UGustave Flaubert. Iminyaka eyi-197 yombhali kaMadame Bovary okanye uSalambó

Gustave UFlaubert Wazalwa ngoDisemba 12, 1821 eRouen, ngesiFrentshi iNormandy. Ke ngoku yiminyaka eyi-197 ukusukela oko umbhali weenoveli ezimbini ezisisiseko zenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kwaye zombini zinegama lomfazi. Madam Bovary y USalambo. Namhlanje kwimemori yakhe ndikhumbula lo mbhali mkhulu weGallic ene Ukukhetha amazwibela kwezi kunye neminye imisebenzi yakhe.

UGustave Flaubert

Unyana ka Ugqirha, Achille-Cléophas Flaubert, wayengowakhe i-madre, U-Anne-Justine-Caroline, oyena mntu wamelwa kakhulu kubomi bukaGustave Flaubert.

UFlaubert waqalisa ukufunda Ekunene, kodwa wayishiya ngenxa yakhe Isifo sokuwa nabanye ukungalingani kwemithambo luvo. Oku kwanefuthe kuye uneentloni kunye nohlobo lwe-neurotic. Ke ubukho bakhe uhlala efuna ukuba luhle kakhulu. Wayehlala eCroisset, apho iiFlaubert zazinendlu yelizwe. Kulapho ke wabhala khona imisebenzi yakhe eyaziwa kakhulu.

Nangona kunjalo, wahambela amazwe ahlukeneyo anje I-Egypt, iSyria, iTurkey okanye i-Itali, utyelelo olushiye uphawu kunye nenkuthazo kwimisebenzi yakhe. Kananjalo, kwaye ngaphandle kokugcina unxibelelwano oluninzi nabantu, wayenamagama abalulekileyo ekubhaleni ixesha lakhe njengezihlobo, ezinje U-Emile Zola okanye uGeorge Sand.

Usweleke ngenxa ye Ukopha ebuchotsheni Ngo-Meyi 8, 1880 eneminyaka engama-59 ubudala. Ungcwatyelwe emangcwabeni eRouen.

Uhlobo kunye nomsebenzi

UFlaubert uyile ngaphakathi Uncwadi oluyinyani noluyinyani. Umsebenzi wakhe odumileyo ngokungathandabuzekiyo Madam Bovaryyapapashwa ngo-1857, inoveli ebalisa ubunyani be-a ukrexeze umfazi wongxowankulu. Kule ncwadi uFlaubert watshutshiswa kwaye wazanywa ukuzama ngokuchasene nokuziphatha koluntu, kodwa ekugqibeleni wafunyanwa engenatyala.

Ezinye izihloko ezibalulekileyo yinoveli yezembali USalambo, Ukulingwa kweSan Antonio, Iinkumbulo zomntu ophambeneyo o Imbalelwano, Ukudityaniswa kweeleta zakho, okanye Imfundo yeemvakalelo, esekwe kwimicimbi yakhe yothando yokufikisa kunye no-Elisa Schlesinger.

Ezi zezinye iziqwenga ezikhethiweyo zemisebenzi yakhe.

Madam Bovary

Ah, umtsalane kuphela wobomi bakhe wawusekho, ekuphela kwethemba lolonwabo! Wayengalithathi njani elo xabiso xa wayeziswa lona? Kutheni angazange ambambe ngezandla zozibini, ngamadolo omabini, xa wayefuna ukubaleka? Waziqalekisa ngokungamthandi uLeon; unxanelwe imilebe yomlomo wakhe. Wayefuna ukubaleka aye kuye, aziphose ezingalweni zakhe, athi kuye: "Ndim, ndingowakho!"

Izizathu kunye nobuganga

«Ngokubhekiselele kwingcamango yelizwe, oko kukuthi, isahlulo esithile somhlaba esitsalwe kwimephu kwaye sahlulwe kwabanye ngomgca obomvu okanye oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, hayi! Kum, ilizwe lakowabo lilizwe endilifunayo, oko kukuthi, ilizwe endiliphuphayo, elo ndiziva ndikhululekile kulo ».

Iinkumbulo zomntu ophambeneyo

«Ukunambitheka kwam kunye nentliziyo yam yayonakele, njengoko ootitshala bam batsho, kwaye, phakathi kwabantu abaninzi abanotyekelo olungenantlonelo, ukuzimela kwam ngokomoya kwandenza ndabona ukuba yeyona nto iphosakeleyo; wehliselwa kwelona zinga lisezantsi lokuziphakamisa. Abazange bavumele ukuba ndicinge, oko kukuthi, ngokutsho kwabo, ukuphakanyiswa kwengqondo engummelwane yempambano ».

USalambo

"UHamilcar wayecinga ukuba oonogada bazakumlinda e-Utica okanye bazakubuyela kuye, kwaye eqonda ukuba imikhosi yakhe ayonelanga ukuhlasela okanye ukumelana nayo, wabhekisa emazantsi, ecaleni konxweme lomlambo olulungileyo, olwathi kwangoko lwambeka. ikhuselwe nakweyiphi na into emothusayo. Wayefuna, ngokuthi kuqala alibale imvukelo yakhe, ukuba ahlule zonke izizwe kwinjongo yabangenguye, emva koko, xa wayebabeka bodwa embindini wamaphondo, ukuba awele kubo abatshabalalise.

Kwiintsuku ezilishumi elinesine wawuzolisa lo mmandla uphakathi kweRucaber neUtica, kunye nezixeko zaseTignicaba, iTesurah, iVaca kunye nezinye ezisentshona. Zunghar, eyakhiwe ezintabeni; I-Asuras, idume ngetempile yayo; Yerado, isityebi ngemijunipha; UTaphitis noHagur bathumela kuye oonozakuzaku. Abantu basemaphandleni beza begcwele imiphako ngezandla zabo, babongoza ukukhuselwa kwakhe, bamanga iinyawo zakhe nezamajoni, kwaye bakhalaza ngabantu abangaqhelekanga. Abanye beza kuzomnikela, ezingxoweni, iintloko zamajoni zibulawa ngabo, batsho, kodwa ngubani kanye obanqumle kwizidumbu, kuba uninzi lwalulahlekile xa lwalubaleka lwaza lwafunyanwa lufile kwiminquma nakwiidiliya.

Ukulingwa kweSan Antonio

Cima, ubumnyama buba nzulu. Kwaye ngequbuliso badlula emoyeni, kuqala ichibi lamanzi, emva koko ihenyukazi, emva koko ikona yetempile, ubuso bejoni, inqwelo enamahashe amabini amhlophe. Le mifanekiso iza ngesiquphe, ngokungxama, ime ngaphandle ebusuku ngokungathi yimizobo ebomvu kwimithi ye-ebony. Ukuhamba kwakhe kuyakhawuleza. Benza umngcelele ngendlela eyothusayo. Ngamanye amaxesha bayayeka kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe bajike, baphele ngokuxutywa. Nokuba bayabhabha bemke kwaye abanye bafika kwangoko.
UAntonio uvale amehlo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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