UPio Baroja: iincwadi

Ibinzana likaPio Baroja

Ibinzana likaPio Baroja

UPío Baroja y Nessi wayengumbhali owazalelwa eSan Sebastián, eSpain, ngoDisemba 28, 1872, engowomntu obizwa ngokuba sisizukulwana sika-98. Imeko yombhali waseSan Sebastian ayiqhelekanga, kuba wafumana isidanga sobugqirha kwezamayeza. ngaphambi kokuzinikela ngokupheleleyo kubizo lwakhe loncwadi. Nangona ekwazinikele kwithiyetha, inoveli ludidi olubalisayo olwamenza waziwa.

Ngokufanayo, Iincwadi zeBaroja zibonisa iimpawu ezine ezimele utyekelo lwakhe lwefilosofi nezopolitiko: ukuthandabuza, ukuchasa ubuzwe, ukungathembeki komntu ngamnye kunye ne-anarchism. Ukongezelela, umsebenzi wombhali weBasque ubonisa izinto ezicacileyo ezichasene ne-rhetorical-eziqinisekisiweyo ngentetho edibeneyo-kunye nomsindo kude nokwenyani.

Ibali likaPío Baroja

iimpawu zesimbo

  • Ukubhala amabinzana aphathekayo kwaye kude kuyo nayiphi na imfundo
  • ukulula okucacileyo
  • Ukukhethwa kwezona mpawu zibalulekileyo zomntu okanye into (graphic impressionism) endaweni yenkcazo eneenkcukacha.
  • Ilizwi elirhabaxa libonakaliswa ngesigama esahlula umxholo kunye nezicwangciso ezihambelana nesimo sengqondo sombhali sokungabi nathemba.
  • Ubukho bezincoko ezimfutshane ezizinziswe embindini webali ukuze ubambe ezinye zeengcamango ezithile zombhali.
  • Ukuncipha kwexesha kunye nendawo (iphunyezwe ngesantya esibalisayo), esivumela ukugubungela bonke ubomi bomntu okanye izizukulwana.
  • Ukusetyenziswa kwezahluko ezimfutshane
  • Iingxoxo zendalo kakhulu kunye nencoko.
  • Ukuchaneka kolwimi; into nganye icaciswe ngamagama ngqo ukuze kukhuthazwe ukufunda okuguquguqukayo nokonwabelayo kwezicatshulwa.

(ngokungafanelekanga) ukuhlelwa kweencwadi zakhe

IPio Baroja walungiselela (ngendlela engacwangciswanga ngandlel’ ithile) iincwadi zakhe ezibhaliweyo zaba ziitriloji ezisithoba neetetraloji ezimbini. Phakathi kwezo seti, "Saturnalia" yayiluchungechunge olwapapashwa phantse ngokupheleleyo emva kokufa kukaBaroja, okwenzeka eMadrid, ngo-Oktobha 30, 1956.

Le meko yenzeka ukuze kuthintelwe ukujongana novavanyo lwe-Francoist (ingakumbi kwimiba enxulumene neMfazwe yombango). Ngaphezu koko, iincwadi ezisixhenxe zokugqibela ezigqitywe nguBaroja zithathwa njengeenoveli ezingachanekanga. kuba zingeyonxalenye yohlelo oluyilwe ngumbhali. Amaqela ekuthethwa ngawo ngala:

umhlaba we-basque

  • Indlu ka-Aizgorri (1900)
  • Indawo yaseLabraz (1903)
  • UZalacaín umgwebi (1908)
  • Ibali likaJaun de Alzate (1922).

ubomi obumangalisayo

  • I-Adventures, ukuveliswa kunye nokungaqondakali kweSilvestre Paradox (1901)
  • Indlela yemfezeko (inkanuko eyimfihlakalo) (1901)
  • i-paradox ukumkani (1906).

Umzabalazo wobomi

  • Uphendlo (1904)
  • Ukhula olubi (1904)
  • isifingo esibomvu (1904).

Elidlulileyo

  • Umboniso wengqondi (1905)
  • ezokugqibela romantics (1906)
  • Iintlekele ezimanyumnyezi (1907).

Ugqatso

Iidolophu

  • Kesare okanye akukho nto (1910)
  • ihlabathi linjalo (1912)
  • Inkanuko egqwethekileyo: izincoko zothando zendoda engaziyo kwiminyaka yobudala yokonakala (1920).

Ulwandle

  • Iinkxalabo zikaShanti Andía (1911)
  • Ilebyrinth yeemamymaid (1923)
  • Abaqhubi bokuphakama (1929)
  • Inkwenkwezi yeKapteni Chimista (1930).

iintlungu kwixesha lethu

  • Umoya omkhulu wehlabathi (1926)
  • Iimeko zethamsanqa (1927)
  • uthando late (1926).

ihlathi elimnyama

  • Intsapho ka-Errotacho (1932)
  • isaqhwithi (1932)
  • Ababonisi (1932).

ulutsha olulahlekileyo

  • Ubusuku beRetreat elungileyo (1934)
  • Umbingeleli waseMonleón (1936)
  • carnival impambano (1937).

Saturnalia

  • imvumi ebhadulayo (1950)
  • iinkxwaleko zemfazwe (2006)
  • Iminqweno yethamsanqa (2015).

iinoveli ezikhululekileyo

  • USusana kunye nabaqhubi beendiza (1938)
  • ULaura okanye isithukuthezi esingenathemba (1939)
  • Izolo nanamhlanje (yapapashwa eChile ngowe-1939)
  • I Knight of Erlaiz (1943)
  • Ibhulorho yemiphefumlo (1944)
  • Ihotele yaseSwan (1946)
  • imvumi ebhadulayo (1950).
IPio Baroja

IPio Baroja

Ushwankathelo lwezona ncwadi zinemifuziselo zikaPío Baroja

Indawo yaseLabraz (1903)

Yinoveli ebekwe kwindawo ezisemaphandleni zase-Álava ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Kuye, UBaroja ubalisa njengochungechunge lwedrama yosapho oomayorazgo wabo udlalwa nguDon Juan de Labraz.indoda eyimfama. Lo wamva ubona uxolo lwedolophu yakhe luguquka xa udadewabo uCesárea ebuyela edolophini kunye nomyeni wakhe onganyanisekanga, uRamiro, ebangela ubutshaba phakathi kwabazalwana.

URamiro uqala ngokuhenda uMarina—intombi yenkosikazi yakhe—kwaye emva koko wahenda udade wabo uMicaela., aceba naye ukukhawulezisa ukufa kukaCesárea (onempilo enkenenkene) aze abaleke emva kokuba ezinye izinto ezazisenziwa ecaweni. Kamva, uRosarito, intombi kaRamiro noCesárea, naye uyafa. Okwangoku, uDon Juan kufuneka anyamezele ukuhleba okunjalo kwindawo yezithethe kunye nezithethe ze-puritanical.

Uphendlo (1904)

Kuqikelelwa ngababhali-mbali njengenye yeencwadi ezibaluleke kakhulu zeBaroja, Uphendlo Ifumaneka kwezona ndawo zihlwempuzekileyo zaseMadrid. Pha, UManuel, umlinganiswa ophambili, uhlala engazinzanga kuba kunzima kakhulu ukuba afumane umsebenzi ozinzileyo. Kodwa, nangona ubomi bemihla ngemihla bubuhlungu kunye nokhuseleko olukhoyo, akaze alahlekelwe lithemba lokuzakhela ubomi obungcono.

Umthi wesayensi (1911)

Ngowona msebenzi waziwa kakhulu wombhali waseSpain-kunzima kakhulu ukuhlanganisa amagama ambalwa-kunye iphonononga nzulu le migaqo yefilosofi ilandelayo:

  • Ungquzulwano phakathi kwepositivism kunye ne-vitalism; ifakwe ngabalinganiswa ababini abasembindini webali: uAndrés Hurtado kunye nomalume u-Iturrioz.
  • UAndrew (umxhasi) ikholose ngenkqubela phambili yenzululwazi njengempendulo kwiingxaki zobukho bomntu.
  • Iturrioz (vitalist), ibonisa ukutyekela kwimigaqo kaNietzsche ekhuthaza ukulahlwa kwemilinganiselo yobuYuda nobuKrestu.
  • ukungabi nathemba kwengqondo, ingcamango exhaphakileyo eYurophu ngenxa yokugxeka kuka-Immanuel Kant kwiingcamango zeNgqiqo (uThixo, umphefumlo kunye nehlabathi).
  • Indlela ka-Arthur Schopenhauer: ulwazi lwenzululwazi luchasene nentsingiselo yobomi kumntu ngamnye.
  • Umyalezo we-nihilistic ekugqibeleni: Ukufa komntu kuzisa ukufa kweNdalo yonke.
Ukuthengisa Umthi wesayensi ...

Ubusuku bomhlalaphantsi olungileyo (1934)

Kule noveli, iBaroja igxile kumxholo okhoyo wakudala: ubufutshane bobomi. Kuyo, umbhali uvusa inqanaba leMadrid ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ebonakaliswe ngumbutho we-bohemian ogcwele ukungalingani. Ngokunjalo, le ncwadi ibonisa uthotho lwabalinganiswa abaphikisanayo, abakwisinye kunye nabanxungupheleyo kwindawo ethatha inqanaba lenkcubeko yomntu ngamnye njengento engenamsebenzi.

Olunye uphawu olwahlukileyo lwale noveli kukusetyenziswa kwebali eliyintsomi elixutywe nendalo yeendibano ezininzi zoluntu eziphuhliswe kwisicatshulwa. Ukwengeza, iinkumbulo zolutsha zivelisa imvakalelo yokulangazelela kubadlali abaphambili ebalini, owadala ibhondi ekhethekileyo kwiJardines del Buen Retiro.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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