Igama le-rose

Igama le-rose

Igama le-rose

Igama le-rose (1980) ngumsebenzi oholele i-Umberto Eco yase-Italy ukunambitha izinyosi zempumelelo yemibhalo. Futhi akuyona into engaphansi, namuhla, lo msebenzi uthengise amakhophi angaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-50. Kuyinoveli yomlando enokuthambekela okujulile kwemfihlakalo icebo layo elizungeze uphenyo lochungechunge lobugebengu obuyindida obenzeka ngekhulu le-XNUMX esigodlweni sezindela sase-Italy.

Ngemuva nje kokukhululwa emphakathini, lo mbhalo uthole imiklomelo emibili ebalulekile: umklomelo Umthakathi (1981) kanye ne- UMedici Alien (1982). Ngemuva kweminyaka emihlanu - futhi kushukunyiswe umthelela odalwe umsebenzi - i-Eco ishicilelwe: I-Apostille egameni le-rose (1985). Ngalo msebenzi, umbhali ubefuna ukuphendula eminye yemibuzo ephakanyiswe encwadini yakhe, kepha ngaphandle kokuveza izimfihlakalo eziqukethe.

Amazwibela we Igama le-rose

Ebusika bango-1327, amaFranciscan UGuillermo de Baskerville uhamba no umfundi wakhe Isikhangiso sikaMelk sokubamba umkhandlu. Indawo okuyiwa kuyo: isigodlo samaBenedictine enyakatho ne-Italy. Lapho befika, bahlela umhlangano nezindela nezithunywa zikaPapa John XXII. Inhloso: xoxa ngamacala enkohlakalo (amahlubuka) ezingcolisa isifungo sabaphostoli sobumpofu nokuthi - okuthiwa - baqhutshwa iqembu lamaFranciscans.

Umhlangano kuvela ukuthi ube yimpumelelo, kodwa umkhathi ugcwele ukufa okungazelelwe nokungaqondakali komdwebi wezithombe u-Adelmo da Otranto. Lo mlisa utholakale eseshonile phansi emtatsheni wezincwadi i-abbey - umugqa omnandi wamashelufu ezincwadi agcwele izincwadi - ngemuva kokuwa phezulu kwe-Aedificium Octagon. Ngemuva kokuvela kweqiniso, Abbone —U-Abad wethempeli— ucela uGuillermo ukuthi aphenye ngalo, ngoba usola ukuthi ukubulala.

Imibuzo idonse izinsuku eziyisikhombisa. Ngaleso sikhathi, Izindela eziningi zibonakala zifile, zonke zisesimweni esifanayo: ngeminwe nangezilimi zazo kunamabala ngoyinki omnyama. Ngokusobala, ukushona kwabantu lokhu kuhlobene nencwadi ka-Aristotle omakhasi akhe afakwe ubuthi ngamabomu. Ngesikhathi sokuphenya kwakhe, uGuillermo ngeke nje ahlangabezane nezimpikiswano eziningi, kepha uzophinde ahlangane ubuso nobuso nobubi obuthathe isimo somuntu, obufaniswe ngokuphelele ngaphansi kweveli lokuguga nokuhlakanipha ngomfanekiso womfundisi oyimpumputhe uJorge de Burgos.

Ukuhlaziywa Igama le-rose

Isakhiwo

Igama le-rose yincwadi yomlando eyimfihlakalo eyenzeka ngonyaka we-1327. Lesi sakhiwo senzeka esigodlweni sezindela saseBenedictine esisenyakatho ne-Italy. Indaba iqhubeka ngaphezu kwezahluko eziyi-7, futhi ngakunye kwalokhu usuku phakathi kophenyo lukaGuillermo kanye novice Adso. Owokugcina, ngasendleleni, nguyena oxoxa ngokuthuthuka kwenganekwane kumuntu wokuqala.

Abalingiswa abasemqoka

UWilliam waseBaskerville

Imvelaphi yesiNgisi, Ungumuntu ongumFranciscan owayengumpristi wenkantolo yeNkantolo Yamacala Ezihlubuki. Uyindoda enekhono, eqaphelayo futhi ehlakaniphile, enamakhono amaningi okusesha. Uzobe ephethe ukuxazulula ukufa okungaqondakali nokuzumayo kwezindela e-abbey.

Igama layo livela kuGuillermo de Ockham, umuntu ongokomlando u-Eco acabanga ukumbeka njenge-protagonist kwasekuqaleni. Noma kunjalo, Abagxeki abaningi bathi ingxenye yobuntu bukaBaskerville bokuphenya ivela kuSherlock Holmes oyisithonjana.

I-Adso kaMelk

Ngemvelaphi ehloniphekile - indodana yeBaron de Melk -, ngumbalisi wendaba. Ngokugunyazwa ngumndeni wakhe, UWilliam waseBaskerville ubekwa ngokomyalo, njengombhali nomfundi. Ngenxa yalokho, uyasebenzisana futhi nophenyo. Ngesikhathi sakhiwa lesi sakhiwo, utshela ingxenye yokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe njenge-novice yaseBenedictine nokuthi waphila kanjani ekuhambeni kwakhe noGuillermo de Baskerville.

UJorge de Burgos

Uyindela endala enemvelaphi yaseSpain ubukhona bayo obubaluleke kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwesakhiwo.. Ukusuka ku-physiognomy yakhe, u-Eco uqokomisa isikhumba sakhe esiphaphathekile nobumpumputhe bakhe. Mayelana nendima yakhe, lo mlingisi uvusa imizwa ephikisanayo kubo bonke abanye abantu abahlala esigodlweni: ukuncoma nokwesaba.

Yize leli khehla lingasaboni futhi lingasaphethe umtapo wolwazi, izikhala zalo zaziwa ngamasentimitha ngamasentimitha, futhi izwi lakhe liyaziswa futhi libhekwa njengesiprofetho ngamanye amakholi. Ngokwakhiwa kwalesi sitha, umbhali waphefumulelwa ngumlobi odumile uJorge Luis Borges.

Abalingisi bomlando

Uma kukhulunywa nge inganekwane yomlando, izinhlamvu eziningana zangempela zingatholakala esakhiweni, ikakhulu babevela emkhakheni wezenkolo. Phakathi kwazo kukhona: UBertrando del Poggetto, Ubertino da Casale, UBernardo Gui no-Adelmo da Otranto.

Ukulungiswa kwenoveli

Ngemuva kweminyaka eyisithupha kuphumelele inoveli, Lokhu kwalethwa esikrinini esikhulu ngumqondisi uJean-Jacques Annaud. Ifilimu enegama elifanayo yalingiswa ngabalingisi abaziwayo uSean Connery - njengoFriar William - noChristian Slater - njengo-Adso.

Njengencwadi, ukukhiqizwa kwefilimu kujabulele ukwamukelwa okuhle ngumphakathi; ngaphezu kwalokho, ithole imiklomelo eyi-17 emincintiswaneni yomhlaba. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva kokukhonjiswa kwayo, abagxeki nabezindaba base-Italiya benza izitatimende eziqinile bephikisana nefilimu, njengoba bebona ukuthi ayihambisani nale ncwadi ehlonishwayo.

Ku-2019, uchungechunge lweziqephu eziyisishiyagalombili lwakhonjiswa olwaba yimpumelelo ifana neveli ne-movie. Kwakuwumkhiqizo wase-Italy-waseJalimane owenziwe nguGiacomo Battiato; Yasatshalaliswa emazweni angaphezu kwe-130 futhi yazuza okuningi okwaziwayo e-Italy.

Iqiniso lokwazi

Umbhali ususele endabeni Umbhalo wesandla kaDom Adson de Melk, incwadi ayithola ngo-1968. Lo mbhalo wesandla watholakala esigodlweni sezindela saseMelk (e-Austria) futhi umakhi waso wawusayina ngokuthi: “Abbe Vallet”. Lokhu kufaka ubufakazi obuncane bomlando bangaleso sikhathi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, noma ngubani owabhala wathi kwakuyikhophi ngqo yombhalo owatholakala ngekhulu le-XNUMX eMelk Abbey.

Mayelana nomlobi, Umberto Eco

NgoLwesibili, ngoJanuwari 5, 1932, idolobha lase-Italy i-Alessandria labona kuzalwa i- Umberto Eco IBisio. Uyindodana kaGiulio Eco - accountant - noGiovanna Bisio. Ngemuva kokuqala iMpi Yezwe II, ubaba wakhe wabizelwa ebusosheni. Ngokwalesi sizathu, umama wathutha nengane waya edolobheni lasePiedmont.

Izifundo kanye nokuhlangenwe nakho kokuqala komsebenzi

Ngo-1954, wathola iziqu zobudokotela kwi-Philosophy and Letters e-University of Turin. Ngemuva kokuphothula iziqu, Ngisebenza ku RAI njengomhleli wamasiko futhi waqala umsebenzi wakhe njengoprofesa waseyunivesithi ezindlini zokufunda eTurin, eFlorence naseMilan. Ngaleso sikhathi, wahlangana nabaculi ababalulekile bakwaGruppo 63, abantu ababezothonya umsebenzi wakhe njengombhali.

Kusukela ngo-1966, wayala usihlalo wezokuxhumana okubukwayo edolobheni laseFlorence. Eminyakeni emithathu kamuva, Ubengomunye wabasunguli be-International Association of Semiology. Iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-30, wafundisa ikilasi lama-semiotic e-University of Bologna. Kuleyo ndawo, wasungula iHigher School of Humanistic Study yezobuchwepheshe obuphakeme.

Umjaho wezincwadi

e 1966, umbhali kuboniswe ngezindaba ezimbalwa zezingane: Ibhomu kanye noGeneral y Osomajukujuku abathathu. Eminyakeni eyishumi nane kamuva washicilela inoveli eyamholela ekutheni abe nesibindi: Igama le-rose (1980). Ngokwengeziwe, umbhali wabhala imisebenzi eyisithupha, phakathi kwayo okulandelayo kugqama: I-pendulum kaFoucault (1988) futhi UBaudolino Reina Loana (2000).

Eco waphinde wazibandakanya nokuzijwayeza, uhlobo lapho ethule khona cishe imisebenzi engama-50 ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-60. Phakathi kwemibhalo, okulandelayo kugqama: Vula umsebenzi (1962), I-Apocalyptic futhi ihlanganiswe (1964), Isibusiso sikaLiebana (1973), Ukwelashwa kwama-semiotic ajwayelekile (1975), Ubuncane besibili bansuku zonke (1992) futhi Yakha isitha (2013).

Ukufa

Umberto Eco walwa isikhathi eside nomdlavuza wepancreatic. Kuthinteke kakhulu kulesi sifo, ushone ngoLwesibili ngoFebhuwari 19, 2016 edolobheni laseMilan.

Amanoveli wombhali

  • Igama le-rose(1980)
  • I-pendulum kaFoucault(1988)
  • Isiqhingi sangezolo(1994)
  • Baudolino(2000)
  • Ilangabi eliyindida leNdlovukazi uLoana(2004)
  • Amathuna asePrague(2010)
  • Inombolo zero(2015)

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.