UJane Austen. Bicentennial yokusweleka kwakhe. Imisebenzi yakhe ebalulekileyo.

El 18 de julio de 1817 wasweleka uJane Austen, owangcwatyelwa kwisixeko sase Winchester. ndibene 41 iminyaka kwaye ubomi bakhe abuzange buphonononge imicimbi ebalulekileyo, kodwa wayifumana kwasekuqaleni i ulwamkelo olufanelekileyo kunye nokwamkelwa emsebenzini wakhe. Iinoveli zakhe ibonakaliswe ngokugqibeleleyo kwaye ichaziwe, kunye nomnxeba we-irony, iimvakalelo kunye nokuziphatha koluntu loohlohlesakhe apho wayehlala khona.

Ngokuhamba kwexesha ezi noveli azilahlekanga ngumtsalane wazo okanye zazo amandla okutsala kunye neemvakalelo. Amabali kunye nabalinganiswa abangenakulibaleka ukuba sonke sifunde okanye sabona ngamanye amaxesha kwaye ezo ziphawule eyethu umoya wothando ngakumbi. Namhlanje ndiyayijonga kwakhona owona msebenzi ubalulekileyo njengerhafu encinci kumfanekiso wakhe omkhulu.

Ikratshi nomkhethe

"Kuyinyani eyamkelweyo kwilizwe lonke ukuba indoda engatshatanga enexabiso elikhulu ifuna umfazi." Sisiqalo esichazayo nesichazayo ngowona msebenzi wakhe uthathelwa ingqalelo kunye nowona udumileyo kunokwenzeka. Waqala ukuyibhala 1796 kodwa ayizange ipapashwe de 1813. Kuyo, uAusten ubalisa ibali le Iintombi ezintlanu zikaNkosikazi Bennett, ongenalo elinye injongo ebomini bakhe kunokufezekisa umtshato olungileyo yabo bonke. Kwaye phakathi kwabamangaleli athe wabarhangqa ngabafana ababini abazizityebi, uMnu. IBingley kunye nenkosi Darcy.

Kukho ubudlelwane phakathi kwentombi endala, uJane, kunye noMnu. UBingley obonakala ngathi unekamva elihle kodwa, phantsi kwempembelelo kaMnu. Nangona kunjalo, ungenelelo lwe Elizabeth, intombi yesibini, unengqiqo kwaye ngandlel 'ithile unemvukelo, iyakutshintsha ikhosi yeziganeko.

Ikratshi nomkhethe Inayo yonke imixholo esisiseko yomsebenzi ka-Austen. Inkqubo ye- imeko yengcinezelo yosapho, uxinzelelo lomtshato, umohluko eklasini, ubuhlwempu kunye nobuntununtunu yeqhawekazi elizimisele, kodwa ngubani ongalunganga.

Ewe kunjalo isiwe kwiimuvi kumaxesha amaninzi, kutshanje, kwi Ngo20o5. Ekhokelwa nguJoe Wright kwaye eneenkwenkwezi kumlingisi okhokelwa ngu UKeira Knightley y UMateyu macfadyen.

Ukuziva kunye novakalelo

De 1811. Omnye wemisebenzi yakhe eyaziwa kakhulu exela ibali lika Oodade baseDashwood, uElinor noMarianne. Bahluke ngokupheleleyo kuba kwi Elinor ibalasele ingqondo eqhelekileyo y Marianne uthathwa ngumkhulu ukuqonda. Kwaye bobabini abalinganiswa kunye nokuziphatha kuthwala umngcipheko wabo.

U-Elinor noMarianne bahlala nonina kunye nodadewabo omncinci uMargaret. Emva kokusweleka kukayise, ilifa losapho ligqitha kumntakwabo, uJohn Dashwood, okuphela kwendoda eyindoda kunye nonyana womtshato wokuqala. Ke usapho Ugcina phantse engenanto kwaye uhambela kwindlu encinci esezweni ezinikezelwa sisizalwane. Apho oodade baseDashwood baya kudibana namadoda amathathu: U-Edward Ferrars, Mnumzana John Willoughby kunye no-Colonel Brandon. Kwaye bobabini baya kufumana uthando kunye nokudana. Phakathi, ngaphezulu iyelenqe kunye nokungaqondani oko kuya kukhokelela kwisiphumo ngokokuhambelana nenye nganye.

Ikwahlengahlengiswe amaxesha amaninzi kwifilimu nakumabonwakude, i inguqulelo eyona ikhunjulwa kakhulu yile 1995nguAng Lee, kunye U-Emma Thompson y Kate Winslet njengoodade baseDashwood.

Kwi-yam

Ithunyelwe kwi 1815, ubalisa ibali lika Emma iinkuni, intombazana ekrelekrele kodwa ekhohlakeleyo ephikelela umdlalo kubahlobo bakho bonke. Xa umntu ohamba naye, umhlobo, kunye nomntu ozithembileyo ethatha isigqibo sokutshata, kuya kufuneka ajongane nokusilela kwakhe ebomini. Ngenxa yoku uya kuzinikela ekuzameni ukuba abanye baphile ubomi obugqibeleleyo njengoko yena ecinga.

Kodwa yonke imisebenzi yakhe ubuqhetseba obunemvakalelo izakwenza ukuba zijikeleze ezininzi tangles, ukungaqondani kunye nokudideka. Emma ngomnye umzobo omhle weNgilani yephondo ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Uye wahlengahlengisa nditsho nehlaya Ewe kunjalo Njengothotho, ii-miniseries kunye nohlobo lwefilimu. Mhlawumbi eyona yaziwayo yile 1996nge Gwyneth Paltrow njengomntu ophambili.

Ipaki yaseMansfield

De 1814, ithathwa njengenoveli kakhulu ezintsonkothileyo, ezimnyama nezishinyeneyo nguAusten. Ubalisa ibali lika Ixabiso likaFanny, eyintombazana nangoku xa Oomalume bakhe bamthatha bamngenisa kwindlu yabo yaseMansfield Park, ukumhlangula kubomi bobuhlwempu. Apho uya kuqala ukonwabela ubomi obuzele kukuzonwabisa kunye nokucokiswa. Kodwa kuloo ndlu ikhulu ifihliwe inyaniso eyingozi ukuba uFanny kuyakufuneka afunde ukujongana nayo.

Le noveli ichaza ucwangco kunye nokugxekwa kosapho kunye noluntu Etshintsha emehlweni ebhinqa eliselula elinentloni, kwabanye elinomtsalane nakwabanye elingenamtsalane.

Kwakhona yayingumxholo wefilimu kunye nokuqhelaniswa nomabonwakude onje, umzekelo, Inguqulelo yefilimu ka-1999 nge UFrances O'Connor njengexabiso likaFanny.

Ukweyisela

Ngaba yakhe Inoveli yamva nje oqale ukubhala kungekudala nje Emma. Yapapashwa njengomsebenzi emva kokufa ngo-1818. Idibanisa ne INorthanger Abbey, okoko zombini zapapashwa kwivolumu enye kwiminyaka emibini kamva. Kwaye ngenxa yokuba omabini la mabali ayenzeka ibhafu, apho uJane waya kwispa yakhe ngelo xesha.

Nguwo kuphela umsebenzi onokuchazwa njenge ibali lothando. Bonke abanye bahlala bethetha ngokuthabatheka kwesibini esinye okanye ezibini kwaye baphela ngomtshato wabalinganiswa abaphambili, kodwa le kuphela kwembali egxile kwiiimvakalelo zomntu ophambili, u-Anne Elliot.

UAnne ngumfazi uvakalelo, isigulana kwaye asixabiswanga, emva kweminyaka ukwala Kwindoda awayeyithanda ukulandela iingcebiso ezimbi, jonga indlela uyavela kwakhona ebomini bakhe, esisityebi nembeko kodwa nangoku jilted. Ke u-Anne uya kwenza konke okusemandleni ukwenza uthando lumnike a ithuba lesibini. Ewe kwakhona sinokuzonwabisa okuyimpumelelo kwexesha.

Ku ukuwu- uguqulelo lwenziwe kwi 1995 kunye umabonwakude kukho uthotho 2007.

INorthanger Abbey

Kubhalwe phakathi 1798 kunye ne1799, ubalisa ibali lika UCatherine MorlandUmfundi onomdla weenoveli ze-gothic, uchitha ixesha lakhe etyelela abahlobo, njengoIsabella Thorpe, kwaye esiya kwimidaniso. KuCatherine UJohn Thorpe uthi, Umntakwabo Isabella, kunye UHenry tilney, umfundisi oselula onothando olukhulu kunye nolwazi ngembali noncwadi.

Ke, abakwaTilneys bamema uCatherine ukuba atyelele ifama kayise, INorthanger Abbey. Unethemba lokuba kuya kuba mnyama, indala, kwaye igcwele imfihlakalo kunye nefantasy, njengakwiinoveli azifundayo. Kukho i ulungelelaniso for umabonwakude de 2007.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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