Isishwankathelo seLa Celestina

UFernando de Rojas.

UFernando de Rojas.

Celestine Iqwalaselwa njengomnye wemisebenzi ebaluleke kakhulu kuncwadi lwaseSpain ngenxa yokubaluleka kwayo ngokwembali. Umxholo wayo ubonakalisa iinkcukacha ezibalulekileyo malunga notshintsho kubugcisa nakwinkcubeko ye-XNUMXth nasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Ikwalilixesha lohlaziyo loncwadi ngenxa yezinto ezintsha ekusetyenzisweni kolwimi kunye notshintsho kwisitayile.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, Celestine ibibekwe ngabaphengululi abaninzi boncwadi ngaphakathi kuhlobo lwe-tragicomedy. Nangona kunjalo, Kunzima ukuhlela lo msebenzi ngaphakathi kuhlobo oluthile, kuba ukufa kunye nentlekele zizinto ezibalulekileyo kuphuhliso. Ngokufanayo, ukubhalwa kwesi siqwenga kuzisa imibuzo engasonjululwanga ngokupheleleyo kwiinkulungwane.

Umbhali we Celestine

UFernando de Rojas uye waziwa njengombhali Celestine. Nangona kunjalo, imithombo emininzi ithi lo mbhali waseSpain ugqibezele isicatshulwa esilungiselelwe ngumbhali ongaziwayo. Ngokumalunga nokuchazwa kombhali ongaziwayo -Isenzo sabo sokuqala sahlala kwisakhiwo esichanekileyo sesiqwengana— mbali zibhekisa kuMenéndez kunye noPelayo.

Ubume bendalo bukaFernando de Rojas

Wazalelwa eLa Puebla de Montalbán, eToledo, eSpain, ngo-1470, kwintsapho yamaYuda aguqukileyo awayehlukunyezwa yiNkundla Yokuncina Amakholwa. Ufumene isidanga seBachelor of Laws kwiDyunivesithi yaseSalamanca. Apho, abafundi kwakufuneka bafunde iminyaka emithathu kwiFakhalthi yoBugcisa. Apho, mhlawumbi, wafumana ulwazi lwentanda-bulumko yamaGrike kunye nezakudala zesiLatin.

E-Talavera, uRojas wayesebenza njengegqwetha kwaye kangangeminyaka ethile njengosodolophu ngaphambi kokuba asweleke ngo-1541.Celestine- ngumsebenzi osisiseko kwiileta zaseSpain. Umbhali ngokwakhe uvumile kwileta ukuba wenza into yokuqala ebhaliweyo kwaye, njengoko wayeyithanda kakhulu, wagqiba kwelokuba ayigqibe.

Iinguqulelo ze Celestine

ICelestine.

ICelestine.

Ungayithenga le ncwadi apha: Akukho mveliso ifunyenweyo

Inguqulelo yokuqala eyaziwayo, ICalisto kunye neMelibea comedy (Ipapashwe ngokungaziwa eBurgos), isukela ngo-1499 kwaye inezenzo ezili-16. Ngo-1502 yapapashwa phantsi kwegama lika Unyango nguCalisto noMelibea. Ngaphandle komdlalo odlalayo, ubude bawo-inguqulelo yamva nje inezenzo ezingama-21- yenza ukuba kungabikho nqanaba lokudlala eqongeni.

Ngokuqinisekileyo, Celestine Yayibhalelwe ukuba ifundwe ziingcali zemihla ngemihla okanye ngokuvakalayo kubaphulaphuli abanesidima. Ke ngoko, lo mbhalo-ngqangi wadlula ezandleni ezininzi ngaphambi kokufikelela kubashicileli, abathi bongeze ushwankathelo lwangaphambili kwisenzo ngasinye. Ngapha koko, ukuvela kwinguqulelo yokuqala kude kube sekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-109, iinguqulelo zomsebenzi eziyi-XNUMX ziyaziwa.

Isishwankathelo

Isenzo sokuqala

UCalisto uthandana noMelibea ngokukhawuleza xa embona okokuqala egadini yakhe (wangena kuloo ndawo eleqa ukhetshe). Uyabongoza, intombazana iyamgatya. Ekhaya, uCallisto ubalisa ngeziganeko kubakhonzi bakhe, phakathi kwabo, uSempronio unikezela ngokucela uncedo kumthakathi owaziwayo (uCelestina). Kodwa, lo mva kunye nomkhonzi benza iyelenqe lokukhohlisa umlinganiswa ophambili.

Amaqhinga

Igqwirha lifumana iingqekembe zegolide kwindlu kaCallisto kwinto ekucingelwa ukuba iyakupela. UPármeno, omnye umqeshwa waseCalisto, ulumkisa ngelize ngobuqhetseba benkosi yakhe, ngubani onomdla. Ke ngoko, uSempronio unyusa ukulindeleka kwakhe ekufumaneni eyona nzuzo inkulu kwiqhinga lakhe kwaye alazise kuCelestina. Emva koko, umlumbi waya endlwini kaMelibea.

Ukufika kwakhe, udibana noLucrecia (isicakakazi) kunye no-Alisa (umama kaMelibea). Le yokugqibela icinga ukuba uCelestina uza ngeenjongo zorhwebo. Xa uMelibea ezazi iinjongo zokwenyani zexhegwazana, uyacaphuka. Kodwa uCelestina uyakwazi ukucenga intombazana encinci kwaye ushiya indawo ngentambo yoku, oya kuthi awusebenzise ukugqibezela umlingo.

Inkohliso nemanyano

En Indlu kaCalisto, uCelestina "ungqina" ukubaluleka kwakhe ngokumbonisa iqhiya yentloko kaMelibea. Yakuba inkosi encinci isolile, ixhegwazana lithatha umhlala-phantsi likhaya ePármeno. Isicaka sikhumbuza uCelestina ngesithembiso esenziwe kuye kuye: ukuhlangula uAreúsa (omnye wabafundi bakhe) kuye. Kwindlu kaCelestina, isivumelwano sifezekisiwe.

Emva kokuchitha ubusuku kunye noAreúsa, uPármeno ujongene noSempronio nje ukuba abuyele kwisizinda sikaCelestino. Emva kokutshintshiselana ngezimvo, bobabini abakhonzi bathatha isigqibo sokusebenzisana ukuze bafezekise izicwangciso zabo. Kamva, Abakhonzi bakaCalisto beza endlwini kaCelestina ukuze batye kunye noElicia (omnye wabafundi beli xhegokazi) kunye noAreúsa.

Ubuxoki obuninzi

UCelestina ubizelwe kwindlu kaMelibea ngoLucrecia. Ke, Intombazana iyavuma kweli xhegokazi ukuba iyamthanda uCallisto kwaye imcela ukuba alungiselele usuku oluyimfihlo nalo mfana. Nangona kunjalo, uAlisa akaziva ekhululekile malunga nobudlelwane phakathi kwentombi yakhe kunye noCelestina ngenxa yedumela elibi lexhegokazi. Kodwa le ntombazana igqiba kwelokuba ixoke ikhusele igqwirha.

Caphula uFernando de Rojas.

Caphula uFernando de Rojas.

Xa uCelestina emxelela malunga nomhla wakhe ocwangcisiweyo ezinzulwini zobusuku noMelibea, uCalisto umnika ikhonkco legolide njengomqondiso wombulelo. Xa ixesha ekuvunyelwene ngalo lifikile, amakhwenkwe adibana, ancokole okwethutyana kwaye avumelane ngentlanganiso yesibini ezayo. Emva kokubuyela ekhaya, uMelibea uyamangaliswa ngutata wakhe, nangona ekwazi ukumenzela isizathu.

Ukubawa

USempronio noPármeno bafika endlwini kaCelestina bezokucela isabelo sengeniso. Kodwa ixhegwazana liyala, ngenxa yoko bayambulala. Kwisenzo esilandelayo, uCallisto ufunda kuSosia noTristán (abanye abakhonzi bakhe ababini) malunga nokusweleka kukaSempronio noPármeno. Babulawa kwindawo kawonkewonke ukuziphindezela ngolwaphulo-mthetho abalwenzileyo.

Impindezelo kunye namayelenqe

UCalisto ufika emva kwexesha (ephelekwa nguSosia noTristán) ukuya kumhla wesibini noMelibea, ke ngoko, abantu abancinci banexesha elincinci kunye. Ngeli xesha, UAreúsa noElicia babiza uCenturio ukuba abancede baphindezele ukusweleka komhlohli kunye nabathandi babo. Kwelinye icala, uPleberio noAlisa (abazali bakaMelibea) bathetha ngokutshata naye ngokulula.

Isiphelo esibuhlungu

UAreúsa ufumana ulwazi olongezelelekileyo ukuze enze isicwangciso sakhe enkosi kuSosia ongalindelanga. Ukuziphindezela kuya kugqitywa kwintlanganiso elandelayo phakathi kweCalisto neMelibea. Ngomzuzu wenyaniso, abakhonzi bakaCallisto bayakwazi ukubaleka iTraso (umbulali oqeshwe nguCenturio). Ngelishwa, xa uCallisto ephuma esiya kubona ukuba kwenzeka ntoni, utyibilika, awe phantsi kwileli afe.

UMelibea otyhafileyo wenyuka waya kwinqaba ukuze azihlazise, ​​acele ukuxolelwa, kwaye avume kuyise malunga nokudibana kwakhe noCallisto. Ujongene nemeko yokuphelelwa lithemba, U-Pleberio ubona kuphela kude indlela azibulala ngayo intombi yakhe emva kokutsiba kwisithuba. Ekugqibeleni, utata weli bhinqa liselula ubalisa ezi ziganeko kumfazi wakhe kwaye ugqibela elila engathuthuzeleki.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.