Ukuhanjiswa koncwadi unanamhla

Namhlanje siyalonwabela uncwadi lwethu lwangoku kunye nezo zakudala ezashiywa ngababhali abadumileyo ngaphambi kokuba bahambe, kodwa luza njani uncwadi kwimihla yethu? Ngaba ikhona into oyaziyo malunga nesiko loncwadi? Ukuba ukhe wazibuza ukuba ingaba le nto iye yabambisa njani uninzi lwethu isasazekile ukutyhubela iinkulungwane, hlala ufunde eli nqaku kunye nathi. Kuyo sikuxelela Ukuhanjiswa koncwadi ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje.

Isiko loncwadi

Xa sithetha ngesiko loncwadi sithetha ngeseti yemisebenzi eyenziweyo kwimbali yonke. Le seti yemisebenzi yenza imvelaphi ababhali, bobabini abakhoyo nabadala, abayisebenzisa njenge Modelo kwindalo yakho.

La Isiko lokubhala laseSpain Yenziwe yimisebenzi ebibhalwe eSpain kule minyaka idlulileyo, kodwa igcina ubudlelwane obusondeleyo ne Uncwadi lwamanye amazwe njengesiFrentshi, isiTaliyane, isiNgesi, njl. Umzekelo: iPinocchio okanye iGulliver ayizizo ezoncwadi lwaseSpain, nangona kunjalo zingabalinganiswa abayinxalenye yesiko lethu.

Uncwadi lwaseSpain lwenziwa kwisithethe sasentshona soncwadi, nolunye uncwadi lwaseYurophu naseMelika oluyinxalenye yazo. Isithethe soncwadi saqala ukubakho kwifomathi ye- IGrisi yakudala Kwiinkulungwane ezingama-28 ezedlulileyo kwaye yandiswa ngegalelo elenziwa ngababhali be IRoma yakudala ngenxa ye isithethe sebhayibhile. IRoma, iGrisi kunye nebhayibhile zanikela ngemixholo kunye nezitayile ezathi kwiinkulungwane kamva zasebenza kwaye ziyaqhubeka ukukhuthaza ababhali baseYurophu nabaseMelika.

Inkqubo yokuhanjiswa koncwadi

Inkqubo evumele ukuhanjiswa koncwadi kule minyaka idlulileyo isebenza ngoluhlobo: Umbhali uthatha iimpikiswano ezikhoyo, imixholo kunye nabalinganiswa azibandakanye nomsebenzi wakhe ngenkqubo yenguqu; emva koko, lo msebenzi mtsha uba ngumthombo wenkuthazo kwabanye.

Umzekelo wale nkqubo libali lomlinganiswa oceba ikamva lakhe kodwa aphulukane nayo yonke into. Le ntsomi inemvelaphi yakudala kwaye ihleli nanamhlanje. Okulandelayo, siza kubona ukuba eli bali liye lavela njani ngokuhamba kwexesha ngokusebenzisa izicatshulwa ezintsha zoncwadi:

I-Panchatantra

 

Kumsebenzi wakudala we uncwadi lwaseIndiya, i I-Panchatantra, Kuqokelelwa ibali apho ophambili wakhe liBrahmin elihlwempuzekileyo eliphupha ngezibonelelo eziza kumzisela ukuthengisa umpheki wakhe werayisi, kodwa ngempazamo imbiza iyaqhekeka. Ibali liqala ngolu hlobo:

Endaweni ethile kwakuhlala iBrahmin egama linguSvabhakripana, eyayinembiza egcwele irayisi eyayinikwe yona njengesipho. Waxhoma le mbiza kwisikhonkwane eseludongeni, wabeka ibhedi yakhe phantsi kwayo kwaye wachitha ubusuku ejonge ngaphandle kokuthatha amehlo akhe kuyo, ecinga ngolu hlobo: -Le mbiza igcwele umgubo welayisi. Ukuba ixesha lendlala lifikile ngoku, ndingafumana ikhulu leesilivere kuye. Ngeengqekembe ndiza kuthenga iibhokhwe ezimbalwa. Kuba ezi zizala rhoqo kwiinyanga ezintandathu, ndiza kuqokelela umhlambi uphela. Ndiza kuthenga ngeebhokhwe ...

UCalla e Dimna

Ibali liza eNtshona nge ingqokelela yama-arabic yamabali anezihloko UCalla e Dimna. Ngeli xesha, umlinganiswa ophambili unqulo kwaye into leyo yingqayi enobusi kunye nebhotolo:

«Bathi inkolo ifumana amalizo yonke imihla endlwini yendoda esisityebi; Amnika isonka, ibhotolo, ubusi nezinye izinto. Utye isonka kunye nokunye okuseleyo; Ubeke ubusi kunye nebhotolo engqayini de yagcwala. Wayenayo ingqayi entlokweni yebhedi yakhe. Kwafika ixesha apho ubusi kunye nebhotolo yabiza kakhulu, kwaye umbingeleli wathi kuye ngenye imini, ehleli ebhedini: ».

UDon Juan Manuel

Ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, Iintsana uDon Juan Manuel uthathe umxholo ebalini eneenkwenkwezi emfazini ophethe ingqayi yobusi:

"Bala," watsho uPetronio, "kwakukho umfazi ogama linguDona Truhana, ehlwempuzekile kunesisityebi, owathi ngenye imini waya emarikeni ethwele imbiza yobusi entloko." Ngokuya esihla ngendlela, waqala wacinga ukuba uza kuyithengisa loo mbiza yobusi kwaye uza kuthenga iqhekeza lamaqanda ngale mali, apho amantshontsho aye aqandusele khona, kwaye ekuhambeni kwexesha uza kuthengisa iinkukhu ngaloo mali. Wayeza kuthenga iigusha, kwaye ke wayethenga ngenzuzo ade abe sisityebi kunabanye abamelwane bakhe.

Ibali le «La lechera», ngu-Félix María Samaniego

Kwiinkulungwane ezintlanu emva kokubhalwa kukaDon Juan Manuel, uFélix María Samaniego ubhala ingxelo entsha yebali kwivesi:

Unxibe entloko

intombi yobisi ingqayi yemarike

ngaloo nto,

umoya olula, olo lonwabo, 

Lowo uthi kuye wonke umntu okubonayo:

Ndonwabile ngethamsanqa lam!

... umfazi wobisi onwabileyo uhambe yedwa,

Bathetha omnye komnye ngolu hlobo:

Olu bisi luthengisiwe,

ngokulungileyo izakundinika imali engaka ... ».

Kwaye kude kube namhlanje, de sibe namazwi abhalwe nguShakespeare, nguNeruda, nguCervantes, nguGarcía Márquez, nguBenedetti, nangabanye abaninzi, abaphambili nabakhulu ngonaphakade ... izicatshulwa ezenza ukuba ziqhubeke ngexesha, kangangeenkulungwane ezininzi ukudlula.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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