UEmilia Pardo Bazán

UEmilia Pardo Bazán.

UEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Isidima sikaPardo Bazán Wayengoyena mntu ubalulekileyo kwezabasetyhini eSpain ngexesha lokugqibela kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye nasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX.. Enkosi kuqeqesho olutyebileyo lwemfundo olunikezwe ngutata wakhe, u-Emilia Pardo Bazán wabonakala njengombhali, intatheli, umbhali wemidlalo edlalwayo, umguquleli, umhlohli kunye novulindlela wamalungelo abasetyhini.

Umsebenzi wakhe woncwadi ubanzi kakhulu, uquka iinoveli, isihobe, izincoko, ukuhlela nokugxeka. Impikiswano yayiyimeko ephindaphindayo ebomini bakhe njengoko wayehlala esebenzisa iindlela zobugcisa ze-avant-garde (njengomanduleli wendalo) nokukhusela ngokuqinileyo ukulingana ngokwesini. Ngesi sizathu, ngaphandle kokuqokelela ngaphezulu kweemfaneleko ezaneleyo, akazange amkelwe kwiRoyal Spanish Academy.

Ubuntwana, ulutsha kunye nemisebenzi yokuqala

U-Emilia Pardo-Bazán kunye no-de la Rúa Figueroa Wazalwa ngoSeptemba 16, 1851, kwintsapho yeengcungcu evela eLa Coruña, eSpain. Wayengumbhali onobuchule, ukusuka ebusheni bakhe wabonisa imeko entle yokufunda kunye nomsebenzi wobukrelekrele. Kwiminyaka ye-13 wabhala inoveli yakhe yokuqala, Ukuzonwabisa okuyingozi (epapashwe ngo-2012).

Emva kokuguqula iminyaka eyi-16 (ngo-1868) watshata noJosé Quiroga waya kuhlala eMadrid. Esi sibini sahamba kakhulu eYurophu; Ngokwababhali, yayiyimanyano evisisanayo. UDoña Emilia wapapasha ingxelo yolu hambo kwiphephandaba i-El Imparcial, nakwincwadi yakhe YeYurophu yamaKatolika (I-1901), apho acebisa ukuhamba ubuncinci kube kanye ngonyaka ngoqeqesho lokuzifundisa, kunye nokubonisa isidingo se "Europeanization" yaseSpain.

Esi sibini sasinabantwana abathathu: uJaime (1876), uBlanca (1879) noCarmen (1881). Ngeli xesha wenza upapasho lokuqala njengombhali, isincoko Isifundo esibalulekileyo semisebenzi kaBawo Feijoo nencwadi yemibongo Jaime (enikezelwe kunyana wakhe wamazibulo), bobabini basebenza ukusukela ngo-1976. Kananjalo, ngo-1877 wachaza imbono yakhe ngokuchasene neenkolelo zikaDarwin malunga nemvelaphi yezilwanyana kwiphephancwadi. Inzululwazi yamaKristu. Ukuba uEmilia Pardo Bazán naye wema into, kungenxa yamabinzana akhe adumileyo.

Kule minyaka ilandelayo, uEmilia Pardo IBazán yayizuza udumo kunye, U-Pascual López, umlando wobomi bomfundi wezonyango (1879) kunye Ikhefu lomtshato (1881), Iinoveli ezimbini zothando ngohlobo olusebenzayo lokubaliswa. Ngale yokugqibela, kubonakala ngokucacileyo izinto ezibeka indawo yasebukhosini yaseGalician njengomnye wabanduleli beNdalo, ngenxa yenkcazo eneenkcukacha zomzimba wezinto zendalo kunye nabalinganiswa.

ibinzana nguEmilia Pardo Bazán.

ibinzana nguEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Ukukhula koncwadi

Ukusukela nge-1881, u-Emilia Pardo Bazán wayegcina unxibelelwano lwe-epistolary kunye noBenito Pérez Galdós. Ekuqaleni yayi bubudlelwane boncwadi, nangona kunjalo, emva kokupapashwa kwe Umbuzo ovuthayo (Ngo-1883) kwavela impikiswano eyomeleleyo ejikeleze incwadi eyamhlazisa umyeni wakhe kwaye yakhokelela ekwahlukaneni ngobuhlobo. Kwaye uninzi lwabahlobo bakhe abasenyongweni bahlasela i-Countess ngokuba yayingumsebenzi wokungakholelwa kubukho bukaThixo, uthandeka "kwimifanekiso engamanyala yaseFrance."

Kunyaka ophelileyo (1882), uDoña Emilia wapapashwa Umqolo, Umsebenzi ophethe izinto zentlalo nezopolitiko ezenziwe ngobuchule bendalo, ithathelwe ingqalelo njengomnye wemisebenzi yakhe yokuqala ukuthethelela amalungelo abasetyhini. Ukongeza, kulo msebenzi ubandakanya isebe labasebenzi njengento ebalulekileyo kwimpikiswano.

Linqanaba apho akhusela khona uncwadi lwaseSpain kwaye azisa ngesindululo sendalo kwizincoko zakhe zobuntatheli ngo-Émilie Zola, epapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ixesha. Kwi-1885 ukumiliselwa kwe Intombazana encinci, Ebhekisa kwiingxaki zomtshato.

Ngo-1886 kwavela inoveli eyaziwayo nguEmilia Pardo Bazán, I-pazos de Ulloa. Kungumsebenzi wendalo obekwe kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni zaseGalicia ukubonisa ukungqubana phakathi koluntu olucocekileyo lwedolophu kunye nabantu abasuka kwezona ndawo zisemaphandleni zibuyela umva. Apho, abalinganiswa babonisa indawo kaZola malunga nefuthe kwindalo esingqongileyo kwi-etiology yabantu.

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
"Iipazos de Ulloa" nguEmilia Pardo Bazán

I-pazos de Ulloa UEmilia Pardo Bazán wangcwalisa njengomnye wababhali abaphambili baseSpain ngalo lonke ixesha. Inoveli ijongene nembonakalo yokwenyani yokwehla kwendima yeengcungcu eluntwini. Ngo-1887 wapapasha Uhlobo lomama, inoveli yendalo ebalisa ngokuthabatheka kokulalana phakathi kwabantu abancinci ababini abangazaziyo ukuba bangabazalwana.

Ukusa kude kwindalo

Emva kokwahlukana nomyeni wakhe, wakwazi ukuzinikela ngokukhululekileyo ekuphononongeni utyekelo lwengqondo. Wayesoloko engenelela kwi-journalism kunye nasekulweleni inkululeko yabasetyhini. Ngale ndlela, izincoko ezinje Inguquko kunye nenoveli eRashiya (1987) okanye Umfazi waseSpain (I-1890), eyaziwayo luluntu kunye nabagxeki boncwadi.

Indalo kaMama, incwadi kaEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Indalo kaMama, incwadi kaEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Nangona engayekanga ukuncoma iimfundiso zikaZola, I-1890s yaphawula indlela ka-Emilia Pardo Bazán yokujonga umbono kunye nesimboli, ekonakaleni kwendalo. Olu luvo luqinisekisiwe kwimisebenzi enje Umkristu (1890) Amabali akhethiweyo (1891) UNksk Milagros (1894) Chimera (1895) Izikhumbuzo zeBachelor (1896) Iimbali ezingcwele (1899) Intsimbi emnyama emnyama (1908) kunye Mnini mnandi (1911), phakathi kwabanye.

Esinye isizathu esakhokelela ekubeni uPardo Bazán azihlukanise nendalo yayiyimibutho enokumisela ubuhlanga, Ukufika kwabo kubhekisa kwilifa lobuhlanga kunye nobuhlanga. Yisikhundla esize ukuzithethelela Umzekeliso wobugcisa (Ngo-1899), malunga nokuchasana nobuJuda kwimicimbi yaseDreyfus. Nangona kunjalo, kuyimfuneko ukucacisa ukuba akazange azichaze njengobuhlanga (into eqinisekiswe ziingcali ezininzi zoncwadi).

Ithiyetha eNtsha eCritical

Emva kokufa kukayise ngo-1890, u-Doña Emilia Usebenzise ilifa elikhulu looyise ukuxhasa ngezimali ukudala Ithiyetha eNtsha eCritical.Olu papasho yayingumagazini wezentlalo nezopolitiko obhalwe nguye ehlonipha uBenito Jerónimo Feijoo. Yayibandakanya izincoko, ukugxeka ubhalo, ulwazi kwabanye ababhali, kunye nophando lwezopolitiko kunye nezifundo zentlalo ukubonisa ubunyani bexesha lakhe.

Ngexesha layo lokuqala, Ithiyetha eNtsha eCritical yamkelwe kakuhle kakhulu ngenxa yesitayile sayo esithe ngqo, esifutshane nesinyanisekileyo. Kodwa eli phephancwadi lamzisela abachasi abatsha (ngakumbi kwihlabathi elaligcinwayo le-aristocracy yaseSpain), owayembiza ngokuba ngumasto kunye novukelo (inqaku elinemvukelo, lokuba ngumfazi nje).

Emva kweminyaka emithathu, uPardo Bazán wathi ndlela ntle kubafundi bakhe Ukuphikisa ukuba iphephancwadi limbangele "ukulahleka kwemali kunye nokuhlekisa."

Ilifa likaEmilia Pardo Bazán

Ubundlobongela yinto ehlala ihleli kwimisebenzi yokubala. Ngaphezulu kobutyebi bokubamba umfundi ngokusebenzisa inkcazo eneenkcukacha, yayiyindlela yokugxeka ukuphathwa gadalala ngokwasemzimbeni, ngokweemvakalelo nangokwasengqondweni kwabona bantu babuthathaka kuluntu.

Nangona ingazibandakanyi iindlela zobundlongondlongo kubalinganiswa abadala abangamadoda, ukuqaqamba kwayo okuchukumisayo kwabonakaliswa kukuxhatshazwa okufunyanwa ziintsana kwaye, ngakumbi abafazi. Ngesi sizathu, uthathwa njengomnye wabaphembeleli bokuqala bamalungelo abasetyhini. Umgangatho, ubhetyebhetye, kunye nobukhulu bomsebenzi wakhe awuzange uxatyiswe ngokupheleleyo de kwaba ngamashumi eminyaka emva kokunyamalala kwakhe.

U-Emilia Pardo Bazán ekufundeni.

U-Emilia Pardo Bazán ekufundeni.

Ngaphandle kwesimo sakhe kunye nokwamkelwa kwengqondo, Kude kube sekupheleni kweentsuku zayo, uluntu lwaseSpain aluyekanga ukuhlasela ukuya eBazán. Umbhali wenqatshelwe izithuba athe wazuza ngaphezulu ngomsebenzi wakhe, ngakumbi kwiRoyal Academy (wayekwa kathathu).

UEmilia Pardo Bazán Usweleke ngoMeyi 12, 1921, kwinombolo 27 Calle de la Princesa, Madrid.


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