Ubomi nomsebenzi kaJuan Rulfo

Umbhali waseMexico uJuan Rulfo.

Umbhali waseMexico uJuan Rulfo.

UJuan Nepomuceno uCarlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno wayengumfoti kunye nombhali wobuzwe baseMexico. Wayelilungu le-Mexican Academy of Language, elinye lamalungu esizukulwana se-1952 kwaye wawongwa ngeNkosazana ye-Asturias Award yeeleta.

KwiLatin America wazibeka njengomnye wababhali ababalaseleyo benkulungwane yama-XNUMX kwaye wayengumbhali wodumo kwilizwe lakhe. Ubuntu bukaJuan babugcinwe kakhulu; umsebenzi wakhe UPedro Paramo ibonakalise ukuphela kwexesha loncwadi olululo kwaye yanika isiqalo sokwanda kweLatin American.

I-Biography

Ukuzalwa nosapho

UJuan Rulfo wazalwa ngoMeyi 16, 1917 eJalisco, eMexico. Uyise wayenguJuan Nepomuceno Pérez Rulfo kunye nonina uMaría Vizcaíno Arias, UJuan wayevela kusapho olwalunoqoqosho oluzinzileyo kwaye wayengumntwana wesithathu wabazali bakhe, emva koko wayenabantakwabo abancinci ababini.

Baye bahlala kwidolophu ekuthiwa yiSan Gabriel, eJalisco nalapho Usapho lwafumana ubunzima emfazweni kaCristero kwaye utata wakhe wabulawa ngo-1923, xa uJuan wayeneminyaka emi-6 ubudala. Kwiminyaka emine kamva wasweleka umama wakhe, eshiya uninakhulu emjongile.

Ulutsha kunye nezifundo

URulfo wayeqale isikolo samabanga aphantsi kwisixeko awayehlala kuso. Nangona kunjalo, ngo-1929, iminyaka emva kokusweleka kukanina kwaye ngenxa yokuba umakhulu wakhe engazange akwazi ukumgcina, Usapho lwamfaka kwikhaya leenkedama kwaye kwafuneka ukuba afudukele eGuadalajara.

Nje ukuba kwikhaya leenkedama, uJuan uqhubeke noqeqesho kwizifundo zakhe; nangona kunjalo, yayingeyondawo ayithandayo ukuba lapho. Ngo-1933 wazama ukungena kwiDyunivesithi yaseGuadalajara, kodwa ngenxa yoqhankqalazo jikelele akazange akwazi. Emva koko waya eMexico City, apho wayengakwazi ukuqala khona izifundo zakhe.

Ubomi basemsebenzini

Ngenye imini kwikomkhulu, waqala ukusebenza kwi-Ofisi kaNobhala kaRhulumente Mexico kwaye wayehamba kakhulu elizweni, nanjengoko wayenikwe imisebenzi eyahlukeneyo kwisikhundla sakhe kwaye kwafuneka eyifezile. Ngeli xesha wafunda inkcubeko kwaye wapapasha amabali aliqela kwiimagazini.

Ngo-1947 waqala umsebenzi wakhe wokuba ngumfoti kwaye watshata noClara Aparicio, umfazi owayenabantwana abane. Usebenze kwintengiso kwinkampani apho aqale khona njengomfoti, uGoodrich; Ngeli xesha wayesebenzisana kuphuhliso lwesitya sasePapaloapan kwaye wapapashwa kwiZiko leMveli leMveli.

Caphula umbhali waseMexico uJuan Rulfo.

Caphula umbhali waseMexico uJuan Rulfo.

Uhlanga loncwadi

Ngo-1953 umbhali wapapasha Ithafa Elitshisayo kwaye kwiminyaka emibini kamva wawubhengeza umsebenzi UPedro Paramo, le yokugqibela yayiyeyona nto iphambili kuye. Phakathi kowe-1956 nowe-1958 uJuan Rulfo wabhala Umqhagi wegolideInoveli, ngokobude bayo yena ngokwakhe uthathela ingqalelo ibali. Iincwadi zalo mbhali ziphakathi kwezona zibalaseleyo eMexico.

Incwadi yamabali amafutshane alishumi elinesixhenxe kaJuan Rulfo kunye neenoveli zakhe zanele ukuba anikwe uMvuzo weSizwe woNcwadi ngo-1970. Kwiminyaka emine kamva waya eVenezuela kwaye kwiCentral University yelo lizwe wavuma ukuba wayeka iincwadi zokubhala ngenxa yokusweleka kukamalume wakhe uCelerino.

Iminyaka yokugqibela kunye nokufa

Kwiminyaka elishumi kamva, ngoSeptemba 1980, wanyulwa njengelungu leMfundo yaseMexico yeeleta kwaye wakhupha iakhawunti yakhe ebhaliweyo ngaphambili, Umqhagi wegolide. Ngo-1983 wawongwa ngeNkosana yeAsturias Award, ngoku ebizwa ngokuba yiNkosazana yaseAsturias.

Umbhali wafunyanwa enomhlaza kwaye nge-7 kaJanuwari, 1986 kwisixeko saseMexico, wasweleka ngenxa ye-pulmary emphysema. Ngenxa yokwaziwa kwayo yenziwa esidlangalaleni Los murmullos, i-anthology yeendaba ngokufa kukaJuan Rulfo, umsebenzi onezinto ezinxulumene nokufa kwakhe.

Ulwakhiwo

Emva kokufa kombhali, enye yeencwadi zakhe yaphinda yakhutshwa, kuba kukho iimpazamo ezininzi kuyo. Kwapapashwa nencwadi yamabali awayeyenzile ebomini bakhe, apho inguqu kaRulfo njengombhali yabonakaliswa.

Incwadi Yamabali

  • Ithafa elisemlilweni (1953).

Umxholo

  • "Macario".
  • "Abawunikanga mhlaba."
  • "Induli yama comadres".
  • "Kungenxa yokuba sihlupheka kakhulu".
  • "Indoda".
  •  "Kusasa".
  • "Talpa".
  • "Ithafa Elitshayo".
  • "Baxelele ukuba bangandibulali!".
  • "Luvina".
  • "Ngobusuku bamshiya yedwa."
  • "Khumbula":
  • "Paso del Norte".
  • "Anacleto Morones".
  • "Awuziva izinja zikhonkotha".
  • "Ilifa likaMatilde Arcángel".
  •  "Umhla wokuwa."

Novelas

  • UPedro Paramo (1955).
  • Umqhagi wegolide (Ngo-1980, ngo-2010).

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

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Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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