Yintoni ukuKhanya

Gubungela into enguMzekeliso

Ukhanyiso yayiyintshukumo yenkcubeko eyazala ingqondo. Ngokuqhelekileyo yaziwa njengeXesha lokuKhanya, i-XNUMX. Yayiyintshukumo engazange itshintshe nje uNcwadi kuphela, ikwaquka ubuGcisa, iSayensi, iFilosofi nePolitiki, kwaye yayikhuthaza imibutho yezentlalo, efana neFrentshi Revolution.

Ebudeni besiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kweye-XNUMX, ukuKhanya kwasasazeka kwiiholo zabaphengululi neengqondi yaye kwanceda ekuphuculeni ihlabathi. Noko ke, mhlawumbi leyo yayikwalityala lakhe. Kwelinye icala, yayikhuthaza ukudilizwa kwemiqobo, kodwa kwasekwa nemitsha. Ngamafutshane, yayiyintshukumo yoohlohlesakhe.

Imvelaphi kunye nomxholo woKhanya

Yathiywa ngokuba liXesha loKhanya ngenxa yokuba yavela ngenjongo yokubonelela ukukhanya kwiziseko ze<em>obscurantist apho ubomi bezobupolitika noboluntu babusekelwe phezu kwazo, unqulo lunandipha indawo ekhethekileyo. Eli butho lamandulo laliphawulwe ngokungazi nokukholelwa. Iinkolelo zakudala, ukungakwazi ukufunda nokubhala kunye neklasi kunye nolawulo lwezomkhosi lwaqhubeka lulawula kude kube ngoko. Ukusuka phezulu ukuya ezantsi. Amandla obukumkani nawo ayengenakuthandabuzeka, kuba ookumkani babelawula kwaye benjenjalo ngenxa yokuba babenyulwe nguThixo.

Kwaye nangona ukuKhanya kukhuthaze utshintsho oluninzi, baphuthuma ekuqhubekeni okuqhubekayo okwahlula abenzi bezigqibo ebantwini. Ke ngoko, amandla akhawulwa ngokuthe nkqo kwakhona. Babefuna ukwenza indlela yokuphucula wonke umntu, kodwa ngaphandle kokubala kuwo onke amanqwanqwa asekuhlaleni. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, ngokuqinisekileyo kuya kusebenza ngelo xesha ukufezekisa utshintsho lwenkcubeko kunye nentlalo kamva. Ke, inkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba iza kuzisa utshintsho olutsha kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo ezinqamlezileyo zentlalo.

Isaluni kaMam Geoffrin

ISalon kaMadame Geoffrin (1812), umzobo nguCharles Gabriel Lemonnier.

Izixhobo

  • I-Despotism Ekhanyiselweyo: amagunya awela kuhlobo lobutata kunye nabantu. Babefuna ukufundisa abantu ngemiyalelo yoKhanya ngenkolelo yokwenza okona kulungileyo kubemi, kodwa ngaphandle kokubabandakanya. Laye ke igunya lihleli kukumkani.
  • I-Anthropocentrism: UThixo uyasuswa ngumntu.
  • Ukuhlengahlengiswa: ingqondo yongamela ukholo.
  • Pragmatism kunye nesiphumo somgca wefilosofi we-Utilitarian. Okunxibelelene ngokusondeleyo ne-pedagogy nokubaluleka kokufunda kuphela izifundo ezinokusetyenziswa.
  • Ukuxelisa: iinzame zokubuyela kubabhali beklasikhi (neoclassicism).
  • Iingcamango: ngokwenza ngathi bakude kude nokwenyani kunye nokukrwada kunye nokufuna ubuhle, babuye bazihlukanise nabantu kunye neemfuno zabo zokwenyani. Kukwaliwa okudumileyo.
  • I-Universalism: ibuyela kwimvelaphi yakudala yoncwadi kunye nefilosofi. Yintoni jikelele kwinkcubeko yaseNtshona, kodwa kwakhona ayibhekiseli kwimeko yokwenyani yabantu.

Ukukhanya eYurophu

Ukuthetha ngoKhanya kuthetha nge Inzululwazi (Encyclopédie) UDenis Diderot noJean le Rond d'Alembert, ababephethe ulungelelwaniso. Kwabizwa kwakhona Isichazi-magama esinengqiqo senzululwazi, ubugcisa kunye nemisebenzi yezandla Sisicatshulwa esinabileyo esizama ukubandakanya ulwazi loonobumba kunye nolo lwecandelo lezenzululwazi ngokwembono yepragmatic.. Abalinganiswa abakhulu abanjengoVoltaire okanye uRousseau babambisane kulo mbhalo. Yapapashwa ngowe-1751 eFransi yaye ngokuqinisekileyo ngowona msebenzi ubalulekileyo wenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Ulwimi lwesiFrentshi yayiyeyona ndlela yokudlulisa izimvo ngeli xesha.. Kujongwe kakuhle, imisebenzi emikhulu yabhalwa ngolu lwimi. Noko ke, ukongezelela eFransi, ukhanyiselo lwalunentsingiselo ekhethekileyo eNgilani naseJamani. IsiNgesi, isiJamani, okanye iSpanish sigcwele iiGallicisms.

Kuncwadi, ezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo yayizezohlobo lwamandulo: intlekele nomdlalo ohlekisayo kwithiyetha neentsomi ezininzi nezihlekisayo ezazikhuthaza ukufunda ngeemfundiso zokuziphatha. Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwemisebenzi yobunzulu obukhulu yathetha ngoQoqosho kunye neFilosofi; phakathi kwababhali bayo ababalaseleyo nguAdam Smith (Ubutyebi Bezizwe), uImmanuel Kant, uDavid Hume, iMontesquieu, kunye noVoltaire kunye noRousseau, kunjalo. URené Descartes okanye uJohn Locke babengumthombo wokhuthazo kubo bonke.

Imbali enemifanekiso yaseYurophu

Kukwafanelekile ukubiza abanye ababhali ababhala iintsomi kwaye abathi ngemisebenzi yabo nabo banegalelo kwinkulungwane yeshumi elinesibhozo nasemva koko. Kuba yayingabo iphuhlise inoveli yanamhlanje:

  • UDaniel Defoe: Robinson crusoe (1719). Libali elaziwayo lendoda eyachitha phantse iminyaka engama-30 kwisiqithi esisentlango emva kokuba inqanawa eyayihamba ngayo yaphukelwa yinqanawa.
  • UJonathan Swift: Uhambo lukaGulliver (1726). Inoveli ye-adventure, ilizwe laseLilliput, apho kwenzeka khona isenzo kunye nabemi bayo, iiLilliputians, nazo zidume kakhulu.
  • U-Laurence Sterne:Vida kunye neembono zendoda Tristram Shandy (1759) yiklasikhi ebalaseleyo kubuchule bokubalisa obusebenzisa kunye nemonologue yangaphakathi kunye nemibuzo ehlekisayo.
  • UPierre Choderlos de LaclosUbuhlobo obuyingozi (1782) yinoveli yeencwadi.
  • UDonatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, owaziwa ngokuba ngu UMarquis de Sade: ngomnye wababhali abaphikisana kakhulu kwixesha lonke. Igama lakhe lisebenze ukongeza igama elitsha kwisichazi-magama, Usizi (isichazi: lusizi), ngenxa yeenkcukacha ezingenalusini zemibhalo yakhe, kwakunye neengxoxo zakhe ezizaliswe bubugqwetha. Kodwa iincwadi zakhe, nangona zinempikiswano, zinempoxo okanye zingenazo, nazo zizama ngendlela yazo ukufundisa umfundi. Zigqamile: UJustine okanye amashwa okulunga (1791) Ifilosofi kwitafile yokunxiba (1795) okanye Iintsuku ezingama-120 zeSodom okanye isikolo sokuziphatha okubi yabhalwa ngo-1785, kodwa yapapashwa kwiminyaka emininzi kamva.
Royal Spanish Academy

Ikomkhulu eMadrid yeRoyal Spanish Academy.

Ukukhanya eSpain

Imeko yezopolitiko eSpeyin kwisiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-1759 yayimi ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: ulawulo lweBourbon lukaCarlos III (1788-1788) kunye noCarlos IV (1808-XNUMX). Abalawuli be-Absolutist abakwiindawo zabo iingcamango ezikhanyiselweyo kunye nenkqubela phambili yeYurophu ehambele phambili ayizange ingene ngamandla aneleyo. Akunjalo eFransi, ubuncinci. ESpeyin, ezona mfundiso zesithethe nezonqulo lwamaKatolika zaziye zendele ngokunzulu kwiingqondo namasiko abantu baseSpeyin., ongazange alukhuthaze utshintsho.

Kuya kufuneka silinde kude kube yinkulungwane ye-XNUMX ukuba kuthathwe u-Carlos IV, kwaye ukuba kubekho ubukhosi obuqhubekayo eSpain kunye nokuchukumisa isiFrentshi, ukuze abona bantu baseSpain basulungekisiweyo babe ngabaFrentshi kwaye yonke into iphele ekugqibeleni. imfazwe yokuzimela kunye nokubuya kweyona nto ininzi yensimbi absolutism ngesandla "sokufunwa", uFernando VII.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, Kwinqanaba lenkcubeko, ukudalwa kweRoyal Spanish Academy (1713) ibalasele, ukusukela ngoko ibiphethe "ukucoca, ukulungisa nokunika ubukhazikhazi" kulwimi lwethu., kunye neRoyal Academy of Fine Arts yaseSan Fernando (1752), iAcademy of History (1738) okanye yintoni namhlanje iMyuziyam yeSizwe yeeSayensi zeNdalo, phakathi kwamanye amaziko abaluleke kakhulu kunye nodumo. Ngokunjalo, uMbutho wezoQoqosho waBahlobo beLizwe yayiliqela eliphakamileyo nelikrelekrele elasekwa zizidwangube ezithile zelo xesha kwaye ladlula kumanqanaba ahlukeneyo, kodwa lingazange lilahle ubuntu balo.

Jovellanos nguGoya

Ukupeyintwa kweGM de Jovellanos (1798), nguGoya.

Ababhali baseSpain benkulungwane ye-XNUMX

  • UFray Benito Jeronimo Feijoo (1676-1764). Imonki yaseBenedictine, wayengumntu obalulekileyo kwimisebenzi yesincoko kunye nokucinga okugxekayo. Eyona misebenzi yakhe ibalulekileyo yile Ithiyetha ebalulekileyo yeHlabathi (1726) kunye Iileta zokufunda kunye nezinomdla (1742).
  • Gregory Mayans (1699-1781). Njengombhali-mbali okhanyiselweyo, wayebaluleke kakhulu kwisincoko sembali kwaye imisebenzi yakhe ibalasele ngokungqongqo kwayo. Umsebenzi wakhe obaluleke kakhulu: Imvelaphi yolwimi lwesiSpanish (1737).
  • UGaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811). Ukongeza ekubhaleni izincoko ezahlukeneyo ngezoqoqosho okanye ezolimo (obaluleke kakhulu ngumsebenzi wakhe Ingxelo ngomthetho wezolimo), igalelo kwimizobo yeSpanish yangoku umdlalo ohlekisayo obhalwe kwiprozi, Isaphuli-mthetho esinyanisekileyo (1787), eyakhiwe ngaphakathi kule thiyetha esulungekileyo yoKhanya.
  • Jose de Cadalso (1741-1782). Umbalisi omkhulu waseSpain wenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Baqaqambisa ezabo Amakhadi aseMorocco (1789), incwadi egqwesileyo kwifomu ye-epistolary ngondwendwe lwaseSpain kunye nomntu wasemzini obalaseleyo wemvelaphi yaseMoroccan ozama ukufunda amasiko anomdla kunye namasiko athile aseSpanish. Ikwabalulekile ubusuku obumnyama (1789-1790), ingoma emnandi nelusizi yogcino-zidumbu, nangona ikufutshane neSpanish pre-romanticism.
  • UJuan Melendez Valdes (1754-1814), ummeli omkhulu wezibongo zaseSpain zenkulungwane yeshumi elinesibhozo.
  • Thomas wase-Iriarte (1750-1791) kunye Felix Maria Samaniego (1745-1801) imele intsomi yokufundisa yoncwadi lweSpanish olunemifanekiso.
  • ULeandro Fernández de Moratín (1760-1828) wayengoyena mdlali ubalulekileyo wenkulungwane ye-XNUMX eSpain. Amahlaya akhe agqamile Ixhego nentombi (1790) Ewe yamantombazana (1805), ngokunjalo i-comedy entsha (1792)

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UVladimir Portela sitsho

    Igqithiswe ngokupheleleyo. Ngelo xesha kwakungaziwa ukuba ubukrelekrele (iq) babusasazwa ngokwesiqhelo. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, namhlanje siyazi ukuba liqela leengcali zaseFransi ezazicinga ukuba ngokubala okunengqiqo ubomi obungcono bunokwenzeka. Masibhiyozele ukuba namhlanje into esiyaziyo kukuba akunjalo. Thina bantu baseHispanics sasingenazo izibane. Ezo yayizii-trinkets ezivela kwamanye amazwe.
    Masingakholelwa eFransi. Ungaze.

    1.    Belen Martin sitsho

      Molo Vladimir! Enkosi ngezimvo zakho. Inene, ndizamile ukudlulisa umyalezo wokuba ukhanyiso ibingeyontshukumo yomntu wonke nokuba, njengayo yonke enye into, ibinokwenziwa ngcono. Kwakhona, izibane zaseLatin America zazimfiliba kakhulu! Kunjalo. Konke okugqibelele.