Ubuncwane engcongolweni

Ubuncwane engcongolweni Isincoko esalungiselelwa ngumbhali kunye nengcali yeengcali zeengcali zeengcali zengqondo ezivela kuZaragoza uIrene Vallejo. Ishicilelwe kwi-2019, lo mbhalo ukhumbula ngokweenkcukacha imbali yendalo kunye nokuvela kwencwadi ukutyhubela iinkulungwane. Kunyaka kamva, ngenxa yempumelelo kunye nokwamkelwa, umsebenzi ufumene amabhaso aliqela, phakathi kwawo: I-Spanish National Essay Award kunye neLiso eliBalulekileyo lokuBalisa.

Ngale ncoko, Umsebenzi wombhali wawusenziwa, ikwazile ukugqitha iikopi ezingama-200.000 ezithengisiweyo kwaye ngokukhawuleza ube ngowona mthengisi ubalaseleyo. Umsebenzi wakhe wawonwabile kumhlaba waseSpain, owawuvumela ukwenziwa kwawo, ekubeni waguqulelwa kwiilwimi ezingaphezu kwama-30 ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.

Malunga nombhali

Ngo-1979 isixeko saseZaragoza sabona ukuzalwa kuka-Irene Somoza. Kwasebuncinaneni bakhe, waqala wazibophelela ngeencwadi, ngenxa yabazali bakhe befunda kwaye bembalisela amabali ngaphambi kokuba balale. Ngo-6 wadibana I-odyssey, Uyise wayibalisa kuye ubusuku emva kobusuku njengebali, kwaye usuka apho ungumthandi wamabali malunga neentsomi.

Kwiminyaka yakhe yesikolo waye lixhoba le ukuxhatshazwa ngabafundi afunda nabo, bade bambangela nokuba amphathe gadalala. Intsapho yakhe yayiyeyona nkxaso ibalulekileyo kweli nqanaba, nangona eyona ndawo wayebalekela kuyo yayiziincwadi. Ku-Irene, ukubuyela ekhaya kunye nokufunda kwabonwa njengoluhlobo losindiso.

Izifundo zobungcali

Umbhali wenza izifundo zakhe ngaphezulu en iiyunivesithi zaseZaragoza naseFlorence, apho waphumelela khona kwaye kamva wafumana isidanga sobugqirha kwi I-philology yamandulo. Emva kokugqiba umsebenzi wakhe, uye wazinikela ekwandiseni nasekusasazeni yonke into enxulumene nezinto zakudala zoncwadi.

Ubomi babucala

Inkunkuma yile Utshatile nomvelisi wefilimu u-Enrique Mora, nabani Unonyana ogama linguPedro.

Imisebenzi

Ukongeza emsebenzini wakhe njengombhali kunye nophilologist, wayesebenza njengomfundisi-ntsapho kwiiyunivesithi ezahlukeneyo zeli lizwe. Ngelo xesha, ubhala amanqaku kumaphephandaba aseSpain El País y IHerald yaseAragon, apho ubulumko bamandulo budibana nemixholo yale mihla. Uninzi lwezi ngxelo zahlanganiswa kwimisebenzi yakhe emibini: Ixesha elidlulileyo elikulindeleyo (2008) kunye Kukho umntu owathetha ngathi (2010).

Uhlanga loncwadi

Umbhali unetyala lakhe kwiincwadi ezisi-8, iposti yakhe yokuqala yayi: Ukukhanya okungcwatyelwe, umdlalo omnandi okhutshwe ngo-2011. Emva kwexesha, waziphatha ngoncwadi lwabantwana nolutsha, nge Umqambi wohambo (2014) kunye Umxholo wamaza amnandi (2015). Waqhubeka wathi: Impempe yomtoli, Ibali lothando kunye nokuzonwabisa elipapashwe kwi-2015.

Incwadi yakhe yamva nje ifike ngo-2019: Ubuncwane engcongolweni, y ngexeshana elifutshane yaba umthengisi ogqibelele. Esi sincoko sinikezelwe amatyeli aliqela okoko ikhutshiweyo. Ukongeza kwiLiso eliBalulekileyo leNgcaciso (i-2019) kunye ne-Isincoko sikaZwelonke (i-2020), ufumene umahluko: ILos Libreros Cebisa (2020), Ibhaso likaJosé Antonio Labordeta loNcwadi (2020) kunye neAragón Prize 2021.

Ulwakhiwo

  • Ilayibrari kunye nesigama esibalulekileyo esibhaliweyo eMarcial (2008)
  • Ixesha elidlulileyo elikulindeleyo (2010)
  • Ukukhanya okungcwatyelwe (2011)
  • Umqambi wohambo (2014)
  • Umxholo wamaza amnandi (2015)
  • Impempe yomtoli (2015)
  • Kukho umntu owathetha ngathi (2017)
  • Ubuncwane engcongolweni (2019)

Ubuncwane engcongolweni (2019)

Libali elinamaphepha angaphezu kwama-400, ethi ubalisa ukuyilwa kwale ncwadi, inxenye yophuhliso kunye neziganeko ezibalulekileyo ngembali yayo. Kulo msebenzi kuchazwe malunga neminyaka engama-3000 yeziganeko, phakathi kwexesha elidlulileyo nelangoku. Isincoko va okoko kwenziwa incwadi yokuqala, amathala eencwadi okuqala kunye nabafundi bamandulo, ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.

Ngalo msebenzi umbhali ukwazile ukuba ngumfazi wesihlanu ukuphumelela iBhaso leSincoko leSizwe laseSpain (2020), ukongeza ekufumaneni izimvo ezigqwesileyo. Phakathi kwezincomo, amazwi kaMario Vargas Llosa ayabonakala: “Ibhalwe kakuhle kakhulu, inamaphepha ancomekayo ngokwenene; uthando lweencwadi kunye nokufunda yimeko apho amaphepha alo msebenzi wobugcisa adlula ”.

Ibali elazalelwa phakathi kobunzima

Umbhali wayehamba nexesha elinzima losapho Xa wayeqala ukubhala le ncwadi, unyana wakhe wayegula kakhulu. Kwahlala iinyanga ezininzi esibhedlele nomntwana wakhe omncinci, phakathi kwezininzi zonyango, i-chemotherapies, iinaliti kunye neengubo eziluhlaza.

Kodwa UIrene waphinda wazimela ngoncwadi, ngeli xesha ebhala esakhe isincoko. Ngelixa ekhululwayo ngumyeni wakhe, wayeye ekhaya, athathe incwadana yakhe, aze aqale ukubhala. Ngale ndlela, i-litterat ibinomzuzu wokuthula noxolo, kude nexhala lomzuzu. Ngaphandle kokukrokrela ukuba uza kubhala impumelelo eya kutshintsha ubomi babo.

Ibali elahlukileyo nelipheleleyo

Ikhathalogu emininzi Ubuncwane engcongolweni njengesincoko esingaqhelekanga nesikhethekileyo, kuba umxholo wayo ugqityiwe kwaye wahlukahlukene. Kuyo, kunokwenzeka ukuba ufumane iinkcukacha eziqhelekileyo nezesintu ezinje ngokuhlekisa, imibongo, amabali, amabali asezilalini, iibhayografi, iziqwengana seendaba kunye neetymologies. Ukongeza kwizigcawu zembali ezikhoyo ngeli thuba lomgaqo obanzi ngaphezulu kweenkulungwane ezingama-30.

Igama ekuqaleni umbhali awayefuna ukunika isincoko ngalo: Ukunyaniseka okumangalisayo, Ukuhlawula irhafu kwiBorges. Kodwa yaguqulwa ngengcebiso yendlu yokupapasha, ngeli xesha ibhekisa kuPascal, owabonisa ukuba abantu "babezingcongolo zokucinga".

Ubume

Umsebenzi uqulethe iinxalenye ezi-2; eyokuqala: IGrisi icinga ngekamva, inezahluko ezili-15 ezipheleleyo ngaphakathi. Apho, ibali lihamba ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo: ubomi kunye nomsebenzi kaHomer, iindawo zemfazwe zika-Aleksandire Omkhulu, iThala lencwadi elikhulu laseAlexandria - ubuqaqawuli bayo kunye nentshabalalo- uCleopatra. Kwakhona, amaxesha anzima exesha kunye nempumelelo: ukuqala koonobumba, incwadi yokuqala kunye neevenkile zeencwadi ezihambahambayo.

Emva koko unayo Icandelo lesibini: Iindlela zaseRoma. Eli candelo liqulathe izahluko ezili-19, phakathi kwazo kukho ezi: "Ababhali abahluphekileyo, abafundi abafundileyo"; "Ivenkile yeencwadi: urhwebo lomngcipheko"; "I-Ovid iyangqubana nokunyanzelwa"; kwaye "Canon: imbali yengcongolo". Umbhali uyavuma ukuba bekukho umntu wesithathu oye waya kufikelela kumatshini wokushicilela, kodwa ndagqiba kwelokuba ndigcine loo mxholo, njengoko inokwenza isincoko side kakhulu.

Isiqendu

Isincoko esithi uhamba ngokucaciswa kwencwadi ngezixhobo ezahlukeneyo, ezinje: umsi, ilitye, udongwe, iingcongolo, izinto ezenziwe ngodongwe, ipapyrus, isikhumba kunye nokukhanya. Yintoni egqithisile, Ukwabalisa ngeziganeko zembali apho bachazwe khona: amabala emfazwe, ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo, amabhotwe amaGrike, ukuqala kwamathala eencwadi kunye neendawo zokwenza iikopi ezibhalwe ngesandla.

Ngexesha lebali abalinganiswa abohlukeneyo bayavela kwaye bayasebenzisana abo kufuneka woyise inani elininzi le iingxaki zokukhusela iincwadi. Ayithethi ngamaqhawe, kodwa ngabantu abaqhelekileyo: ootitshala, abathengisi, ababhali, ababalisi bamabali, abavukeli, abaguquleli, amakhoboka, phakathi kwabanye.

Kwangokunjalo, iyathetha ngembali yanamhlanje; Inxalenye ebalulekileyo yemizabalazo ejongene nomxholo woncwadi iyavezwa. Iakhawunti epheleleyo yamanqanaba ngamanqanaba iincwadi eziye zahamba kwinkqubo yabo yokuphila njengeyona ndlela ibalulekileyo yokusasaza ulwazi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
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