Izincwadi zamanoveli zomlando waseSpain

Ukwazi ngenoveli yomlando waseSpain, okokuqala kudingekile ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe uhlobo noma uhlobo oluthile lwenoveli. Mayelana nalokhu, akukho ukuvumelana; ezinye izifundiswa zithatha inoveli yomlando njengegatsha lale noveli, abanye bakhetha ukuyinika ukuzimela. Impela, incazelo evumelana kakhulu okwamanje ikhomba "ekulandiseni okude okunereferensi zomlando".

Kunoma ikuphi, into engenakuphikwa ukuthi inoveli yomlando waseSpain yavela phakathi nekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye. Le nqubo bekuwukucatshangelwa kabusha kwe-Romanticism ehlelwe ngaphakathi kwemicimbi ethembekile. Ngenxa yalokho, inoveli isuke ekuphakanyisweni kwemizwa iye ekwakhiweni kwemicimbi yangempela kanye / noma izinhlamvu, okubandakanya izingxenye eziqanjiwe (ezingalokothi ziguqule inkambo yemicimbi yangempela).

Abanduleli benoveli yomlando waseSpain

Yize kunzima ukuthola umsuka ngqo, incwadi yokuqala yomlando waseSpain yabhalwa nguRafael Húmara y Salamanca, URamiro, u-Count kaLucena (1823). Kulokhu, esandulelweni sayo ukuvezwa kwemibhalo okuthakazelisayo mayelana nencazelo ye- inoveli yomlando. Ngemuva kwalokho kwavela Amaqembu eCastile (1830) nguRamón López Soler, njengenye yezingcezu zokuphayona.

Yize lezi zincwadi zingazange ziphule ngokuphelele ngombhalo wothando wesikhathi, baqala inoveli yomlando kanjalo. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile ukukhuluma ngemisebenzi kaJosé de Espronceda (1808-1842), u-Enrique Gil y Carrasco (1815-1846) noma uFrancisco Navarro Villoslada (1818-1895). Ekugcineni, UBenito Pérez Galdós noPío Baroja baba ngabasekeli babo abakhulu.

Iziqephu zikazwelonke (1872-1912), nguBenito Pérez Galdós

Umbhali

UBenito Pérez Galdós, wayengumbhali wamanoveli waseSpain, umlobi wezombusazwe nosopolitiki, owazalelwa eLas Palmas de Gran Canaria, ngoMeyi 10, 1843. Ngakho-ke, ngokombono wokulandelana kwezikhathi, ungowesikhathi sobuRomaism. Noma kunjalo, umbhali waseCanarian wahlukana ngokuphelele nale nhlangano efuna izindaba ezingokoqobo zekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye. Ngakho-ke, wakwazi ukuthuthukisa okushiwo inoveli zomlando.

Futhi, waziwa njengombhali wendawo yonke ngenxa yokulandisa kwakhe okucacile nabalingiswa abaqinile ngokwengqondo (inoveli eSpain ngesikhathi sakhe). Futhi uma lokho bekunganele, Umsebenzi wakhe omningi wamenza waba ngumuntu ozongenela iNobel Prize for Literature ngo-1912, ngaphandle

ngaphezu kokuba yilungu leRoyal Spanish Academy. UBenito Pérez Galdós Ushone eMadrid ngoJanuwari 4, 1920.

Ingqikithi yomlando wenoveli

Iziqephu zikazwelonke kungumsebenzi owakhiwa amanoveli angama-46 akhishwe kancane kancane phakathi kuka-1873 no-1912. Lolu chungechunge lumelela umlando womlando waseSpain ohlanganisa iminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi ayisikhombisa (1805-1880). Ngakho-ke, ifaka imicimbi efana neMpi Yenkululeko yaseSpain noma iBourbon Restoration.

Ngokufanayo, ukubheja kombhali kuhlanganisa iqiniso lomlando nabalingiswa noma izimo ezicatshangwayo ukuze kubalwe futhi kubuyekezwe izehlakalo zesikhathi esedlule, kusukela manje. Kodwa-ke, yonke imibhalo esechungechungeni inethoni esondelene, esondelene noma ejwayelekile uPérez Galdós ayinika izindaba ezibaluleke kakhulu ezweni.

Izinkumbulo zendoda esebenza (1913 - 1935), nguPío Baroja

Inothi elifushane lomlando womlobi

Wazalelwa eSpain ngoDisemba 28, 1872, UPío Baroja y Nessi wayengumbhali ovelele wesizukulwane sama-98. Kodwa-ke, yize efundela ubudokotela, wazinikela ekubhaleni, ikakhulukazi inoveli kanye netiyetha. Eqinisweni, waba ngumlinganiso walezi zinhlobo ngesikhathi sakhe.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umbhali wahlakulela ubuqiniso ezingomeni zakhe ezibhaliwe, eziphawuleka kakhulu ngesimilo sakhe kanye nombono ongenathemba wokuphila. Ngokulinganayo, kumanoveli akhe kubonakala ubuntu obungavumelani nobucayi nomphakathi, kanye ne-anticlerical and - ngezikhathi ezithile - i-anarchic bent bent. UPío Baroja washona eMadrid ngo-1956.

Inoveli yomlando kumavolumu angama-22

cunt Izinkumbulo zendoda esebenza, UPío Baroja washicilela iqoqo lamanoveli omlando angama-22 phakathi kuka-1913 no-1935. Kuzo, U-Eugenio de Aviraneta, usopolitiki okhululeke kahle waseSpain, utholakala njengomlingiswa ophakathi nomlingisi ophambili, uzungu futhi, ngaphezu kwalokho, ukhokho wombhali.

Izigigaba nemfihlakalo

UBaroja uthathe lo mlingiswa wangempela futhi obalulekile emlandweni wezepolitiki waseSpain, ukutshela imininingwane efanelekile ngempilo yakhe. Ngale njongo, wasebenzisa umongo wempi yokuzibusa yaseSpain ukuthuthukisa isethi yezindaba eziqukethe izigaba zokuzijabulisa nezingaqondakali.

Ngendlela yokuthi umfundi angathola umlando onelukuluku futhi ongakholeki ka-Aviraneta osethwe maphakathi nezehlakalo zomlando i-neuralgic yesizwe. Phakathi kwalezo: impi phakathi kwama-absolutists kanye nenkululeko, ukuhlasela kweFrance kwamaNdodana Ayizinkulungwane Eziyikhulu aseSan Luis kuze kube yimpi yokuqala yohlu.

Amasosha aseSalami (2001), nguJavier Cercas

Umbhali

UJavier Cercas wazalelwa e-Ibahernando, eCáceres, eSpain, ngo-1962. Ungumbhali, umbhali wephephabhuku kanye noprofesa we-philology ozinikele kakhulu kuhlobo lokulandisa. Yize ekhulele emndenini wamaFalangist (abalandela leli qembu lemibono yobu-fascist), waziqhelelanisa nalesi sikhundla esemncane.

Ngo-1987, umbhali waseSpain washicilela inoveli yakhe yokuqala (Iselula); Okuningi, bekumele ngilinde kuze kube ngu-2001 nge Amasosha aseSalami ukuzingcwelisa njengombhali. Kulo mbhalo, uCercas udalula isitayela sakhe sobufakazi obuthize esibonakala ngomqondo othile wokungabonakali kwemingcele phakathi komlando nenganekwane.

Lapho inoveli yomlando iba okuhamba phambili

Lapho uJavier Cercas eshicilela inoveli yakhe yesine ngo-2001, Amasosha aseSalami, Bengingazi ukuthi izothengisa amakhophi angaphezu kwesigidi. Ngisho, Le noveli yomlando ihlukaniswe ngabagxeki njenge "ebalulekile".

Ukuthuthuka kwayo kuveza indlela esondelene kakhulu yombhali nomsunguli weqembu lezombusazwe laseSpain iFalange, uRafael Sánchez Maza.

Isakhiwo senoveli

Ngokuvumelana nalokho ukufundwa okuhehayo kokuveza impilo ethakazelayo yalomlingiswa inhlanganisela nezenzakalo zomlando ezichazwe. Ngale njongo, uCercas wahlukanisa umzimba wenoveli waba izingxenye ezintathu: kweyokuqala, "Los amigos del bosque", umbalisi waphefumulelwa ukuba abhale indaba yakhe. Esigabeni sesibili, "Amasosha aseSalamina", kudalulwa umnyombo wemicimbi.

Ekugcineni, ku- "Ukuqokwa e-Stockton", umbhali uchaza ukungabaza kwakhe ngalokhu kushicilelwa. A) Yebo, isizinda sokulandisa ukuvalwa kwempi yombango yaseSpain, lapho uSánchez Maza ephunyuka ekudutshulweni. Kamuva, ubanjwa yisosha eligcina impilo yakhe futhi lidale ukuthi uCercas aphenye lolu daba. Kepha izehlakalo azicaciswanga ngokuphelele encwadini.

Amanye amanoveli omlando avelele aseSpain

  • Impi ye-carlist (1908), nguRamón del Valle-Inclán
  • Inhliziyo yegreenstone (1942), nguSalvador de Madariaga
  • Mina, iNkosi (1985), nguJuan Antonio Vallejo-Nájera
  • Isithunzi sokhozi (1993), u-Arturo Pérez-Reverte

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.