UGerardo diego

Caphulelwa nguGerardo Diego.

Caphulelwa nguGerardo Diego.

UGerardo Diego Cendoya wayeyimbongi nombhali waseSpain, ethathwa njengelinye lawona malungu abalulekileyo abizwa ngokuba sisizukulwana se-27. Kwikhondo lakhe lobungcali, wabonakala njengoprofesa kuncwadi nakumculo. Ukuphatha kwakhe ipiyano kwakubalasele. Kunye namanye amalungu ombutho okhankanywe ngentla wobugcisa kunye nefilosofi, wakhokela ekudalweni kwembali edumileyo.

Ngokufanayo, wakhokela "ukuphinda kufunyanwe kwakhona gongorism." Le yayiyinkcubeko ekumgangatho ophezulu ngexesha leSpanish Golden Age enjongo yayo yayikukuphakamisa umsebenzi waseGóngora. Ukuya esiphelweni sobomi bakhe, Umsebenzi wokubhala ka-Diego wawongwa nge-1979 Miguel de Cervantes Prize (ngokudibeneyo noJorge Luis Borges).

I-Biography

Ubuntwana kunye nezifundo

Wazalelwa eSantander, nge-3 ka-Okthobha ka-1896. Kwintsapho yabarhwebi bempahla eyolukiweyo, eyamvumela uqeqesho lobukrelekrele. Inyaniso, UGerardo oselula wakwazi ukugqwesa kwithiyori yomculo, ipiyano, ukupeyinta kunye neeklasi zoncwadi. Ukongeza, umgxeki owaziwayo uNarciso Alonso Cortés wayengomnye wabahlohli bakhe. Wafaka kuye uthando lweeleta.

KwiDyunivesithi yaseDeusto wafunda ifilosofi kunye neeleta. Apho wadibana noJuan Larrea, awathi naye waseka ubuhlobo obuphambili kubomi bakhe boncwadi. Nokuba ku, ugqirha ekugqibeleni wabufumana kwiDyunivesithi yaseMadrid. Kule ndlu yezifundo wafumana usihlalo woLwimi noNcwadi, isifundo awathi kamva wasifundisa kwiindawo ezifana neSoria, Cantabria, Asturias neMadrid.

Imisebenzi yokuqala

Ibali Ibhokisi kaTatomkhulu (Ngo-1918) yayiyincwadi yakhe yoncwadi, epapashwe ngo Iphephandaba laseMontañes. Kwakhona, ngeli xesha ibambisene nemithombo yeendaba eyahlukeneyo yokuprinta. Phakathi kwabo, Iphepha leGrail, Imagazini yaseCastellana. Ubhalele amaphephancwadi avant-garde anje EGrisi, Ukucingisisa o ingawenzi. Kwikomkhulu laseSpain, waqala ukuya rhoqo e-athenaeum kunye nokuzondla ngomsebenzi wobugcisa olawulayo kwii-20s zokuqala.

Ukuthandana komtshakazi (Ngo-1920) yincwadi yakhe yokuqala yemibongo. Kule tekisi, impembelelo kaJuan Ramón Jiménez kunye nokuncamathiselwa kwakhe kwiindlela zesiko ziyabonakala. Nangona kunjalo, emva kokuhlala nje okwexeshana eParis, uGerardo Diego waqala ukuthembela kwimikhwa ye-avant-garde. Ezi zinxulunyaniswa nendalo kunye neengoma ezinengoma emnandi.

Indaleko eya kwisitayile se-avant-garde

Ikomkhulu laseFrance lazisa imbongi evela eSantander kufutshane ne cubism. Ukusuka kuloo mava waqala ukudibanisa imixholo emibini okanye emithathu kumbongo omnye. Ngaxeshanye, ukubandakanya ukwenziwa kwemifanekiso kwiincwadi zakhe zemibongo. Le miba iyabonakala kwiimpapasho zakhe ezilandelayo, Fungisa (1922) kunye Incwadana yamagwebu (1924).

Apha ngezantsi kukho iqhekeza lombongo "Creationism" (ukuphela kwesahluko sokuqala sika Fungisa):

Sukucinga, bazalwana

ukuba besihleli iminyaka emininzi ngeSabatha?

Siphumle

kuba uThixo usinike yonke into eyenziweyo.

Kwaye asenzanga nto, kuba umhlaba

ngcono kunoThixo.

Bazalwana, masigqityeni ukonqena.

Masenze umzekelo, masenze uMvulo wethu

NgoLwesibini nangoLwesithathu,

uLwesine nangoLwesihlanu wethu.

… Masenze iGenesis yethu.

Ngeeplanga ezaphukileyo

ngezitena ezifanayo,

ngamatye awonakeleyo,

Masiphakamise kwakhona imihlaba yethu

Iphepha alibhalwanga. "

NgokukaRuiza okqhubekayo. (2004), indlela echanekileyo yokuhlalutya umsebenzi kaDiego “kukwamkelwa kweendlela ezimbini ezimeleneyo, ngokwendlela awayeyibiza ngayo, 'yimibongo ehambelanayo', ixhaswe yinyani eqondakalayo, kunye 'nemibongo epheleleyo' isihobe kwaye okwesibini kwinyani ebonakalayo ”.

Ukungcwaliswa

Iivesi zabantu.

Iivesi zabantu.

Ungayithenga le ncwadi apha: Iivesi zabantu

Ngo-1925 uGerardo Diego wapapashwa Iivesi zabantu, ingqokelela yemibongo ephawule ukujika kwikhondo lakhe loncwadi. Kulungile kwakuloo nyaka wabonwa ngeBhaso leSizwe loNcwadi (lafunyanwa kunye noRafael Alberti). Ukongeza, ngelo xesha wayehlala ixesha elide eGijon, apho waseka khona iimagazini Carmen y Lola, Zombini i-avant-garde cut.

Ukuthethelelwa gongorism

Umbhali waseCantabrian wayaKunye noAlberti, uPedro Salinas kunye noMelchor Fernández Almagro, uthotho lwamahlelo kunye neenkomfa zesikhumbuzo kumsitho weGóngora Centenary Eli nyathelo lajoyinwa ngababhali besikhundla sikaDámaso Alonso, García Lorca, Bergamín, Gustavo Durán, Moreno Villa, Marichalar noJosé María Hinojosa.

Imibongo Ispanish

Ngo-1931 wagqithiselwa kwiziko le-Santander, ngaphambili wayenike iintetho kunye neengxelo e-Argentina nase-Uruguay. Emva konyaka kwabonakala Intsomi eyayinika udumo oluchanekileyo kwiimbongi ze Isizukulwana se-27: Imibongo yaseSpain: 1915 - 1931.

Incwadi ikwabandakanya ababhali beSilver Age abanjengoMiguel de Unamuno kunye noAntonio Machado. Nangona kwinguqulo yesibini (ngo-1934), uJuan Ramón Jiménez wagqiba ekubeni angazibandakanyi. Uluhlu lweembongi zangoku ezikhoyo kwi-anthology lubandakanya:

  • URuben Dario.
  • IValle-Inclán.
  • UFrancisco Villaespesa.
  • UEduardo Marquina.
  • U-Enrique de Mesa.
  • UTomás Morales.
  • UJosé del Río Sainz.
  • UAlonso Quesada.
  • UMauricio Bacarisse.
  • UAntonio Espina.
  • UJuan José Domenchina.
  • ULeon Felipe.
  • URamón de Basterra.
  • UErnestina de Champourcín.
  • UJosefina de la Torre.

Ngaphambi nasemva kwemfazwe yamakhaya

Ngo-1932, uDiego wapapasha eMexico Intsomi yeEquis kunye neZeda, lumo kunye iintsomi kunye gongorian. Kwakuloo nyaka waphehlelela Imibongo ngenjongo, Umsebenzi obonisa i-baroque patric metric -shumi leshumi kunye nesithandathu- ukunika ukungqinelana kumxholo we-avant-garde. Kwangelo xesha, phakathi kweminyaka yangaphambi kwemfazwe yamakhaya, umbhali waseSpain wenza iintetho kwihlabathi liphela.

Ngo-1934 watshata noGermaine Berthe Louise Marin, ilizwe laseFrance. Wayeneminyaka elishumi elinambini mncinci kuye. Babenabantwana abathandathu. Xa kwaqhambuka imfazwe yamakhaya, uDiego wayeseFrance, kunye nezihlobo zomfazi wakhe. Wabuyela eSantander ngo-1937, emva kokuphumelela kwemikhosi ka-Jikelele uFrancisco Franco.

UFrancoist

UGerardo Diego uthathe isikhundla esingathandabuzekiyo esivuna uFrancoist phalanx kwaye wahlala eSpain ngexesha lolawulo lozwilakhe.. Ke ngoko, umsebenzi wakhe woncwadi awuchaphazelekanga. Ngapha koko, nge-1940 wangena kwiRoyal Academy (1947) kwaye wapapasha uninzi lwemisebenzi yakhe echubekileyo. Phakathi kwabo: Iingelosi zaseCompostela (1940) Ilark yokwenyani (1941) kunye Inyanga entlango (1949).

Ngendlela efanayo, wabhala amanqaku kumajelo eendaba axhasa urhulumente, afana nephephandaba I-Spain entsha Oviedo kunye neemagazini Vertex, Ibhlokhi, ISpanish y Igama lokujonga. Inkxaso yakhe kuFranco yalahlwa ngamaqabane akhe amaninzi esizukulwane, ngakumbi xa engazange akhuthaze ukukhululwa kukaMiguel Hernández.

Ukudibana kwayo? ukugwetyelwa

Pablo Neruda ugxeke kabukhali isikhundla sikaDiego kwezinye iivesi zakhe Cula ngokubanzi. Nangona kunjalo, oku kuchazwe apha ngasentla kuchazwe kwi Imbali yobuqu: "Imfazwe ... ayithintelanga ubuncinci kuthi ukugcina ubuhlobo bethu, kwaye, nokwahluka okuphawuleka ngokwandayo kwimibongo, kuba abanye baqala ukwenza uhlobo lwemibongo".

Ilifa

UGerardo Diego Cendoya wayenobomi obude. Usweleke eMadrid eneminyaka engamashumi alithoba, ngoJulayi 8, 1987. Ngesi sizathu-ubukhulu becala ukusuka kwixesha lasemva kwemfazwe- lalinethuba lokwandisa inani lalo loshicilelo laya kwiincwadi ezingaphezu kwamashumi amahlanu. Phantse bonke bephela bangabahlobo bemihobe, phakathi kwezona zibalaseleyo:

  • Ibhayografi engaphelelanga (1953).
  • Imibongo yothando (1965).
  • Buyela umhambi (1967).
  • Isiseko sokufuna (1970).
  • Iivesi ezingcwele (1971).

Ekugqibeleni, ngaphandle kwee -ologies— Ilifa elikhulu lombhali weSantander laxabiswa ebomini bakhe ngeMbasa yeMiguel de Cervantes ngo-1980. Eli wonga walinikwa ngendlela ekwabelwana ngayo noJorge Luis Borges (ibikukuphela kwento ethe yanikezelwa ngale ndlela). Ayothusi into yokuba ifuthe likaGerardo Diego kwiCantabrian nakwisibongo sikazwelonke sisebenza nanamhlanje.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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