Umnxeba kaCthulhu

Umnxeba kaCthulhu

Umnxeba kaCthulhu

Umnxeba kaCthulhu -Umnxeba waseCthulhu, ngesiNgesi - yinto yobugcisa yombhali waseMelika u-HP Lovecraft. Eli bali lapapashwa ngo-1928 laqala into ebizwa ngokuba "ngumjikelo woncwadi weentsomi zaseCthulhu", uthotho lwamabali kunye neenoveli zokoyikiswa kwezomhlaba. Yiseti yamabali ahambelana nezidalwa zakudala zasemhlabeni ezibuyayo okanye ezivusayo ukuphinda ziphumelele kwiplanethi.

Ukubaluleka kamva komfanekiso waseCthulhu ngaphakathi kwenkcubeko yaseMelika akunakuphikwa.: Iincwadi, imidlalo yebhodi, ii-comics, iifutshane ezimanyelwayo, iifilimu, imidlalo yevidiyo ... Ngoku, elona nani likhulu lezinto ezoyikisayo zenzekile emculweni, (kwiingoma ngamaqela adumileyo kwihlabathi jikelele afana neMetallica okanye i-Iron Maiden, umzekelo).

Isishwankathelo se Umnxeba kaCthulhu

yokuqalisa

Ubusika 1926 - 1927. UFrances Wayland Thurson, ummi owaziwayo waseBoston, waziswa ngokusweleka kukatatomkhulu wakhe, NguGeorge G. Angell. Eyokugqibela yayi Unjingalwazi owaziwayo weeLwimi AmaSemite kwiYunivesithi yaseBrown. Ngokubhekisele ekufeni kukho iinguqulelo ezimbini: eyaseburhulumenteni, ngenxa yokubanjwa kwentliziyo okwenzekileyo ngelixa utitshala ekhwela ethambekeni kufutshane nezibuko.

Endaweni yoko, ingxelo yesibini (evela kwamanye amangqina) igcina ukuba indoda emnyama yatyhala unjingalwazi ezantsi kwethambeka. Ukuba yindlalifa yakhe yedwa, UThurson ufumana onke amaxwebhu ophando kunye nezinto zobuqu ku-Angell. Phakathi kweetekisi kunye neefenitshala, kukho ibhokisi engaqhelekanga enemifanekiso yoxande enemibhalo efana ne-hieroglyphic.

I-Enigma kwisiqabu esiphantsi

UFrances uguqulela umfanekiso oqingqiweyo njengommeli wesidalwa esingaqhelekanga esithweswe isithsaba kwaye singqongwe sisakhiwo esithile esiphazamisayo se-monolithic. Ngokunjalo, ebhokisini kukho ukusikwa kwamaphephandaba; enye yezo zithetha "ngonqulo lwaseCthulhu." Amagama amabini avela kaninzi ecaleni kweendaba ezibhaliweyo: UHenry Anthony Wilcox noJohn Raymond Legrasse.

UWilcox wayengumfundi ome kwiRhode Island School of Fine Arts owabonisa umfanekiso (osesentsha) woxande kuNjingalwazi Angell ngo-Matshi 1925. Umfundi wathi ukukrolwa kwavela kwimibono awayenayo yesixeko esimnyama Yama-monoliths amakhulu amnyama afakwe kwi-moss. Kwakhona, uHenry wathi uvile umyalezo "Cthulhu Fhtagn."

Umbhalo wokuqala obhaliweyo

U-Angell wagcina irekhodi ebhaliweyo yako konke ukudibana kwakhe noWilcox. Okwangoku, umfundi wahlushwa ngumkhuhlane ongaqhelekanga iintsuku ezininzi kunye ne-amnesia yethutyana elandelayo. Kwimeko nayiphi na into, uprofesa waqhubeka nokuphanda; ifunyenwe kuvavanyo lokuba umbono kaHenry uhambelana nemibono efanayo yezinye iimbongi kunye namagcisa.

Ukongeza, Ukucinywa kweendaba kubonise iziqendu zokoyika kunye nokuzibulala kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zehlabathi ezenzeka ngaxeshanye nexesha likaHilcox. Kwangokunjalo, kwizibhedlele ezininzi izigulana ziye zafumana “umbono omyoli” obonisa isigebenga esikhulu esigcwele intente kunye nesixeko esimangalisayo.

Ihlelo

Omnye wemibhalo-ngqangi ka-Angell ususela kwiminyaka eli-17 kwaye Thetha ngeLegrasse. Lo yayingumhloli wamapolisa obandakanyeka kuphando lokulahleka okungummangaliso kwabasetyhini nabantwana kwidolophu yaseLouisiana. Kwakhona, umcuphi Kubonakala ngathi ibingamangqina okuzibonela amahlelo aseCthulhu (uvavanyo lwalunomfanekiso oqingqiweyo kuqokelelwe kolunye lwezi zithethe).

Kwinkomfa yezinto zakudala yaseSt. umcuphi wabhenela kwiingcali ezahlukeneyo ukuze achonge lo mfanekiso. Kuphela ngumhloli wamazwe kunye nesazi ngemvelaphi yabantu uWilliam Webb owathi wabona nantoni na efanayo kunxweme olusentshona lweGreenland. Ezi ziganeko zenzeka ngonyaka we-1860, xa uWebb wadibana nesizwe samaEskimo ansundu ngokuziphatha okucekisekayo.

Ibanjwa

"UCastro omdala" waye wagocagocwa liqela likaLegrasse ngo-1907 emva kokubanjwa eNew Orleans ngexesha lesiko elaliquka ukubingelela ngabantu. U-Castro kunye namanye amabanjwa bachonge lo mfanekiso "njengombingeleli omkhulu uCthulhu," i-interstellar entity elinde ukuvuka "xa iinkwenkwezi zazinomdla."

Emva koko, abathinjwa batolike ingoma yabo -Ukuqhelanisa naleyo yamaEskimo- kunye negama: "Kwikhaya lakhe eR'leyh, uCthulhu ongasekhoyo ulinde ukuphupha". Emva kokufunda umbhalo wesibini, uThurson uyaqonda ukuba ukusweleka kukatatomkhulu wakhe akubanga ngengozi. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, uqala ukwesaba ubomi bakhe, kuba "sele esazi kakhulu."

Isixeko esibuhlungu

Ndiyoyika, UFrances ulahla uphando lwehlelo laseCthulhu (Wayekhe wadibana noWilcox noLegrasse). Kodwa ifayile yobuntatheli kwikhaya lomhlobo onomfanekiso wesitofu (ofana nomhloli) uvuselele ubuqili babo. Iindaba ekubhekiswa kuzo zibalisa imeko yenqanawa - iEmma- eyahlangulwa elwandle kunye nosindileyo owenzakeleyo, uGustaf Johansen.

Ngaphandle komatiloshe owothukileyo owalayo ukunika iinkcukacha zeziganeko, UFrances ufumanisa okwenzekileyo kwidayari kaJohansen. Kuyabonakala ukuba uEmma wahlaselwa yenye inqanawa, Isilumkiso. Emva koko amaxhoba abaleke ajongana nomphezulu wesixeko “sase-R'lyeh”. Apho, uGustaf kunye namaqabane akhe babona ukuzalwa kwakhona kukaCthulhu.

Ukuvuka

UGustaf ukwazile ukubetha i-monster enkulu entloko xa wayeyixhoma ngenqanawa. Ukusukela ngoko, akakho omnye umntu owaziwayo ukuba usibonile isidalwa. Kungekudala emva kokuhlangulwa, umatiloshe wafunyanwa ekrokrela ukuba ufile. Ngenxa yoko, uThurson ukholelwa ukuba abalandeli bakaCthulhu bazakuzama ukumbulala ngenxa yayo yonke into ayaziyo.

Ekugqibeleni, UFrances oshiye umhlala-phantsi uyabamkela ubukho bezinto ezivela kwamanye amazwe nangemibuzo engaphaya kokuqonda komntu. Ngaphambi kokuvalelisa, uThurson uthi isixeko kunye ne-monster yaseCthulhu kufuneka zitshonile, ngaphandle koko, "Umhlaba ubuza kukhala ngokungcangcazela". Ukubonakaliswa kokugqibela kwe-protagonist kufunda oku kulandelayo:

Ngubani owaziyo isiphelo? Okuvelileyo ngoku kungatshona kwaye okutshonileyo kungavela. Isikizi silinda namaphupha enzonzobileni yolwandle nangaphezulu kokutshatyalaliswa kwamadolophu abantu. Umhla uya kuza, kodwa andifanele kwaye andinakucinga ngawo. Ukuba andisindisi lo mbhalo-ngqangi, ndiyabongoza abo babethethe kum ukuba ubulumko babo bugqwese ubukrelekrele babo kwaye bayinqande ingangeni phantsi kwamehlo. "

Sobre el autor

UWoward Phillips Lovecraft wazalwa ngo-Agasti 20, 1890, eProvidence, eRhode Island, eUnited States. Ukhulele kusapho lwe-bourgeois olunotyekelo lweklasi (ucalucalulo oluphawuleka ikakhulu kumama wakhe okhuselekileyo). Ngokuka, Umbhali uphuhlise umbono we-elitist kwaye weza ukubonisa ubuhlanga bakhe izihlandlo ezininzi (kubonakala kwimibhalo yakhe).

Nangona uLovecraft wachitha ixesha elininzi lobomi bakhe kwidolophu yakowabo, wayehlala eNew York phakathi konyaka we-1924 nowe-1927.. Kwi-Big Apple watshata nomrhwebi kunye nomlobi ongahlawulwayo uSonia Greene. Kodwa esi sibini sahlukana kwiminyaka emibini kamva kwaye umbhali wabuyela eProvidence. Apho wasweleka ngo-Matshi 15, 1937, ngenxa yomhlaza emathunjini amancinci.

Ulwakhiwo

Phakathi konyaka we-1898 nowe-1935, ULovecraft ugqibe ngaphezulu kwama-60 opapasho phakathi kwamabali amafutshane, amabali kunye neenoveli. Nangona kunjalo, akazange aluzuze udumo ebomini. Ngapha koko, yayiqala ngonyaka we-1960 xa umbhali waseMelika waqala ukufumana udumo njengomyili wamabali ayoyikisayo.

Eminye yemisebenzi yakhe eyaziwa kakhulu

  • Umnxeba kaCthulhu
  • Isithunzi selinye ixesha
  • Kwiintaba zempambano
  • Ityala likaCharles Dexter Ward
  • Iikati zikaUlthar
  • Kwelinye icala lomqobo wephupha
  • Ukukhangela kumaphupha eKadath engaziwayo
  • Isithunzi ngaphaya kwe-Innsmouth.

Impembelelo kaCthulhu kuncwadi lwamva kunye nobugcisa

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, umsebenzi kaLovecraft uguqulelwe kwiilwimi ezingaphezulu kwamashumi amabini anesihlanu kwaye igama lakhe liyimbekiselo engenakuphikiswa kwiintsomi ezothusayo ze-cosmic. Yintoni egqithisile, Iintsomi zaseCthulhu zinefuthe kubalandeli abaninzi, ngoobani ababephethe "ukonga" ilifa likaLovecraft. Phakathi kwabo kukho uAugust Derleth, uClark Ashton Smith, uRobert E. Howard, uFritz Leiber noRobert Bloch.

Abanye ababhali ababhekise kuCthulhu

  • URay Bradbury
  • UStephen King
  • UClive Barker
  • URobert Shea
  • URobert Anton Wilson
  • UJoyce Carol Oates
  • UGilles Deleuze
  • UFeliks Guattari.

IiKhomikhi kunye neekomikhi

  • UPhillip Druillet, uJosep María Beà kunye noAllan Moore (bobathathu benza ulungelelwaniso lwantlandlolo olusekwe kwisilo saseLovecraftian)
  • UDennis O'Neil, umzobi wekhathuni Batman (Isixeko saseArkham, umzekelo, sayilwa nguLovecraft).

Ubugcisa beSixhenxe

  • Ibhotwe laseHaunted (Ngo-1963), nguRoger Corman
  • Into evela kwelinye ilizwe (Ngo-1951), nguWoward Hawks
  • Umfokazi: umkhweli wesibhozo (1979), nguRidley Scott
  • Into (Ngo-1982), nguJohn Carpenter
  • Re-nokuveza (1985), nguStuart Gordon
  • Umkhosi wobumnyama (Ngo-1992), nguSam Raimi
  • Umbala ngaphandle kwendawo (Ngo-2019), nguRichard Stanley.

umculo

Iibhendi zentsimbi

  • Ingelosi ekhathazayo
  • Inceba Ebubele
  • Metallica
  • Indawo yokungcola
  • Ukubandezeleka kwangaphakathi
  • Umsebenzi wentsimbi

I-Psychedelic rock kunye ne-blues artists

  • UClaudio Gabis
  • Lovecraft (ngokwamaqela).

Abaqambi bomculo weokhestra

  • IChad fifer
  • Igumbi leCyro
  • UGraham Plowman.

Videogames

  • Ndedwa ebumnyameni, Ibanjwa loMkhenkce y Isithunzi seCometngeeNkcazo.
  • Ifowuni yeCthulhu: IiKona eziMnyama zoMhlabanguBethesda Softworks
  • Umnxeba kaCthulhu: Umdlalo weVidiyo kaRhulumente (umdlalo odlala indima kwi-Intanethi) yiCyanide Studio.

Ukugxekwa kwe "lovecraftian formula"

Iintsomi zaseCthulhu zithathwa njengentshukumo yokubhala ngokwayo ngabaphengululi abaninzi kwihlabathi liphela. Nangona kunjalo, I-Lovecraft ikwajolise ekugxekweni ngokusebenzisa isimbo sokudibanisa -Ngokutsho kwababhali abanjengoJorge Luis Borges okanye uJulio Coltázar, umzekelo- elula kwaye enokuxelwa kwangaphambil.

Ngaphandle koku, abanye abafundi baye baqwalasele Incwadi yesanti (1975) nguBorges njengerhafu kuLovecraft. Kodwa amanye amazwi akholelwa ukuba injongo yokwenyani yobukrelekrele baseArgentina yayikukubonisa ukungahambelani kwifomula yaseLovecraftian. Kwinxalenye yayo, kwisincoko sakhe Amanqaku kwiGothic kwiRío de la Plata (1975), UColtázar wabhekisa kumbhali WaseMerika ngoku Landelayo:

Indlela kaLovecraft iphambili. Phambi kokuba wenze imicimbi engaphaya kwendalo okanye emangalisayo, ukuqhubeka nokunyusa kancinci ikhethini kuthotho oluphindaphindiweyo kunye nolonwabisayo lweendawo ezoyikisayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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