Moliner

Namuhla usuku lapho ababhali nemisebenzi emikhulu yezincwadi kuvame ukuhlonishwa khona. Kodwa-ke, ngifuna ukuhlonipha umuntu wesifazane ongazibhalanga izincwadi, kodwa obambe iqhaza ukuze wonke umuntu akwazi ukuthola amasiko nokufunda.

Ngikhuluma ngani UMaria Moliner, umuntu okhohliwe waseRiphabhuliki futhi owayebandakanyeka ekuvuleni imitapo yolwazi futhi wakhiqiza isichazamazwi esaziwa kakhulu: Isichazamazwi SikaMaría Moliner.

UMaría Moliner (uZaragoza, 1900-Madrid, 1981), wayengumtapo wolwazi, isazi sefilografi kanye nomlobi wezichazamazwi. Indodakazi kadokotela wasezindaweni zasemakhaya, waphothula izifundo zezeMfundo e-University of Zaragoza kwathi ngemuva konyaka wangena kwi-Faculty of Archivists, Librarians and Archaeologists ngabaphikisi.

Isimemezelo seRiphabhulikhi kanye neMishini Yokufundisa

UMaría, oshade nezingane, wayehlala eValencia ngenkathi kumenyezelwa iRiphabhuliki ngo-1931. Ngemuva kwenyanga, uhulumeni wenza iBhodi Yezimfundiso Zokufundisa, lapho uMaría ezibandakanya khona futhi akhe ithimba laseValencian.

Ngo-1931 ukungafundi eSpain kweqa amaphesenti angama-44, iningi labesifazane, futhi amaphesenti ayisithupha kuphela wabantu ayenezincwadi noma amaphephandaba. I-Library Service yayiqondiswa nguLuis Cernuda, uJuan Vicens noMaría Moliner kanti kuye amaphesenti angama-60 wesabelomali sePedagogical Missions anikezwa, okwakusho ukuthi phakathi kuka-1931 no-1936 kwasungulwa imitapo yolwazi engu-5.522.

EValencia, uMaría wanikela ngawo wonke amandla akhe ekwandiseni imitapo yolwazi ejikelezayo, eyayinezincwadi eziningi eziyikhulu zedolobhana noma idolobhana ngalinye, elezingane nelabantu abadala. Emitapweni yolwazi, wahlela uchungechunge lwezinkulumo, izikhathi zamafilimu, ukuhlolwa komsakazo kanye namarekhodi akhethiwe, izinhloso eziyisisekelo ohlelweni lwakhe lokuguqula ulwazi lokufunda nokubhala ngamasiko.

Njengoba kulindelekile, babengebaningi abasebenza ngemitapo yolwazi emitapweni yolwazi eminingi kangaka, ngakho-ke wanquma ukubashiyela ezandleni zothisha besilisa nabesifazane kanye nomama bemindeni, ngoba wabona ukuthi babekhathazeke kakhulu ngamasiko abesilisa futhi wabona abesifazane kuzo.abasizi abaphelele.

Njengoba uMaría Moliner echaza ngemitapo yolwazi:

Imayelana nokuvusa nokukhuthaza uthando lokufunda, yingakho emaqoqweni athunyelwe kunenqwaba yezincwadi ezihlekisayo nokuzijabulisa kobuhle, kanye nalabo abanolwazi olwanele ngaleyo mibono, lezo zinkinga nalezo zingxabano ezizamazamisa umhlaba kukho konke imiyalo yomcabango nazo zonke izinhloso zempilo, lokho okuyizinto zomuntu ezingakwazi futhi ezingafanele ukuba zangaphandle kunoma imuphi umuntu.

El Isichazamazwi sokusetshenziswa kweSpanish ngu-María Moliner

Kuthathwa njengesinye sezichazamazwi ezihamba phambili kunaleso seRoyal Academy (RAE), yashicilelwa okokuqala ngonyaka we-1966-67 yindlu yokushicilela yakwaGredos kanti uMaría Moliner wasebenzisa iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-XNUMX ukuyakha.

Lesi sichazamazwi sezincazelo, amagama afanayo, izinkulumo kanye nemishwana ebekiwe, nemindeni yamagama, naso siyisichazamazwi seqiniso semibono nesifaniselo.

UMaría Moliner ubelindelwe kwezinye izici njengokugcotshwa kwe- Ll ku Lkanye ne Ch ku(umbandela i-RAE engeke ilandele kuze kube ngu-1994) noma ukufakwa kwamagama asetshenziswa ngokujwayelekile kodwa i-RAE engazange iwamukele, njengegama cybernetics.

Uma ufuna imininingwane engaphezulu ngalesi sichazamazwi, kufayela le- Iwebhusayithi ye-Instituto Cervantes banokungena okuphelele kakhulu kuye.

UMaría Moliner namuhla

UMaría Moliner uyisibonelo sokungabi nabulungisa kwabesifazane kanye nobuqili be-absolutism.

Mayelana nemitapo yolwazi yayo, iMpi Yombango yaseSpain kanye nobushiqela obalandela bukaFranco bachitha lowo msebenzi omkhulu wemitapo yolwazi yePedagogical Missions kanye nokufunda nokubhala ngamasiko. Njengoba uJuan Vicens asho eFrance ngo-1938 ngenkathi ekhuluma ngomfutho owanikezwa ukufundwa komphakathi ngesikhathi seRiphabhulikhi eSpain:

Indaba ilula, ihlala ifana lapho abantu bewela esitheni: kudutshulwe umsebenzi wasemtatsheni wezincwadi, kushiswe izincwadi, futhi bonke labo ababambe iqhaza enhlanganweni yakhe bayadutshulwa noma bashushiswe.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uMaría Moliner wayengowesifazane wokuqala owazongenela ukhetho lokuhlala esihlalweni sobukhosi eRoyal Academy of the Language, yize ayengowesifazane, futhi ngokomsebenzi wayebhekwa njengomtapo wolwazi ukwedlula owesazi semfundo ephakeme, yize ayelungiselele isichazamazwi esibalulekile, simenze wangaze angene kuso.

UCarmen Conde, umbhali nowesifazane wokuqala owamukelwa e-Academy ngo-1979, akazange akhohlwe ukusho ngokungaqondile enkulumweni yakhe yokungena:

Isinqumo sakho esihle siqeda ubandlululo olungenabulungisa nolwasemandulo.

Lo mbhalo usebenza ukuhlonipha le ntokazi yolimi namasiko eyenzele lukhulu le ncwadi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1.   U-Asunción Huertas Kwesobunxele kusho

    Kubonakala kimi kulungile ukulwela lobu buntu besiko laseSpain, ukubandlululwa kabili ngokuba ngowesifazane nokwenza umsebenzi wakhe oyisibonelo ngesikhathi seRiphabhulikhi. Ukubonga kwami ​​okusuka enhliziyweni kuye, ngoba imibono yakhe, yize sekuphele iminyaka eminingi kakhulu, ithele izithelo nemitapo yolwazi, yize kunenkinga, lezo zindawo zokuhlangana nokuqondana phakathi kwabantu.