USaturnino Calleja, amabali akhe kunye nokunye

Ifoto yeqweqwe: amabali kaCalleja kabawo nomakazi bam.

Saturnino calleja Lelinye lala manani aziwa kakhulu njengokungacaci kuhamba kwexesha. Umbhali, umhleli kunye nomfundisi-ntsapho, ingqokelela yakhe enkulu yoncwadi lwabantwana yavelisa intetho eyaziwayo "Unebali elingaphezulu kuneCalleja", esele ilahlekile ngenxa yokungazi. Oku yi uphononongo kubomi bakhe nasemsebenzini.

Saturnino calleja

Saturnino calleja UFernández wazalelwa eBurgos ngo-1853 kwaye ngu Umbhekisi kubalulekile kuncwadi lwabantwana nolutsha, ukufundisa kunye ukukhuthaza ukufunda ngexesha lakhe.

En 1876 UFernando Calleja Santos, utata wakhe, uvula ivenkile yeencwadi kunye neshishini lokudibanisa iincwadi eliza kuthi kungekudala libe nguMhleli weCalleja, oguqule indawo yopapasho. Ngaphezulu kwayo Iminyaka eyi-80 yembali, yapapasha amawaka ezihloko ngababhali baseSpain nabangaphandle kubantwana nakubantu abadala.

Saturnino calleja kwakhona wayila waza walathisa iphephancwadi Umfanekiso waseSpain kunye noMbutho weSizwe wabaFundisi baseSpanish kwaye uququzelele i INdlu yoWiso-mthetho yeSizwe yooTitshala.

Iintsomi

Kwakungekho kude kube ngoku 1884 xa eqala ukupapasha i iindaba loo nto ingamenza adume ngolo hlobo. Ngaphambi kokuba agxininise Iincwadi zesikolo njengaye iindlela zokufunda, iijometri, ijografi okanye amabali avela eSpain, iikhathekizim, iintyilalwazi, iimanuwali zenkcubeko, iincwadi zealfabhethi ze-iconographic, ezenziwe ngombono wokufundisa phantse ukudlala okanye, ubuncinci, ukonwaba.

Amabali ayelulongezelelo lwaloo mbono. Wapapasha ezininzi kwiingqokelela ezahlukeneyo ezifana Iingqokelela ezintsha zamabali (intsomi, imnandi ...), Ithala leencwadi lokuzonwabisa, Ithala leencwadi lesikolo sokuzonwabisa, ilayibrari enemifanekiso yabantwana, iLayibrari yasePerla. Amabali azo zonke iintlobo avele kuzo, kubandakanywa ababhali abafana noSalgari, Poe, Collodi okanye amabali ebhayibhile.

Umdla yayikukuba ubukhulu yebali ngalinye, ababekwayinto entsha, ekubeni babenjalo incinci kwaye zinokuqokelelwa njengezincamathelisi, ngaphezu kokuzigcina okanye ukuzisa naphi na. Nganye yayimalunga nee-intshi ezi-5 ububanzi nezisi-7 ukuphakama.

Ukongezwa kwaba njalo ababonisi abaxabisekileyo njengabambalwa kwaye akazange athandabuze ukuba nawona magcisa avunyiweyo ngelo xesha, umsebenzi wawo wawunenyameko kakhulu. Emva kokufa kwakhe, umvakalisi wayenza loo nto amagama afana nePenagos okanye iTono.

Kwakhona, amabali alungisiweyo ngababhali njengoHans Christian Andersen okanye abazalwana Grimm kwaye ubeke touch yemveli kunye nezo isimilo sokugqibela ngoko ke wayesoloko egxekwa waza waphendulwa. amabinzana Classic ezifana «kunye Bahlala bonwabile emva kokoAbazange baphinde bandinike ngenxa yokuba babengafuni ».

Nokuba yeyiphiIimpawu ze izihloko ezingenakubalwa Zizo: Umama wesibini, Uhambo lweThumbelina, Venturita, Umrhwebi waseVenice, uPaco I napias, I-silkworms, I-ounce yegolide, intombi yoMiller, Ukusuka kwi-urchin ukuya kwi-senator, i-Giant, ingonyama kunye ne-fox okanye isiqithi saseJauja.

Impumelelo

UCalleja wayengowokuqala ukusungula amahlelo amakhulu okujikeleza, ukufikelela kwiindleko eziphantsi kunye namaxabiso azo zonke iibhajethi.

Ngowe-1899 wapapasha ngaphezu Imiqulu yezigidi ezi-3 phantse izihloko ezingama-900 zemixholo eyahlukahlukeneyo, ingengawo amabali nje, awayengaphantsi kwesiqingatha. Uphinde wapapasha iincwadi zonqulo, izichazi-magama kunye neencwadi zabantu abadala, njengengqokelela edumileyo yeencwadi zonyango ngelo xesha. Kwaye ngexesha apho i-60% yabemi yayingafundanga, ukuthanda kwakhe uncwadi kunye nokufundisa kwamkhokelela ekubeni afune ukusasaza inkcubeko eqala esikolweni. Ihlelwe njalo iincwadi zezifundo kunye nezokufundisa kootitshala abathi nkqu wanika kwizikolo zasezilalini nge izibonelelo zemali ezimbalwa.

Wenza ne uhlelo lokuqala lwe UPlatero kunye nam (UJuan Ramón Jiménez wasebenza kwindlu yopapasho) kwaye wapapasha ezininzi ICixixote, phakathi kwabo, abanye banomdla njengalowo unephepha elipinki okanye enye imicroscope.

Kwaye ukugqiba, Waye nguvulindlela ekukhuthazeni nasekusasazeni iincwadi zakhe. Yayinabathunywa abafikelela kwishumi elinesibhozo phakathi kweMelika kunye nePhilippines, kwaye yayingomnye wabokuqala nayo ziquka izimvo kwiikhathalogu ezingeencwadi zakhe, into exhaphake gqitha namhlanje.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.