Imbongi eNew York

Ibinzana nguFederico García Lorca.

Ibinzana nguFederico García Lorca.

Igama likaFederico García Lorca lihambelana nobukhulu kunye nentlekele. Eyakhe yimisebenzi emininzi emele imibongo yaseSpain yenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, phakathi kwayo, Imbongi eNew York ithathwa njengeyona ifanelekileyo. Akumangalisi ukuba, uninzi lweengcali zemfundo zikhomba kwesi siqwenga siphefumlelweyo sisixeko saseMelika njengendawo yokuguqula umsebenzi wakhe.

Imbongi yaseGranada yabhala Imbongi eNew York ngelixa uhlala "kwisixeko esingalali" (Juni 1929 - Matshi 1930). Liqhekeza eliqulunqwe ngeendinyana ezikhululekile ezilayishwe ngemifanekiso ye-surreal, igqibelele ukubonisa umbhodamo okhoyo wedolophu. Apho, uLorca wabonisa ubunzima bezona zinto zihlelelekile kwi-teknoloji kunye nokukhula kwempucuko.

Uhlalutyo Imbongi eNew York

Imixholo kunye nesimbo

ULorca ubonisa ngaphakathi Imbongi eNew York ingcaciso esulungekisiweyo ngakumbi kunye nengcamango yendaleko engenazo izihloko ezinxulunyaniswa nentsomi yelizwe lakowabo (ihlala rhoqo kwimisebenzi yangaphambili). Ngokunjalo, iindinyana ezibhaliweyo zasimahla ezilayishwe ngamagama anye, okuziphendulela kunye nokungenangqiqo, zifuna ukuphembelela umboniso womfundi ngokubonakaliswa okuzenzekelayo kweemvakalelo.

Ngesi sizathu, esi siqwenga simele indawo yotshintsho kwikhondo lembongi yaseAndalusi ukusuka kwisihobe semveli ukuya kwizindululo ze-avant-garde.. Azisekho iingoma zemetric ezisekwe kuthando kunye neculo (ngokucacileyo kwi Amaculo, umzekelo). Sele ekupheleni kweminyaka yee-1920, iingoma zikaLorca zanika indawo eninzi yokucinga kunye ne-surrealism.

Ukunciphisa ubuntu

Umsebenzi ophefumlelweyo yiBig Apple imele uqhanqalazo lwasentlalweni olubhentsisa iintsizi zabona bahlali babuthathaka besixeko esimbaxa. Apho, abantu base-Afrika-baseMelika kunye nabantwana beeklasi ezisezantsi babonakala behluthwe ngenkohlakalo ubuntu babo ngokonakalisa umatshini kunye nejometri yoyilo. Ngokwahlukileyo koko, umfanekiso oqingqiweyo ovezwe kwihlabathi liphela ubonisa isixeko esinobukhazikhazi.

Ngokufanayo, U-Lorca wakwenza kwacaca ukubugatya kwakhe ubukhapitali kunye neziphumo zophuculo. Ngokunjalo, ucalucalulo olucwangcisiweyo kunye nokungabikho kokusesikweni okungapheliyo okuxhatshazwa ngabantu abancinci abamnyama kwazalisa umbhali waseGranada ngokungenathemba. Ngoko, Imbongi eNew York Ithathwa njengesikhalo esixhasa inkululeko, ubuhle kunye nothando.

Ukufa

Izilwanyana zasezidolophini—izinja, ubukhulu becala—zigqibezela lo mmandla ulusizi komhlaba entsha yor. Izinja azibaleki kwintlekele eveliswa yimpucuko ephuhlileyo, ehlukanisiweyo, ethanda izinto eziphathekayo kunye nokuhanahanisa. Ngapha koko, ixesha alinakuba libi kakhulu: Ukufika kukaLorca kumhlaba waseMntla waseMelika kwenzeka ngobusuku bangaphambi kweNtshontsho ye-1929.

Ngenxa yoko, umbhali wase-Iberia waziva enomsindo omkhulu njengoko wayekhenketha eHarlem nabahlobo bakhe bejazz bevela kwiklabhu yeParadesi encinci. Le mibono yayibonakala kwintoni U-Lorca wabiza "ingcinezelo yomntu ngumntu" kwihlathi elibandayo nelimnyama lekhonkrithi. Oku kwavelisa ungquzulwano olungaphambili nokukhanya kwendalo okusingqongileyo kunye namandla awayewaqhelile.

Iingxoxo zangaphakathi

Ukuziphatha okubi okwafunyanwa ngabantu abakumgangatho ophantsi kwavuselela uvelwano lwembongi nayo eyayizigqala ibotshelelwe yindibano. Okwangoku, U-Lorca watyhila ngokufihlakeleyo ukuphikisana okuveliswe bubufanasini bakhe phakathi kwemigaqo engqongqo yezentlalo yelo xesha.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba ukhetho lwesondo lukaLorca luhlala luyingxoxo yeembali-mlando. kungaphezulu, olo lungelelwaniso lwaluyinxalenye yokuthotyelwa (kunye nezityholo zokunxulumana namaqela amakomanisi) esetyenziswa ngamaFalangist ukuthethelela ukubanjwa kwabo kunye nokuphunyezwa okulandelayo.

Umsebenzi wokuqinisekisa ngokusisigxina

Izikhalazo athe uLorca wavakalisa kuzo Imbongi eNew York phantse kwinkulungwane eyadlulayo zisafihlakele nanamhlanje. Ngokuqinisekileyo, ukwenza idijithali akulungise ukungalingani okukhulu kwezentlalo ngelixa abona bantu bahlelelekileyo beqhubeka bengabonakali ngaphakathi komfanekiso oqaqambileyo oqikelelwa kwezinye iindawo. Ngaphezu koko, oku kuphikisana kusaqhubeka kwezinye izixeko ezininzi ezikhulu kwesi sijikelezi-langa.

Isicatshulwa kwi "Dusk eConey Island"

Inenekazi elityebileyo laliphambili

ukukhupha iingcambu kunye nokumanzisa i-parchment yamagubu;

umfazi otyebileyo

oko kujika iingwane ezifayo ngaphakathi ngaphandle.

Umfazi otyebileyo, lutshaba lwenyanga;

ebaleka ezitratweni nakwiiflethi ezingahlali bantu

kwaye ushiye iintloko zehobe ezincinci ezikoneni

kwaye yanyusa ingqumbo yamatheko eenkulungwane ezidlulileyo

waza wabiza idemon yesonka phezu kweenduli zesibhakabhaka esitshayelayo

kwaye yahluzwa ulangazelelo lokukhanya kujikelezo olungaphantsi komhlaba.

Ngamangcwaba ndiyayazi, ngamangcwaba

kunye neentlungu zasekhitshini ezingcwatywe phantsi kwesanti,

ngaba abafileyo, ama-pheasants kunye nama-apile enye iyure

abo basityhala emqaleni.

Malunga nombhali, uFederico Garcia Lorca

UFederico García Lorca.

UFederico García Lorca.

Yena "imbongi yomfeli-nkolo» yaba luphawu lokuchasa emva kokubulawa kwakhe ezandleni zeqela labavukeli ngexesha leMfazwe yombango. Ababhali-mbali bakholelwa ukuba esi siganeko sabulawa ngoAgasti 18, 1936, kwindlela ephakathi kweViznar neAlfacar, eGranada. Ngale ndlela, ubomi bembongi ekude ngaphambi kweSpeyin yexesha lakhe kwaye enye yeempawu zeGeneration ye-27 yacinywa.

Ngesi sizathu, Ubomi bukaFederico García Lorca bunokuchazwa kuphela ukususela ebuntwaneni bakhe ukuya ebusheni bakhe, ekubeni ukukhula kwayo kwakukufutshane kakhulu. Wazalwa ngoJuni 5, 1898, eFuente Vaqueros, eGranada. Wakhulela kwintsapho ephethwe ngumnini-mhlaba (uyise) kunye nomfundisi (unina), okwamvumela ukuba abe ngumntwana ozele ukuhamba emaphandleni, ukufunda, umculo kunye novuyo.

Ulutsha oluzele luhambo kunye novuyo lwengqondo

Ngowe-1914 uFederico oselula ubhalise kwiYunivesithi yaseGranada, khona apho wafunda umsebenzi weNzululwazi kunye neeleta kunye noMthetho. Ngexesha lakhe lokuzonwabisa, uthando lwakhe lokubhala lwavuka ngelixa wayekhenketha ijografi yaseSpain ekunye nabafundi afunda nabo eyunivesithi. Ngelo xesha, wagqiba ukubhala kwakhe kokuqala, Iimpawu kunye neembonakalo zomhlaba (1918).

Kamva, uLorca wahlala iminyaka embalwa kwi-Residencia de los Estudiantes eyaziwayo eMadrid, apho wadibana khona nezinto ezithandwa ngu-Einstein noMarie Curie (phakathi kwabanye). Njengokuba, Kanye kunye nabaculi kunye neengqondo ezinjengoSalvador Dali, uRafael Alberti okanye uLuis Buñuel, imbongi yaseAndalusi yayiyinxalenye yentshukumo ye-avant-garde. eyadlulela kwizizukulwana phantsi kwegama elithi "Isizukulwana se-27".

Ukhenketho lwaseMelika

Ingxabano yezopolitiko yombhali waseSpain kunye ulawulo lobuzwilakhe lukaPrimo de Rivera lwamshukumisela ukuba emke eSpeyin phakathi kwentwasahlobo ye-1929 nehlobo le-1930. Ngeli xesha, wanikela iintetho ngelixa enxibelelana ngokusondeleyo nenkcubeko kunye nabantu beendawo ezinje ngeNew York, Vermont, Miami, Havana kunye neSantiago de Cuba.

Ngokufanayo, uLorca wabhala Imbongi eNew York —yapapashwa kwiminyaka emine emva kokufa kwakhe—kwaye, Ngexesha lokuhlala kwakhe kwiCaribbean, owona msebenzi wakhe weqonga wawubalasele Uluntu. Ingqondi evela eGranada yayiza kubuyela kwilizwekazi laseMelika ngo-1933, xa wenza imiboniso eyimpumelelo yeziqwenga zakhe ezimangalisayo (kunye nenani elihle leenkomfa) eBuenos Aires naseMontevideo.

Ulwakhiwo

Iincwadi zemibongo

  • Amaculo (1921)
  • Umbongo kaCante jondo (1921)
  • Ode ukuya eSalvador Dalí (1926)
  • Ukuthandana kwamaGypsy (1928)
  • Imbongi eNew York (1930)
  • Isijwili ngo-Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (1935)
  • imibongo emithandathu yeGalician (1935)
  • iisonnets zothando ezimnyama (1936)
  • Tamarit Divan (1940)

iziqwenga zethiyetha

  • Ibhabhathane Hex (1920)
  • UMariana pineda (1927)
  • Umenzi wezihlangu obalaseleyo (1930)
  • Isibingelelo saseDon Cristóbal (1930)
  • Uluntu (1930)
  • Ngoko iminyaka emihlanu iyahamba (1931)
  • Uthando lukaDon Perlimplín noBelisa kwigadi yakhe (1933)
  • Umtshato wegazi (1933)
  • uludlolo (1934)
  • UDoña Rosita ongatshatanga okanye ulwimi lweentyatyambo (1935)
  • Indlu kaBernarda Alba (1936).

Iprose

  • Iimpawu kunye neembonakalo zomhlaba (1918).

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.