ICicero. Amaqhekeza ama-3 omsebenzi wakhe kwisikhumbuzo sokufa kwakhe

UMarco Tulio Cicero kwakunjalo eyona ntetho igqwesileyo yamaRoma kunye nelinye lamagama awaziwayo kwimbali. Namhlanje usweleke, kakubi kakhulu, ngonyaka wama-43 BC. C. Ndiyaqaqambisa Iziqwenga ezi-3 zemisebenzi yakhe edume kakhulu njengeentetho ze Iikhathalogu, Kwintetho y Malunga neriphabliki. Ngendlela, ngaphezulu kwezopolitiko zomthonyama zeli xesha kufuneka zifunde uCicero amaxesha ngamaxesha.

Cicero kunye nam

Ibali lam lokuzonda uthando noCicero ibuyela phantse kumaxesha abo eRiphabhlikhi yaseRoma xa bendifunda isiLatin kwisikolo samabanga aphakamileyo nakwikholeji. Ubomi bam emva koko babunenkcazo eqhubekayo kwisicatshulwa kunye nokuguqulelwa kwe Imfazwe yeGallic lomhlobo wakhe wangoku kwaye akukho nto umhlobo UJulius Caesar. Kwaye kwikholeji yayilithuba lakhe kwaye waduma Iikhathalogu nge utitshala wesiLatin uninzi lwabaphangi abakhe banyathela unyawo kwigumbi lokufundela.

Kodwa ngaphandle kweengxaki zam ngokugqibeleleyo, Ubomi bukaCicero kunye nomsebenzi wakhe yenye yezona zinomdla yelo xesha. Ukujonga olunye lohlaziyo lokugqibela lomzobo wakhe, nangona iphantsi kokhuseleko intsomi kunye neentsomi kumabonakude yangoku, njalo Ndicebisa eRoma, Olona luhlu lubalaseleyo HBO.

Iziqwenga ezi-3 zomsebenzi wakhe

Escogidos zezona zidumileyo ezopolitiko, ingcaphephe kwezobuchwephesha kunye nefilosofi.

Iikhathalogu I

Kude kube nini, Catilina, uya kuwusebenzisa kakubi umonde wethu? Kuya kude kube nini siseyinto yokudlala yomsindo wakho? Ziza kuyeka phi ezo zigqubuthelo zesibindi sakho singalawulekiyo? Intoni! Ngaba ubungqina bakho abuthintelanga nokuba umlindi obukele ubusuku bonke kwiNduli yasePalatine, okanye abo bakhusela isixeko, okanye uloyiko lwabantu, okanye ukudibana kwabo bonke abemi abalungileyo, okanye itempile enqatyisiweyo emi kuyo iNdlu yeeNgwevu? namhlanje, nobuso obungathandabuzekiyo nobucaphukisayo bamasenethi?

Awuqondanga, ngaba awuboni ukuba iyelenqe lifunyenwe? Ngaba awuboni ukuba iyelenqe lakho alikho mfihlakalo kuye wonke umntu kwaye wonke umntu sele enalo ebotshelelwe? Into oyenzileyo phezolo, amadoda owaqoqileyo, amanyathelo owalungiselele kunye nabo, ucinga ukuba ezi zizinto ezingahoywanga nangomnye wethu? Oo amaxesha! Hayi amasiko! 

De republica - Malunga neriphabliki

«Ngenxa yemeko endikuyo, ndikwazile ukonwabela ukonwaba kwaye ndafumana izibonelelo ezingaphezulu kuzo kunabanye, ngenxa yezifundo ezahlukeneyo ebezindonwabisa ukusukela ebuntwaneni (…) Kodwa ngayo yonke into, ndi Khange ndithandabuze umzuzwana ukuzibeka esichengeni sezaqhwithi eziqatha, kwaye ndingathi nakumbane, ukusindisa abantu bam nokuqinisekisa wonke umntu abanye, ngaphandle kokubeka ingozi, ubomi obuzolileyo.

Kungenxa yokuba eli lizwe alikhange lisinike kwaye lisifundise ngaphandle kokuthembela kuthi, ngelinye ixesha, ukuba negalelo lokuzixhasa; ayisiyi kuphela ngokusebenzela iimfuno zethu kodwa isinika indawo ekhuselekileyo yokuphumla kunye nendawo ethe cwaka yokuphumla; Ngokuchasene noko, kufuneka agcinele ukusebenzisa kwakhe inxalenye enkulu yomphefumlo wethu, ubukrelekrele bethu, ubulumko bethu, eshiya ukusetyenziswa kwethu kwangasese okushiyekileyo emva kokuthatha inxaxheba.

I-rhetoric -Kwi-rhetoric

«Isithethi esiphakathi, Endikubiza ngokuba ngcathu kwaye kulunge, ngokuxhobisa kuphela imikhosi yakhe ngokwaneleyo, Awuyi koyika iingozi kunye nokungaqiniseki ngobungozi bokuthetha; Nokuba akaphumeleli kakhulu, njengoko kuhlala kunjalo, ngekhe abe sengozini enkulu, nangona kunjalo; kuba ayinakuwa isuka phezulu.

Kodwa esi sithethi sethu, esinikela kuye ubukhulu, obuzimisele, obungenangqondo, obukhutheleyo, ukuba wazalelwa le nto yodwa, okanye kule nto usebenze kuphela, okanye uzisebenzisile ngokwakhe, ngaphandle kokunciphisa ubuninzi bakhe Kunye nezinye iindlela ezimbini, kufanelekile ukudelelwa kakhulu. Kulungile isithethi esilula, kuba uthetha ngokuchanekileyo nangobukhulu, sele inengqiqo, isithethi esiqhelekileyo, siyathandeka; kodwa le enye ininzi kakhulu, ukuba ayikho enye into engaphaya koko, ihlala ibonakala ingenangqondo».


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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