Inoveli yokwenyani: yintoni na kunye neempawu

Caphula ngo Benito Pérez Galdós.

Caphula ngo Benito Pérez Galdós.

Ukunyaniseka eSpeyin kwavela kwisiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Ibiyintshukumo yobugcisa obubuhle bayo buthintelwe (injongo) yokubonisa ubunyani ngokungekho cala. Ngokungqinelanayo, iinoveli zokwenyani zibonise imixholo kude neemvakalelo ezihlala kwindawo zonke kubabhali abangabangaphambili bangoku, iRomanticism.

Kwaye ewe, iindlela zoncwadi ezikhankanywe ngasentla zacetywa, kunye nezilandelelanayo, zachaswa. Ngesi sizathu, I-genesis ye-Realityism yinxalenye yendaleko yeziphakamiso ezinomxholo wexesha lothando (ingakumbi iCostumbrismo). Olu tshintsho luqale kumabali alawulwa kukuthobela amabali apho imeko yezembali nentlalo iye yasebenza ngakumbi.

Inkcazo ye-French Realism

Umxholo

Ingcali yezoqoqosho U-Enrique Fuentes Quintana I-1924 - 2007 kuchazwe ngaphakathi El País (1988) izizathu zokubuyela umva kweSpain ngokubhekiselele kumazwe afana neNgilani okanye iFransi emva kweNguquko yokuQala yoShishino. Ngokukodwa, uQuintana walatha kukhuseleko olugqithisileyo lwerhafu, ukunqongophala kohlaziyo lwezolimo, urhwebo lwangaphakathi oluthinjiweyo, icandelo langaphandle elibuthathaka, kunye nongenelelo lukarhulumente.

Le meko iphinde yashiya isizwe sase-Iberia ngasemva kwinkalo yezobugcisa-zobukrelekrele. Ngenxa yezi zizathu, utyekelo lwe-avant-garde olwavela eNtshona Yurophu ngenkulungwane ye-1840 lwabonakala kwiminyaka elishumi okanye emibini kamva eSpeyin. Yayinjalo imeko yeRealityism, eyavela eFrance malunga no-1850 kwaye yaba nefuthe elingenakuphikiswa kuncwadi lweSpanish ukusukela ngo-XNUMX.

Iimpawu zeNqobo yesiFrentshi

  • Amagcisa azimiseleyo kwezentlalo nezopolitiko;
  • Imibono ebizama ukubonisa "undoqo oqondwayo phambi kwamehlo" endaweni yokubonisa okusingqongileyo;
  • Indima egqibeleleyo yokufota kwiingcali zeplastiki;
  • Izimo ezikude nezenzo zobugorha, zethiyetha okanye ezingezizo ezendalo;
  • Ukuchaswa kwendlela ye-neoclassical okanye yothando (echazwa njengobuxoki ngamagcisa anengqondo kunye neengqondi).

Ababhali beenoveli abakhulu beNqobo yesiFrentshi kunye neminye yemisebenzi yabo eyimifuziselo

  • UStendhal (1783-1842): Olubomvu nomnyama (1830) ICharterhouse yeParma (1839);
  • UHonoré de Balzac (1799-1850): Umntu ohlekisayo, iinkohliso ezilahlekileyo (I, 1837; II, 1839; III, 1843);
  • UGustave Flaubert (1821-1880): Nkosikazi Bovary (1857) imfundo yeemvakalelo (1869) Ukulingwa kweSan Antonio (1874);
  • Emile Zola (1840-1902): Ibha (1877) Intsholongwane (1885).

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba uZola uthathwa njengomnye wabaxhasi abakhulu be-Naturalism, ethi, emva koko, ibonwe njengenxalenye yeRealityism.. Ngokuphathelene noku, UMlawuli (1885) -ithathwa njengowona msebenzi ubalaseleyo kaLeopoldo Alas Clarín- ubonisa iimpawu zethematic kunye nokwakhiwa kwabalinganiswa abaphenjelelwa kakhulu ngumsebenzi wababhali abakhankanywe kwicandelo elidlulileyo.

Ngokunjalo, inxalenye enkulu yeencwadi zikaBenito Pérez Galdós-enye "yenkqubo" ye-Spanish Literary Realism-ingqina impembelelo engenakuphikiswa yababhali beGallic realist. Ngokuhambelana, iindlela zokubalisa ezizuzwe kwi-Costumbrismo (eyayihlala kunye nezo ze-Romanticism) zasebenza njengesiqalo kubabhali bokwenene.

Iziganeko zembali eziphawula imvelaphi yeReality eSpain

Ngexesha lamashumi eminyaka ka-1869 kunye ne-1870, iziganeko ezininzi ezidlulileyo zenzeke kwisazisi samva seSpain njengesizwe. Uninzi lwezo ziganeko zaphononongwa okanye zikhankanywa ngokungqalileyo okanye ngokungangqalanga ngababhali abadumileyo baseIberia belo xesha. Ezona ziganeko zibalulekileyo zelo xesha zikhankanywe ngezantsi:

  • Ngowe-1865: Imvukelo yobusuku bukaSan Daniyeli (ngoAprili 10) nemvukelo yamagosa omkhosi wamajoni aseSan Gil (ngoJuni 22);
  • Inguquko yowe-1868 (ngowe-19 – 28 Septemba);
  • Ulawulo lweDemokhrasi (ngoSeptemba 1868-Disemba 1874);
  • Ukuzalwa nokuwa kweRiphabhlikhi yokuQala (ngoFebruwari 1873-Januwari 1874);
  • Ukubuyiselwa kweBourbon (1874) kunye nokubhengezwa koMgaqo-siseko we-1876.

Inoveli yenyani yaseSpain

I-Leopoldo yeha, uClarín.

I-Leopoldo yeha, uClarín.

Inkcazo

Yeyona yenziwa eSpain ekuphakameni kweRealityism njengentshukumo yobugcisa ekhoyo. Ngoko ke, eyona njongo yayo iphambili yayikukumela okusingqongileyo, uluntu namasiko ngendlela echubekileyo nenenjongo. Ngokunjalo, wayegxile ekuboniseni ubomi bemihla ngemihla kunye neenguqu zoohlohlesakhe kwisiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Uninzi lwababhali-mbali lubonisa ukuba iimpawu zenoveli yenyani yaseSpain zadityaniswa malunga nonyaka we-1880. Iinoveli ezidumileyo ezifana noJuan Varela okanye uEmilia Pardo IBazán—ngaphandle kwezi zikhankanywe ngasentla nguGaldós noClarín— bakhethe isimbo esikrwada nesithembekileyo. Isikhundla esinenkqubela phambili esinjalo sibangele ukukhatywa kwamacandelo oluntu alondolozayo.

Izixhobo

  • Yema njenge uhlobo lokuvakalisa ibango kunye nokugxeka ekuhlaleni;
  • Nangona ingumbutho onxibelelene ngokusondeleyo noluntu loohlohlesakhe, inoveli yeenyani wakhonza ukubamba umnqweno wohlaziyo kunye nenkqubela phambili yabemi jikelele
  • Injongo ecacileyo yokuchaza ubomi bemihla ngemihla ezitalatweni, ngaphandle kwamabinzana athethelelayo okanye anembono efanelekileyo;
  • Ibhenca ukungangqinelani kwezobupolitika, ukuwohloka kokuziphatha kwabefundisi, ubuxoki bebutho labantu, ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu kunye nokuthanda izinto eziphathekayo kwabantu;
  • Ukwakhiwa kwabalinganiswa kunye neprofayili yengqondo, umzimba kunye nesimo sengqondo somntu oqhelekileyo, kunye neziphene zabo kunye nokuchasana. Akukho nto yakwenza namagorha afanelekileyo kunye nabalinganiswa abaphambili bababhali bothando;
  • Umbalisi wazi zonke iinkcukacha malunga nabalinganiswa: ixesha elidlulileyo, ukwenzakala, okwangoku, iingcinga kunye namaphupha. Bahlala bechatshazelwa yimekobume abahlala kuyo kwaye, ngenxa yoko, badla ngokuthanda ukuhlazeka kunye nokusilela;
  • Ababhali banikezela ngokubaluleka okukhulu kumanani abasetyhini nakuluntu olungaphezu kovavanyo lomntu ngamnye;
  • Ingxelo engakhethi buso ibaluleka kakhulu;
  • Ababhali baziqhelisa ukuphanda nokubhala ukuze kucaciswe ibali elikufutshane kangangoko kunokwenzeka kwinyani;
  • Umbalisi uveza iziganeko njengengqina, ngaphandle kokwamkela imbono yakhe kunye nembono ekude;
  • Ngokuhambelana nomlinganiswa owazi konke wombalisi, Umsonto obalisayo ubonakalisa isigqebelo kwezinye iimeko kwaye ufuna ukukhokela umfundi kwezinye (malunga nokubaluleka kwezinye iziganeko kunye/okanye abalinganiswa, umzekelo);
  • Iingxoxo ezichazwe ngobunzulu;
  • Ukusetyenziswa kolwimi oluchanekileyo, olungenarheto-buciko nefanelekileyo kwinkcubeko yomlinganiswa ngamnye, ke ngoko, iqhelekile kumagama akrwada xa umxholo ufuna oko, kunye nentetho-ntetho, amagama asemzini nezaci;
  • Ulwakhiwo lokubalisa olunomgca, olunesiqalo esichazwe kakuhle kunye nesiphelo, apho ukutsiba kwexesha kwenzeka ngokunqabileyo (okanye hayi kwaphela). Nangona kukho ukuhluka: ukusetyenziswa kwe-analepsis ukufaka isandla ekuqondeni a imeko yangoku;
  • Ukusasazwa kwezinto ezibizwa ngokuba ziinoveli zethisisi, apho, umbhali uxoxa ngokuxhaphaka kweengcamango zakhe ngokubhekiselele kumxholo wommandla ohlangeneyo.
  • Ababhali benyani bahlala bezama ukungaphoswa naziphi na iinkcukacha kwi-landscape kunye nesetingi zangaphakathi (umhombiso, i-architecture, i-aesthetics kunye nobungakanani bendawo, phakathi kwabanye). Kwenzeka into efanayo ngabalinganiswa: izijekulo, ulwimi lomzimba, iimvakalelo, uvakalelo...

Iinoveli eziyimifuziselo yenyani yoncwadi lwaseSpain kunye neyona misebenzi ibalaseleyo

Isicatshulwa nguJuan Valera

Isicatshulwa nguJuan Valera

  • UJuan Valera (1824 - 1905): Pepita Jimenez (), UJuanita uMde ();
  • UBenito Pérez Galdós (1843 – 1920): Mfazi ogqibeleleyo (1876) UFortunata noJacinta (1886-87), Iziqendu zeSizwe (uluhlu lwemiqulu engama-48);
  • UEmilia Pardo Bazán (1851 – 1921): Umqolo (1883) I-pazos de Ulloa (1886-87), Amabali aseMarineda (1892);
  • Leopoldo Alas – Clarín (1852 – 1901): UMlawuli (1884-85), Ukuthetha kancinci (1894) Sala kakuhle Mvana (inoveli emfutshane);
  • UVicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867-1928): Umkhosi (1898) Icawa enkulu (1903) Abakhweli bamahashe abane besityhilelo (1916).

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo, shiya eyakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   URaúl Ariel Victoriano sitsho

    Inqaku elihle kakhulu, ligqibelele kwaye liqhutywa ngomoya wokubulela. Sivuyisana nawe emsebenzini. Ndiyabulisa.