UArturo Sánchez Sanz. Udliwanondlebe nombhali weBelisarius: Magister militum yoBukhosi baseMpuma baseRoma

Ukufota: UArturo Sánchez Sanz. Facebook.

UArturo Sanchez Sanz Ungugqirha kwiMbali yaMandulo nakwikharityhulamu yakhe kwilizwe lezemfundo kwaye njengombhali wezincoko ofundisayo ubanzi njengoko kubalulekile. Umsebenzi wakhe wamva nje, UBelisarius: Magister militum yoBukhosi baseMpuma baseRoma. Kule udliwano ndlebe Isixelela ngaye kwaye ikwasinika iklasi yeklasi malunga nolu hlobo kuncinci ukugqitywa ngabafundi. Imibulelo emininzi ngexesha lakho nobubele.

UArturo Sánchez Sanz. Udliwanondlebe

  • IINCWADI ZONCWADI: Ugqirha kwiMbali nakwiArchaeology kwiYunivesithi yaseComplutense, isincoko sakho sokugqibela esipapashiweyo UBelisarius: Magister militum yoBukhosi baseMpuma baseRoma. Uthetha ngantoni kuyo?

UMFANEKISO SÁNCHEZ SANZ: Umhlaba opapashayo uzele zizincoko zembali ezinikezelwe kwizihloko ezifanayo amaxesha ngamaxesha, kwaye eSpain le nyani ibaluleke kakhulu. UCleopatra, uKesare, iTercios, iAuschwitz ... yiyo loo nto, ukusukela kwisincoko sam sokuqala sizamile ukunikela ngento engaphezulu, into entsha eyahlukileyo. Uncwadi lwe-Anglo-Saxon luneziphene ezimbalwa malunga noku, kodwa kwiSpanish zimbalwa izincoko ezinikezelwe kwezinye izihloko, nangona ziyaziwa. Inyaniso, ababhali-mbali ngokwabo bathambekele ngakumbi ekugxileni kwilizwe elivaliweyo lemfundo. Inkqubo yangoku yemfundo ephezulu inyanzela ukuba sibhale kuphela amanqaku kunye nezincoko ezizodwa kangangokuba akukho mntu ngaphandle koogxa bethu onokwetyisa.

Ukuxelwa okungokwembali kuyafixeka, Kungenxa yoko le nto sisoloko sinemisebenzi efanayo kwintengiso, amaxesha ngamaxesha ibhalwa ziintatheli, amagqwetha, njl. abazalisa loo msantsa ngokuzikhohlisa ngembali, kodwa ababhali mbali okanye iarchaeology, kwaye ayisiyiyo le nto uluvo oludluliselwa kuluntu ngokubanzi ingalunganga okanye ayilunganga.

Ndiyakholelwa ukuba umsebenzi wethu, kwaye ngokubanzi, Umsebenzi wethu njengababhali bembali kukuthetha ngeMbali kungekuphela nje kwicandelo lezemfundo, kodwa kwihlabathi liphela, ukuyenza isondele, ibelula kwaye ifikeleleke. Kubo bonke ubomi bam ndidibene nabantu abambalwa abathi, nokuba bazinikezele kuzo zonke iintlobo zorhwebo, abayithandi iMbali, kwaye ekugqibeleni oko bakufundayo akuveli kubabhali-mbali abaqeqeshiweyo, abakwaziyo ukwenza uphando ngemvelaphi elungileyo, kwaye oko kudala iiparadigms ezingalunganga. kwizihloko ezahlukeneyo.

Ngeso sizathu ndikwaqwalasele nokubhalwa kwengcaciso Nditsho nokuba kuye kwafuneka ndidade ngokuchasene nomsinga wangoku, ndinombono wokudiliza ezo ntsomi zingeyonyani ezenziwe kwimisebenzi engaphelelanga okanye ebhaliweyo, yokubonelela ngezincoko ezinikezelwe kwizifundo ezingaziwayo okanye ezingakhange ziphathwe ngesiCastilian, kwaye kunjalo Isiqalo.

Ndinikezele incwadi yam yokuqala kuFilipu II waseMakedoni (2013), ngokuchanekileyo ngenxa yokuba inani lakhe lihlala ligutyungelwe ngunyana wakhe, uAlexander omkhulu, kwaye ukubaluleka kwakhe kwimbali kuhlala kulityalwa. Ngapha koko, ndihlala ndisithi ngaphandle kukaFilipu ngekhe kubekhona uAlexander. Kwenzeka into efanayo nakwi Isincoko sam sokuqala Uluhlu lweeNcwadi, abazinikeleyo koorhuluneli (2017).

Inani lalo mzimba wasemkhosini wamaRoma ubusoloko ubumnyama kwaye ububi, ngakumbi ukusweleka kwabalawuli abanxulumene nabo, kodwa akukho nto iqhubekayo. Imikhosi yabhukuqa abalawuli abaninzi kunabathunywa bakomkhulu, kwaye nakwimeko ezinjalo, amayelenqe ababewenza ayesaziwa kuphela ngamalungu abo ambalwa xa kuthelekiswa namawaka amajoni omlawuli awayeqhuba ebukumkanini. Ukugweba umzimba uphela ngenxa yoku kungafana nokugweba lonke iziko lamapolisa ngezenzo zabambalwa.

Le yimizekelo, kwaye kwimeko ye IBelisarius kwenzeka into efanayo. Ababaninzi abantu abaziyo ubume bayo, kwaye uninzi lwabo bayenzayo luhlala lusenziwa kwinoveli yokuba uRobert Graves omkhulu wasishiya. Sasifuna ukujongana nobomi bakhe bokwenyani, umlo wakhe, ubuqili kwinkundla yaseByzantine, njl. ngaphaya kwinoveli, kunye akukho mntu wayebhalile malunga nayo ngaphambili ngeSpanish. Lo ngumbono ophambili osoloko usishukumisela, ukuya phambili kwaye sinethemba lokuqhubeka nemisebenzi elandelayo endiyigqibileyo nekusafuneka ndiyipapashe.

  • AL: Kutheni ubhala iincoko kunye nokungafakwanga (okwangoku)?

ASS: Inxalenye inento yokwenza noqeqesho esilufumanayo njengababhali bembali. Sifundiswa ukusuka kumzuzu wokuqala ukuphanda ngenjongo yokwandisa ulwazi ngokubanzi, ukuba singabhali inoveli, nditsho nesincoko esinolwazi njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili. Ulwimi esimele silusebenzise lufihlakele kuluntu ngokubanzi, lubaluleke kakhulu, asifundisi kubhala, kodwa sifuna ukubuza malunga nexesha elidlulileyo, Kwaye oko kudala iintsilelo ezininzi ezivelayo xa kubhalwa loo msebenzi.

Impembelelo enkulu ibekwa kwizinto ezingekhoyo kwinoveli, ezinje ngezixhobo ezibalulekileyo, ibhibliyografi, njl.njl., Kodwa akukho mntu usifundisa ukubhala ngendlela elula, elula, yokwenza abalinganiswa, ukuthandabuza, okanye nokwenza ayisiyomfuneko. Ke Ndicinga ukuba ukubhala inoveli, ubuncinci inoveli elungileyo, kunzima kakhulu kunokubhala isincoko, kwaye ifuna ukufunda, ukulungiselela, kunye nolunye ulwazi endinethemba lokulufumana ekuhambeni kwexesha. Bambalwa kakhulu ababhali-mbali ababhala iinoveli, kwaye kwimeko yethu ndicinga ukuba kulindeleke into engaphezulu kuthi ukuba siyazama. Yi uxanduva olukhulu kwaye ngenxa yeso sizathu ndicinga ukuba kufanelekile ukuyenza kakuhle.

Ngeso sizathu ndiyazilungiselela, kwaye sele ndiqalisile ngombono wokuba kudala ndisebenza, kodwa kusekutsha. Ndifuna ukunika ibali elingabhalwanga kakuhle, kodwa libhalwe, ukuze kungabikho mfuneko yokuyila malunga nento esaziyo ukuba yenzekile, kodwa kuphela kukugcwalisa ezo "zikhewu" zihlala zikhona ezimbalini. Abalinganiswa abaninzi basinike amabali angaqhelekanga kangangokuba akukho mntu waziyo, kodwa asinalo ulwazi oluninzi malunga nabo. Kuyenzeka ukuba uphinde uyakhe ukuze ubonelele uluntu ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuyila amabali ayintsomi, nangona ayimfuneko. Ndicinga ukuba njengombhali-mbali yinto eqhelekileyo, kodwa ndicinga ukuba yenye yeendlela zokubonisa imbali ngendlela eyinyani nenomtsalane kuluntu ngokubanzi.

  • AL: Njengomfundi, uyayikhumbula le ncwadi wayifunda ngolunye usuku kwaye yakuphawula ngokukodwa?

I-ASS: Ndiyikhumbula kakuhle, kwaye inento yokwenza nento ebesiyithetha, kwaye yiyo loo nto ndibona ukuba ndingumlandeli wombhali wayo. Incwadana yembali enikezelwe kwii-Amazons zengqungquthela ngo Indawo yokucinezela uSteven (AmaAmazon okugqibela, 2003). Indlela yakhe yokuphatha imbali, nkqu neentsomi njengoko zinjalo kule meko, yandichaphazela kakhulu kangangokuba ndaqala ukufunda imbali, nditsho nomxholo wethisisi yam yobugqirha malunga namaAmazon, kodwa hayi loo nto kuphela, kodwa ikakhulu Ukuncoma kwam isini sabasetyhini. Inkalipho yakhe, ubungqongqo, isibindi kunye nobukhulu bakhe bezisoloko zivela kwimvelaphi yeMbali.

Ngesi sizathu ndifuna ukufaka ingqolowa yam esantini, ngokuchanekileyo ukunyanga umfanekiso wokwenyani wamanani eememori ezinememori ephosakeleyo kwingcinga edibeneyo kodwa amandla awo ayigcinile iphila iminyaka eliwaka ukusukela oko amabali abo avela. Ngapha koko, ngokuchanekileyo kungenxa yoko besikhe sathetha ngaphambili, nakwilizwe lezemfundo ngamanye amaxesha Imiba efana nale isetyenziswe ngendlela enomdla ngenxa yokunyuka kwezifundo zesini, bade bafike ekunikezeleni izincoko ekuthiwa zezemfundo kodwa ziqulethe idatha ekhohlisiweyo yokuziguqula zibe ngabalinganiswa bokwenyani xa bengazange babe njalo.

Yenye yeemfazwe zomnqamlezo endikholelwa ukuba kufuneka sizenze njengembali, ngamanye amaxesha phambi koogxa bethu xa umdla wabo uchaphazela inyani ngeMbali ngoonobumba abakhulu. Kwaye oko kubalulekile kuba ndiyakholelwa ukuba umfanekiso wobuxoki uveliswe kuluntu ngokubanzi ekufuneka sincedisile kutshintsho.

Eminye imisebenzi emininzi indiphawule ngokukodwa, kubandakanya yonke eyabhalwa nguPressfield, okanye Iposi, ukuba ndikholelwa ngokuchanekileyo baphumelele kuba akukho mfuneko yokuba baqulunqe nantoni na ngaphandle kweenkcukacha ukuba imithombo yoqobo ayisishiyanga okanye ilahlekile kumabali ayinyani, ekuphela kwento esele ingaphaya kokuqina.

Ingxaki kubabhali-mbali kukuba siyazi kakuhle ukubaluleka kokuzirekhoda ngokufanelekileyo ukujongana nawo nawuphi na umxholo, kwaye ngenxa yeso sizathu andinalo ixesha leminyaka ukuba ndichithe nje umzuzu ndifunda nje ukonwaba kokwenza njalo. Ndineenkulungwane zeencwadi ezilindileyo lithuba, endinethemba lokukunika kungekudala.

  • AL: Isincoko ecaleni kwebhedi? Kwaye umbhali wokubhala? Unokukhetha ngaphezu kweyodwa nakwezinye iindawo. 

I-ASS: Thucydides iye yaba yimfanelo yayo Utata wentetho engqongqo kakhulu kwimbali, ngakumbi ngexesha apho isithethe esixhaphakileyo besisisiqhulo okanye, nakweyiphi na imeko, amabali ayinyani kwaye egxeka. WayenguAthene, kwaye kungenguye nabani na, kodwa akazange akhathazeke ukuvuma iimpazamo zabantu bakhe ukuqala iimfazwe ezingeyomfuneko okanye ukwenza ubundlobongela ngaphandle kwesizathu.

Mhlawumbi ngenxa yobungcali bam kwimbali yamandulo andinakusilela ukukhankanya omnye utata woluhlobo lokubhala ngoku, eyakhe Homer, eyabeka iziseko zebali eliyintsomi phantse kwiminyaka emithathu edlulileyo. Ukusuka kubo kuye kwakho amanani amaninzi angaqhelekanga avelise zombini ezi ntlobo zodidi luphambili njenge Shakespeare, Dante, Cervantes, Poe, Tolstoy... nabanye ndiziva ndithandwa ngokukodwa njengaye IVerne.

  • AL: Nguwuphi umntu wembali obungathanda ukumhlangabeza? 

ASS: Umbuzo onzima. Kunzima kakhulu, njengoko zininzi. Ndingabiza igama leqhawe Leonidas, wasentsomini Alejandro okanye engaqhelekanga UHannibal Barca, uKesare, uCleopatra, uAkhenaten, uMuhammad okanye uKumkanikazi uBoudica. Nokuba ngamanye amaxesha xa I-Cid wa Columbus, Kutshanje kuye Gandhi.

Akwaba ndandidibene IAmazonUkuba bebeyinyani Nangona kunjalo, ukuba ndinokukhetha enye kuphela, ndicinga ukuba iyakuba njalo UYesu waseNazarete, ikakhulu kuko konke oko kwakuthetha kungekuphela nje ngexesha lakhe, kodwa kwiMbali yoLuntu, ukwazi umntu ongaphaya kwentsomi, njengembali. Ngapha koko, ungumlinganiswa odlulayo ohleli ecaleni kwababhali bembali ngenxa yazo zonke iintsomi ezabhalwa kamva ngobomi bakhe, kodwa ngokungathandabuzekiyo wayengomnye wabona bantu babalaseleyo embalini nako konke okuthethwa kuko.

  • AL: Ngaba unayo nayiphi na into ekhethekileyo okanye umkhwa xa kufikwa ekubhaleni nasekufundeni? 

I-ASS: Akunjalo ngokwenene. Izihloko oza kubhala zivela ngokuzenzekelayo kwaye ibali sele likho, lilinde umntu ukuba aligqithisele ebantwini ngeyona ndlela intle. Ndicinga ukuba iinoveli zahlukile, kuba zifuna ukulungiswa ngakumbi, ukucaciswa kunye nomsebenzi, ke yinto eqhelekileyo ukuba ababhali bafumane ezi ndidi zamasiko, kuba bafuna uncedo lwe-muses kunye nenkuthazo edlalwa ngamanye amaxesha. iimeko ezithile. Ukude kubengoku Ndifuna nje iincwadi kunye nendawo ethuleyo ukubhala, kodwa xa kufika ixesha lokwenza umtsi, ngubani owaziyo?

  • AL: Kwaye indawo oyikhethileyo kunye nexesha lokwenza oko? 

I-ASS: Ndicinga ukuba elona candelo libalulekileyo lokubhala isincoko yile uphando olukhulu lwangaphambili Kuyimfuneko ukujongana nokuthetha ngomxholo unolwazi lwenyani. Ngapha koko, ndicinga ukuba kunyanzelekile ukuba sichithe ixesha elininzi kuyo kunakwisicatshulwa sokugqibela esijolise ekunikezeleni. Ngaphandle koko sinokupapasha umsebenzi ongaphelelanga, ongachanekanga athi nabani na onolwazi oluthile awuphikise ngokuzithemba, kwaye kufanelekile ukuzama ukuyiphepha loo meko.

Yiyo loo nto ndihlala ndindwendwela amathala eencwadi amaninzi, izisekonjl. Apho bagcina khona imithombo engenakufikeleleka ekhaya, kwaye amaxesha amaninzi Ndibhala ngqo apho. Ngapha koko ndinethamsanqa lokufumana encinci iofisi ekhaya, nangona ndikuthanda ukubhala ngaphandle, kwaye nanini na xa imozulu isivuma, ndiye ndikhangele iindawo ezizolileyo zokuzonwabisa ngendalo ngelixa ndisebenza.

  • AL: Ngaba zikhona ezinye iintlobo ozithandayo? 

I-ASS: Ndiyasithanda isincoko ngento esiyithethayo, ukunika inyaniso ngeMbali, kunye Ndiyayithanda inoveli kuba iyasinceda ukuba sibaleke ngokwenyani, ngamanye amaxesha kungcolileyo, ukusihambisa kwilizwe elahlukileyo ngendlela esondeleyo. Kodwa kwenzeka into efanayo Imibongo, endiyithandayo, nkqu nakwiimo zayo ezibonakala zilula, ezinje ngemibongo haiku, nangona kungenjalo. Zonke iintlobo zineenjongo zazo kwaye zonke zibalulekile.

  • AL: Ufunda ntoni ngoku? Ukubhala?

I-ASS: Ewe, ukuba ndinyanisile, ubhubhane butshintshe ubomi bethu noko, kwaye ebudeni beenyanga zokuvalelwa bendinexesha elininzi lokuzinikela kuphando nasekubhaleni, ngaphezu kokuba ndiqhele ukwenza, Ndiqalile ukuzilolonga okuninzi Ndiyathemba ukuba bayakubona ukukhanya ngexesha elifutshane.

Kulo nyaka ndipapashe nje i-biografi kaFlavio Belisario, kodwa ndikwanjalo ndiphinde ndazincokolela ezinye zezincoko zam zakuqala ukusukela ukuba zazipapashwe kuphela kuhlobo lwephepha naseSpain, kodwa abahlobo abaninzi abavela kwamanye amazwe abakwazanga ukufikelela kuzo, ke ndizinikezele ekubahlaziyeni ukuze ndibanike kwakhona kuhlobo lwe-elektroniki, kubandakanya imifanekiso, iimephu kunye nemifanekiso, kunye nomxholo owongezelelweyo. Kulo nyaka kuya kubakho ne Isincoko esinikezelwe ukumkanikazi wase-Eceni, iBoudica yasentsomini, Umfazi wokuqala ukujongana namaRoma njengenkokeli kwibala lomlo ukuze akhulule iBritane kuloyiso lwamaRoma.

Kunyaka olandelayo i Inxalenye yesibini yembali epheleleyo endiyinikezele kwiMbali yeCarthage, ukusukela kwisiseko sayo ukuya ekutshatyalalisweni kwesixeko emva kweMfazwe yesithathu yePunic, kunye nezinye assayo ezinikezele ngokupheleleyo Iziganeko zeparanormal zakudala, ukusuka kumabali anikezelwa yimithombo yaseklasiki. Andibhekiseli kuphela kumabali malunga nezilo zasentsomini okanye iidolophu ezilahlekileyo ezinje ngeAtlantis edumileyo, kodwa namabali athetha ngee-specters, iidemon, ukuzalwa ngokutsha, i-werewolves, izindlu ezikhutshelweyo, izinto abanazo kunye nokukhutshwa kwemimoya, ukuthakatha nobugqwirha, iziganeko ezingaqhelekanga, njl. kwiGrisi yakudala, iRoma neMesopotamiya. Ukudityaniswa okupheleleyo kokungachazekiyo mandulo.

Kwaye okokugqibela, isincoko esiseBoudica siya kuba sesokuqala kwizinto ezininzi endiye ndagqiba kwelokuba ndizinikezele kubafazi ababalaseleyo bexesha elidlulileyo, ke oko kuya kuphuma enye ezinikele kuKumkanikazi uZenobia, kwinkokheli yasentsomini yeBerber ejongene nenkqubela phambili yamaSilamsi eMaghreb, eyaziwa ngokuba yiKahina. Kwaye enye inikezelwe kwi-onna-bugeishas kunye ne-kunoichis, i-samurai kunye ne-shinobi yabasetyhini kwimbali yaseJapan., kwaye babekho kwaye benza izinto ezingaqhelekanga. Ngale ndlela ndiyathemba ukuba ndiza kuba nakho ukufaka igalelo kwisanti yam kulwazi kunye nexabiso lembali yabasetyhini.

  • AL: Ucinga ukuba imeko yokupapasha yenzelwe uhlobo olukhethekileyo njengezincoko?

ASS: Umfanekiso ngu Kumnyama kakhulu, nangona ngendlela ibisoloko inguye. Sikwimeko enzima ngakumbi kunesiqhelo, into eninzi. Kwimeko yezincoko ezibi kakhulu, kuba abafundi abaqhelekileyo bahlala befuna ngaphezulu kwawo onke amabali abanceda ukuba babe nexesha elimnandi kwaye babaleke kubomi bemihla ngemihla, ngakumbi kwiinoveli. Ukuziqhelanisa kuncitshisiwe kubaphulaphuli ikhonkrithi kakhulu, ngakumbi unomdla kwisifundo somsebenzi ngamnyeKe ngoko, ifuthe lale misebenzi liphantsi kakhulu.

Kwaye ukuba oko akwanelanga, eSpain uninzi lwezincoko zembali zijongana nemixholo efanayo sele sele ingaphezulu kwaziwa, inikezelwe kumaxesha athile anje ngeeMfazwe zoNyango okanye abalinganiswa ababalulekileyo abanjengoCleopatra kuba banethemba lokuba baya kwamkeleka ngakumbi, nangona amakhulu emisebenzi sele ebhaliwe malunga nawo apho iindaba zinokufaka isandla kancinci okanye zingenzi nto, ngelixa kungekho mntu ubhala kwizihloko ezingaziwayo.

Ngenxa yeso sizathu kwaye ekugqibeleni Sigqibe ukuguqulela imisebenzi ngababhali bamanye amazwe abaziwayo Ndiyathemba ukuba udumo lwakhe luya kunceda ukwandisa umsebenzi, endaweni yokunika ithuba ababhali abaqhelekileyo ukuba ngekhe babe nethuba lokuposa. Lihlazo, ngokwenene, kwaye akubonakali ngathi imeko izakuphucuka.

Kungenxa yoko le nto ndithanda ukubathemba abapapashi abanjengoHRM Ediciones okanye iLa Esfera de los Libros, abangoyikiyo ukuthatha eli nyathelo kwaye bazi kakuhle indawo yophando eSpain ukuba benze le misebenzi ngaphandle kokusebenzisa iinguqulelo. Kwaye ngenxa yesi sizathu andiyekanga ukusebenzisana nabo.

Ngokubanzi, umhlaba opapashayo uhlala ujolise kumanani abalulekileyo, nangona Ukubakho kopapasho lwe-desktop kuvelise amathuba amaninzi kubabhali abaninzi bokuqala. Nangona kunjalo, ingxaki yeminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, ubhubhane wangoku kunye neendlela zoluntu malunga nokufunda zenza ukuba kube nzima kakhulu ukuba bapapashe abapapashi okanye uninzi lwababhali ukuba baphile, abangazukuphila kwimisebenzi yabo.

Uninzi lwethu lubhalela ukonwaba okukhulu ngokwenza njalo kwaye, ngaphezulu kwako konke, ukwabelana okanye ukufundisa, kodwa bambalwa kuphela abanakho ukuzinikezela ngokukodwa kuyo kwaye baphile ngeencwadi. Ukuba uBelén Esteban uthengise iincwadi ezininzi kunomzuzi kaNobel njengoVargas Llosa uthi okuninzi malunga nezi zinto, kwaye abantu abaninzi bakhetha ukukhetha umxholo osindayo ekulula ukuwufikelela ngaphezulu kokuqalisa iiyure kunye neeyure kwincwadi.

Ukunyuswa kwenkcubeko sisifundo esilindileyo, kwaye ngaphezulu kwako konke ukuphuculwa koLuntu, ihlala igculelwa naphakathi kwamalungu oorhulumente, ukuba bekuya kuthi, bebeya kucinezelwa. Ngaphandle kwayo yonke into ndifuna ukuba nethemba, kwaye xa ujongene nobunzima kuhlala kukho ukukhohlisa Ababhali abaninzi abangayeki ukubhala ngaphandle kokulindela nantoni na. 


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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