Umlando Wencekukazi

Umlando Wencekukazi

Umlando Wencekukazi

Umlando Wencekukazi iyincwadi yombhali waseCanada uMargaret Atwood. Yanyatheliswa ekwindla ka-1985 ezweni lakubo futhi kusukela lapho yaba yimpumelelo enkulu, kwathengiswa izigidi zamakhophi ayo. Abathandi bama-dystopias babheka lesi sihloko njengesijwayelekile kohlobo, njengoba kuyindaba ethokozisayo equkethe imfihlakalo esabisayo.

Lo msebenzi wokulandisa uyinkomba yomhlaba wonke; kudale umthelela omkhulu ngengqikimba yayo nangendlela engaqondile ekhombise ukucwaswa kwabesifazane. Kungenxa yalokho Ishintshwe kaningana, kokubili ifilimu, ithelevishini nemidlalo yaseshashalazini; kukhona nohlobo lwe-opera. Ukumelwa kwayo ngohlobo oluchungechunge kugqamile — kukhiqizwe nguHulu futhi kudlala indawo ka-Elisabeth Moss—, okuyisizini yesithathu esakazwa njengamanje.

Umlando Wencekukazi (1985)

Kuyinoveli eqanjiwe ye-dystopian futuristic and science, kulindeleke ngonyaka ka-2195 isethwe eRiphabhuliki YaseGileyadi, eyakhiwe ngemuva kokugumbuqelwa kukahulumeni wase-US. Lapho, kuhlala ubushiqela obuqinile, obususelwa kwiTestamente Elidala leBhayibheli. Kulomsebenzi kuyabonakala i-tirade yomphakathi futhi ukubandlululwa okuqinile kwabesifazane.

Umlando ilandiswa ngomuntu wokuqala ngo-Offredubani ulandisa ngempilo yakhe namuhla futhi ukhumbula izingcaphuno ezivela endulo ngaphambi kwesikhungo saseGileyadi. Yena, njengabo bonke abesifazane, wabelwa ukufeza umsebenzi othile, esimweni sakhe ikakhulukazi ungoweqembu le- izintombi.

Thengisa INDLELA YENKOSIKAZI ...
INDLELA YENKOSIKAZI ...
Azikho izibuyekezo

Izici ezijwayelekile zomsebenzi

Umbuso uhlukanisa abesifazane

Njengesilinganiso sokucindezelwa nokubuswa kwabesifazane, umbuso omusha unquma ukubahlukanisa ngokweqhaza okufanele babe nalo kulowo mphakathi. Ukwehlukanisa le misebenzi, iqembu ngalinye kulawa ayisithupha elisungulwe lihlukaniswa umbala wezimpahla zalo.

Izintombi —Njengoba Kunikelwe— bagqoka okubomvu, umsebenzi wawo ukuletha emhlabeni izingane zabaphathi. Ngokolunye uhlangothi, amakhosikazi ngabesifazane abanesizinda sobukhosi futhi bagqoka izingubo eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngokufana ne-Virgin Mary. Bona, yize bejabulela impilo ethulile nenethezekile, Bathembele ezisebenzini zezinsikazi ukuqinisekisa inzalo yabo.

Labo ababizwa ngamagama "Obabekazi" bayabukeka izingubo ezinsundu, baqondisa izintombi futhi baphethe ukuqinisekisa ukuthi bayayithobela imithetho, bakwazi ukujezisa uma kungenjalo. Kukhona nelinye iqembu eliluhlaza okotshani elibizwa ngokuthi i- "marthas", okuthi, ngenxa yeminyaka yabo, bangakwazi ukuzala; umsebenzi wakhe ukupheka nokuhlanza imindeni yamakhomanda.  

Ekugcineni, kunjalo "i-econowives", abasebenzisa isembatho esinemishwe futhi bangabakwa- abafazi babantu abampofu. Kuzofanele benze konke okusemandleni abo. Abanye besifazane bathathwa "njengabangewona abesifazane", okuthi ngenxa yobumnyama babo besikhathi esidlule, bahlukunyezwe badingiselwe emngceleni baze bafe.

Ukumelwa kwamadoda

Amadoda, bona, yilabo abathi bathatha umyalo kuhulumeni wobushiqela. Labo abaphethe umbuso babalwa njengo "Abaphathi", futhi kufanele bagqoke izingubo ezimnyama. Nabo futhi Izingelosi ", labo khonza i-gilead.

Ababheki ", ngokulandelana, yiwo labo abaphethe ukuphepha kwabaphathi. Futhi ekugcineni, "Amehlo kaNkulunkulu" Bangobani bayabuka kwabangakholwayo ukugcina ukuhleleka okunqunyiwe.

Isiqubulo

Esikhathini esizayo, ukubulawa kuka okwangempela UMongameli waseMelika ubhebhethekise ukuvukela umbuso. Kufakwa uhulumeni wobushiqela, futhi izwe libizwa ngokuthi "IRiphabhulikhi YaseGileyadi". Ngaleso sikhathi, izinga lokuzala labesifazane lehla kakhulu, ngenxa yomonakalo odalwe ukungcola. Lokhu kudale ukuthi amalungelo abesifazane aguquke kakhulu.

Kunikelwe yintokazi phila njengencekukazi kaMajor Fred Waterford nomkakhe uSerena Joy, oyinyumba. Ella, njengoba kuchazwe ngumsebenzi wayo, kuphakathi komndeni ukuletha umhlaba kwizibulo lomshado. Ngemuva kwemizamo eminingana engaphumelelanga yokukhulelwa, u-Offred uya kokubonisana nodokotela. Lapho, ufunda ukuthi umsuka wenkinga ukuFred.

Ngenxa yalesi simo, udokotela owelaphayo wenza isiphakamiso esinzima ku-Offred, angasamukelanga. Ngokulandelana, USerena uqobo uyamphoqa ukuba abe nobudlelwano nensimu yomndeni, konke ukuze ngithole leyo ndodana ebengiyifuna kakhulu. Lobu budlelwano buyachuma futhi benza impilo ka-Offred nomphathi ibe nzima kakhulu. Izinto eziningi zizokwenzeka kuze kube konke kubuyela kwesijwayelekile.

Mayelana nomlobi

Imbongi nomlobi uMargaret Atwood wazalelwa okokuqala e-Ottawa, eCanada, ngoMgqibelo, ngoNovemba 18, 1939. Uyindodakazi yesazi sezilwane uCarl Edmund Atwood kanye nochwepheshe wezokudla uMargaret Dorothy William. Ingxenye enkulu yobuntwana bakhe wayichitha phakathi kwenyakatho yeQuebec, i-Ottawa neToronto, eshukunyiswa umsebenzi kayise njengesihlahla sezinambuzane ezingamahlathi.

Njengengane encane, Margaret ubengumuntu othanda ukufunda; naye uqobo uvumile ezikhathini eziningana ufunde zonke izinhlobo zezinhlobo zemibhalo. Wakwazi ukujabulela amanoveli ayimfihlakalo, amahlaya, inganekwane yesayensi, kanye nezincwadi zomlando waseCanada. Ekugcineni, ngamunye wabo waba wusizo olukhulu kuye ekuqeqesheni kwakhe njengombhali.

Izifundo

Izifundo zakhe zesibili zaziseLeaside High School eToronto. Ngo-1957, wangena Victoria University; lapho, eminyakeni emihlanu kamuva, uthole i-BA ngesiNgisi Philology, ngezifundo ezengeziwe ngesiFulentshi nakwifilosofi. Ngawo lowo nyaka, wangena eHarvard University's Raddiffe College ukuthola iziqu ze-postgraduate ngenxa yeWoodrow Wilson Research Fellowship..

Impilo yangasese

Umbhali ube nemishado emibili, owokuqala ngo-1968 noJim Polk, ahlukanisa naye eminyakeni emihlanu kamuva. Isikhathi ngemuva, ngashada nombhali wamanoveli uGraeme Gibson. Ngo-1976, ngenxa yale nyunyana, baba nendodakazi, abayibhapathiza njengo: Eleanor Jess Atwood Gibson. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuze kube manje umndeni uhlala phakathi kweToronto nePelee Island, e-Ontario.

Umjaho wezincwadi

U-Atwood waqala ukubhala eneminyaka engu-16 nje kuphela. Ayinabo ubulili obuthile lokho kuchaza wena; wethule amanoveli, ama-eseyi, izinkondlo ngisho nemibhalo yethelevishini. Ngokunjalo, ubhekwa ngabaningi njengababhali besifazane, ngoba eminye yemisebenzi yakhe ephumelela kakhulu isuselwa kuleso sihloko.

Ngokufanayo, Wenze umsebenzi ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene ezihlobene nezwe lakhe, njenge: Ubunikazi baseCanada, ama-moor ayo nezici zemvelo. Ngokunjalo, ubhale ngobudlelwano besizwe leso namanye amazwe. Phakathi kwemisebenzi yakhe kungabalwa: amanoveli ayi-18, izincwadi zezinkondlo ezingama-20, ama-eseyi ayi-10 nezindaba ezimfishane, izincwadi zezingane eziyi-7 kanye nemibhalo ehlukahlukene, ama-librettos, eBooks namabhuku alalelwayo.

Imisebenzi eyengeziwe

Umbhali wamanoveli, ngaphezu kwezincwadi, uzinikele kweminye imisebenzi, phakathi kokusebenza kwakhe okuvelele. U-Atwood ufundise ezindlini zokutadisha ezihlonishwayo eCanada nase-United States. Bangashiwo: IYunivesithi yaseBritish Columbia (1965), iYunivesithi yaseNew York neYunivesithi yase-Alberta (1969-1979).

Ngokufanayo, i-literata iyisishoshovu sezepolitiki saseCanada. Kulesi sici, ulwile izizathu ezahlukahlukene, njenge: amalungelo abantu, inkululeko yokukhuluma nezimbangela zemvelo. Lo msebenzi onzima wenziwe ezweni lakhe nakwamanye amazwe.

Njengamanje, ingeka-Amnesty International (umzimba wamalungelo abantu) futhi uyingxenye eyinhloko ye- I-BirdLife International (ukuvikela izinyoni).


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  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.