U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Ulwandle lwaseZanzibar

Ulwandle lwaseZanzibar

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah ngumbhali waseTanzania ophumelele iBhaso leNobel kuNcwadi ka-2021. I-Academy yaseSweden yathi umbhali wakhethwa "inkcazo eshukumisayo yemiphumo yobukoloniyali kunye nesiphelo sembacu kwisithuba phakathi kweenkcubeko kunye namazwekazi ... " . Bekusele kuyiminyaka elishumi elinesibhozo umAfrika wokugqibela – uJohn Maxwell Coetzee ngo-18 – waphumelela eli wonga libalulekileyo.

UGurnah umi ekuchazeni ngendlela ethe ethe ne-krwada yokuhamba kwabo bafuduswe yindlala nemfazwe ukusuka kumanxweme ase-Afrika esiya eYurophu, kwaye nendlela abafikelela ngayo "kwilizwe lesithembiso" kusafuneka boyise ulwandle lomkhethe, imiqobo kunye nemigibe. . Namhlanje upapashe iinoveli ezilishumi kunye nenani elininzi lamabali kunye namabali amafutshane, zonke zibhalwe ngesiNgesi. —Nangona isiSwahili silulwimi oluthethwayo. Ukusukela ngo-2006 ebelilungu leRoyal Literature Society, umbutho eGreat Britain ozinikele kufundo kunye nasekusasazeni uncwadi.

Iinkcukacha zobomi bombhali, u-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Ubuntwana kunye nezifundo

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah wazalwa ngoDisemba 20, 1948 kwisiqithi saseZanzibar (ichweba laseTanzania). Kwiminyaka eyi-18, kwafuneka abalekele ilizwe lakhe lokuzalwa e-United Kingdom ngenxa yeentshutshiso ezichasene namaSilamsi. Sele kumhlaba wesiNgesi, wenza izifundo eziphakamileyo eChrist Church College kwaye ngo-1982 wagqiba isidanga sobugqirha kwiYunivesithi yaseKent.

Unjingalwazi wekholeji

Kwiminyaka emininzi, UGurnah unikezele ubomi bakhe ekufundiseni kwinqanaba leyunivesithi kwindawo yeZifundo zesiNgesi.. Kwiminyaka emithathu elandelelanayo (1980-1983) wafundisa eNigeria, kwiYunivesithi yaseBayero Kano (BUK). WayenguNjingalwazi woncwadi lwesiNgesi kunye nolwangemva kobukoloniyali, kunye nokuba ngumlawuli weSebe lesiNgesi kwiDyunivesithi yaseKent, imisebenzi awayeyibambe de wayeka.

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

U-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Imisebenzi yakhe yophando igxile kwi-postcolonialism, kunye nakwikoloniyalizim ejoliswe eAfrika, kwiCaribbean naseIndiya. Ngoku, Iiyunivesithi ezibalulekileyo zisebenzisa imisebenzi yakhe njengezinto zokufundisa. Izifundo ezifundiswa ngootitshala abanamava zibalasele, ezifana nezi: Patricia Bastida (UIB), Maurice O'Connor (UCA), Antonio Ballesteros (UNED) noJuan Ignacio de la Oliva (ULL), ukukhankanya ezimbalwa.

Amava ombhali

Kumsebenzi wakhe njengombhali wenze amabali amafutshane kunye nezincoko, nangona kunjalo, Iinoveli zakhe zezona zimnike ukuqondwa okukhulu. Ukusuka ngo-1987 ukuza kuthi ga ngoku upapashe imisebenzi eli-10 elolu hlobo kolu hlobo. Imisebenzi yakhe emithathu yokuqala -Inkumbulo yokuHamba (1987) Indlela yeePilgrim (1988) kunye Dottie (1990) -inemixholo efanayo: zibonisa iindlela ezahlukeneyo zamava abaphambukeli eGreat Britain.

Ngo-1994 wapapasha enye yeenoveli zakhe ezaziwayo, IParadesi, owayengowokugqibela kwiBhaso leBritish Booker ngo-2001. Lo msebenzi yaba yeyokuqala ukungeniswa kulwimi lweSpanish -Intoni Iparadesi, yapapashwa e-Barcelona ngo-1997 yaza yaguqulelwa nguSofía Carlota Noguera. Ezinye izihloko ezibini zeGurnah eziziswe kulwimi lweCervantes zezi: Ukuthula okungathethekiyo (1998) kunye Elunxwemeni (2007).

I-Gurnah - ithathelwe ingqalelo "ilizwi labafudusiweyo" - iphinde yavela kwezinye iinoveli, ezinje: NgaseLwandle (2001) Ukulahlwa (2005) kunye Intliziyo yeGravel (2017). 2020 wazisa wakhe umsebenzi wokugqibela obalisayo: Emva kokufa, ithathwa ngabagxeki baseBritane njengo: "Iinzame zokunika ilizwi kwabo balityelweyo."

Uhlobo lombhali

Imisebenzi yombhali ibhalwe kwiprozi ngaphandle kwenkunkuma; kuzo umdla wabo kwimiba efana nokuthinjwa, isazisi kunye neengcambu ziyabonakala. Iincwadi zakhe zibonisa iziphumo zekoloniyon eMpuma Afrika kunye nezinto abahlupheka ngazo abemi bazo. Oku kubonwa njengesibonakaliso sobomi bakhe njengomphambukeli, eyona nto iphambili emenza ahluke kwabanye ababhali baseAfrika be-diaspora abahlala kumhlaba wase-Bhritane.

Ngokufanayo, uAnders Olsson - uSihlalo weKomiti yeNobel - ucinga ukuba abalinganiswa abadalwe nguGurnah bakhiwe kakuhle kakhulu. Ngokuphathelele oku, uthi: “Phakathi kobomi ababushiyayo nobomi obuzayo, bajamelana nocalucalulo nocalucalulo, kodwa baphinda baziqinisekise ukuba bayayithulisa inyaniso okanye bavelise ngokutsha amabali abo obomi ukuze baphephe ukungquzulana nenyaniso.

UNobel owamangalisa ihlabathi

Ibhaso likaNobel kuNcwadi

Ibhaso likaNobel kuNcwadi

Nokuba ngaphakathi kwilizwe loncwadi, abaninzi bayabuza "Ngubani u-Abdulrazak Gurnah?" okanye "Kutheni umbhali ongaziwayo ephumelele ibhaso?" Inyaniso kukuba kukho izizathu ezininzi ezaneleyo zokuba uGurnah waba Ngo-2021 umntu wesihlanu wase-Afrika ukuphumelela Izincwadi zeNobel. Nangona kunjalo, yonke into ibonisa ukuba ijaji yenza isigqibo ngokusekelwe kumxholo obhekiswe kumbhali.

Gurnah Amandla

Inyaniso yokuba abaninzi abawazi umkhondo wombhali waseTanzania ayiphazamisi kwiitalente zakhe njengombhali. Umyalelo wakhe otyebileyo wolwimi, kunye novakalelo akwaziyo ukulubhala kumgca ngamnye, kumenza umbhali osondeleyo kumfundi.. Kwimisebenzi yakhe ukuzinikela kwakhe kubunyani belizwe lakhe lokuzalwa kunye nabantu bakowabo kungqinwa, nto leyo eyandisa ubume bobuntu bosiba lwakhe kunye nekhonkco phakathi kwamava akhe kunye nomsebenzi wakhe woncwadi. Ibali ngalinye libonisa umxholo ophawulwe ziimfazwe ezithwaxayo kwilizwekazi.

Kodwa kutheni iGurnah yahlukile? Ewe, umbhali uyala ukuphinda enze amabali angafunekiyo malunga nento eyenzekileyo phakathi kweNgilani neAfrika. Ngeencwadi zakhe ubonakalise umbono ohlaziyiweyo welizwekazi laseAfrika nabantu balo, enee-nuances ezishinyeneyo eziye zathathelwa ingqalelo abambalwa, eziye zaphula iinkolelo kwaye zaqinisekisa umzobo wabo bafudukayo emehlweni abo bafundayo. U-Abdulrazak uphakamisa ubunyani bobukoloniyali kunye nemiphumo yayo namhlanje - ukufuduka ngomnye wabo kuphela, kodwa wenyama negazi.

Imbasa elawulwa zezinye izizwe

Ayothusi into yokuba ukusukela ekudalweni kweBhaso leNobel kuNcwadi ngo-1901, uninzi lwabaphumeleleyo ibingaseYurophu okanye eMntla Melika. IFransi ikwindawo yokuqala ngababhali abaphumelele amabhaso abali-15, elandelwa ngokusondeleyo yi-United States ine-13 kunye ne-Great Britain ene-12. Kwaye, njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, bahlanu kuphela abantu base-Afrika ukuza kuthi ga ngoku abazukisiweyo ngale mbasa yaziwayo.

Kwadlula iminyaka elishumi elinesibhozo eUmAfrika wokugqibela ukhuliswe ngeli bhaso libalulekileyo: UJohn Maxwell Coetzee. Phambi kommi waseMzantsi Afrika, wamkelwa ngo-1986 nguWole Soyinka waseNigeria, ngo-1988 nguNaguib Mahfouz wase-Egypt kunye nenkosikazi yokuqala yase-Afrika, uNadine Gordimer, ngo-1991.

Ngoku, Kutheni kukho ukungafani okungaka?; ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, kunjalo into enzima ukuyiphendula. Nangona kunjalo, kulindeleke ukuba le minyaka izayo ibone utshintsho kwiSweden Academy, ngenxa, ubukhulu becala, kwizikrelemnqa malunga nokungalingani kunye nokuxhatshazwa okwenzekileyo kwi-2018. Yiyo loo nto, unyaka kamva ikomiti entsha yenziwa ngenjongo yotshintsho umbono kwaye uphephe iimeko ezingenantlonipho. Kule meko, uAnders Olsson uvakalise:

“Sivule amehlo ngababhali abanokubizwa ngokuba zii-postcolonial. Amehlo ethu aya banzi ngokuhamba kwexesha. KUNYE Injongo yeAkhademi kukuqinisa umbono wethu woncwadi nzulu. Umzekelo, uncwadi kwihlabathi lasemva kobukoloniyali ”.

Le mithetho mitsha yenza ukuba umAfrika aqatshelwe phambi kwamagama amakhulu. Imisebenzi yakhe ekhethekileyo -Izifundo ezinzima kodwa eziyinyani- ziye zavumela iKomiti yeNobel ukuba iyicwangcise "omnye wababhali ababalaseleyo be-postcolonial emhlabeni… ”.

Ukhuphiswano olunamandla

Kulo nyaka bekukho amagama abafundi abadumileyo kwindalo esingqongileyo. Ababhali abafana no: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Haruki Murakami, UJavier Marias, Scholastique Mukasonga, Mia Couto, Margaret Atwood, Annie Ernaux, among others. Akumangalisi ukumangaliswa koloyiso lukaGurnah, oluthi, nangona lufanelekile, luvele kwihlathi elishinyeneyo lamanani angcwalisiweyo.

UJavier Marías.

UJavier Marías.

Ukuvela kombhali emva kokuphumelela iNobel

Emva kokufumana ibhaso, umbhali waseTanzania akazimiselanga ukuwushiya umxholo anawo Iwonga leNobel. Ngokwamkelwa uziva ukhuthazeka ngakumbi ukuba uvakalise uluvo lwakho kwizihloko ezahlukeneyo kunye nokuqonda kwakho umhlaba ngendlela ephandle.

Kudliwano-ndlebe eLondon, wathi: “Ndibhala ngezi meko kuba ndifuna ukubhala malunga nokusebenzisana kwabantu kunye nento abantu abadlula kuyo xa besakha kwakhona ubomi babo ”.

Iimpembelelo zokushicilela

Ukuqeshwa kuka-Abdulrazak Gurnah njengophumeleleyo weNobel kumangalise umhlaba waseSweden kunye nehlabathi liphela. Umbhali wayengekho phakathi kwabaphumeleleyo, kuba imisebenzi yakhe ayizange ibhengezwe ziingcali kuncwadi. Ukubonakaliswa koku yayingamagqabantshintshi avele kumaphephandaba emva kokuqeshwa, phakathi kwezi sinokuqaqambisa:

  • "Ukhetho oluyimfihlakalo lweSweden Academy". Ecacileyo (Expressen)
  • "Uloyiko kunye nokudideka xa kuthe kwavezwa igama lowaphumelela uNobel Prize kuLwazi." Idayari yasemva kwemini (I-Aftonbladet)
  • "Sivuyisana nawe Abdulrazak Gurnah! Ibhaso leNobel kuLuncwadi lika-2021 lifanelekile ”. ISizwe EN (Jorge Iván Garduño)
  • "Lixesha lokuba uqaphele ukuba abantu abangabamhlophe banokubhala." Iphephandaba laseSweden (Svenska Dagbladet)
  • "Abdulrazak Gurnah, inkwenkwezi ekungekho mntu ubhejela ngayo ipeni" Lelatria Magazine (Javier Claure Covarrubias)
  • "Iindaba zeNobel Prize yeGurnah zabhiyozelwa ngababhali beencwadi kunye nabaphengululi abaye bathetha ixesha elide ukuba umsebenzi wakhe ufanelwe ukufundwa okubanzi." The New York Times

Paraiso, owona msebenzi ubalaseleyo kaGurnah

Ngowe-1994 uGurnah wenza iParaíso, inoveli yakhe yesine neyokuqala imibhalo yayo yaguqulelwa kwiSpanish. Ngale ngxelo, umbhali waseAfrika ufumene ukuqatshelwa okukhulu kwicandelo loncwadi, ekubeni ukuza kuthi ga ngoku eyona ndalo yayo imele. Ibali libaliswa ngelizwi eliwazi konke; ngumxube wentsomi neenkumbulo zobuntwana bukaGurnah kwilizwe lakhe lokuzalwa.

Phakathi kwemigca, UGurnah wenza isiqalekiso esicacileyo sobukhoboka obubi obujolise ebantwaneni, eziye zenzeka kangangeminyaka kwintsimi yaseAfrika. Zonke ezidityanisiweyo ngokulandelelana kunye nobuhle bendalo, izilwanyana kunye neentsomi eziyinxalenye yenkcubeko yommandla.

Ukufezekiswa kwayo, umbhali wafudukela eTanzania, nangona xa wayelapho wathi: Khange ndihambe ndiye kuqokelela idatha, kodwa ndibuyisele uthuli empumlweni”. Oku kubonakalisa ukungayikhanyeli imvelaphi yayo; kukho ukukhumbula kunye nokuqatshelwa kweAfrika enhle, nangona kunjalo, phantsi kwenyani egcwele iingxabano ezinzulu.

Ezinye iingcali ziye zavuma ukuba iyelenqe libonisa «lukufikisa kunye nokuvuthwa komntwana waseAfrika, ibali elibuhlungu lothando kunye nebali lokonakala kwesiko laseAfrika ngenxa yobukoloniyali baseYurophu ”.

Isiqendu

Iploti iinkwenkwezi uYusuf, inkwenkwana eneminyaka eli-12 ubudala eyazalwa kwii-1900s zokuqala e-Kawa (idolophu eyintsomi), eTanzania. Uyise Ungumphathi wehotele kwaye unetyala kumrhwebi ogama linguAziz, osisityebi esinamandla sama-Arabhu. Ngokungakwazi ukujongana nesi sibophelelo, unyanzelwa ukuba ahlawule unyana wakhe njengenxalenye yentlawulo.

Emva kohambo oluhambayo, inkwenkwe iya elunxwemeni kunye "nomalume uAziz". Buqala apho ubomi bakhe njenge rehani (ikhoboka lexeshana elingahlawulelwayo), ekunye nomhlobo wakhe uKhalil nabanye abasebenzi. Owona msebenzi wakhe uphambili kukusebenza kunye nokulawula ivenkile yeAziz, apho iimveliso zithengiswa khona ngakwicala lomthengisi.

Ukongeza kule misebenzi, UYusuf kufuneka anyamekele isitiya senkosi yakhe esibiyelwe ngodonga, indawo entle aziva ekhululekile kuyo. Ebusuku, ubalekela kwindawo yase-Edeni apho ngamaphupha efuna ukufumana iingcambu zakhe, ezo zobomi obuhluthwe kuye. UYusuf ukhula abe ngumfana omhle kwaye ulangazelela uthando olungenathemba, ngelixa efunwa ngabanye.

Ngeminyaka eyi-17, uYusuf uqala uhambo lwakhe lwesibini kunye nekharavani yomthengisi kumbindi weAfrika kunye neCongo Basin. Ngexesha lokhenketho kukho uthotho lwezithintelo apho umbhali athabatha inxenye yenkcubeko yaseAfrika. Izilwanyana zasendle, ubuhle bendalo kunye nezizwe zalapha zezinye zezinto zemveli ezikhoyo kweli bali.

Ukubuyela eMpuma Afrika, iMfazwe Yehlabathi yokuqala iqalile kwaye umphathi wakhe uAziz udibana namajoni aseJamani. Nangona amandla omrhwebi osisityebi, yena kunye nabanye abantu baseAfrika baqeshwe ukuba bakhonze umkhosi waseJamani. Ngeli xesha, uYusuf uya kwenza esona sigqibo sibalulekileyo ebomini bakhe.

Isishwankathelo sezinye iinoveli zaseGurnah

Inkumbulo yokuHamba (1987)

Nguye Inoveli yokuqala yombhali, icwangcisiwe la indawo eselunxwemeni lwaseMpuma Afrika. I-protagonist yayo ngumfana osemncinci owathi, emva kokujongana nenkqubo engafanelekanga kwilizwe lakhe, uthunyelwa eKenya kunye nomalume wakhe ocebileyo. Kuyo yonke imbali uhambo lwakhe luya kubonakala kunye nendlela olukhula ngayo ukuba nokuzalwa kwakhona ngokomoya.

NgaseLwandle (2001)

Yincwadi yesithandathu yombhali, inguqulelo yayo ngeSpanish yapapashwa eBarcelona ngo-2003 (nenguqulelo kaCarmen Aguilar).  Kule ngxelo kukho amabali amabini adityaniswayo xa abalinganiswa bedibana kunxweme lolwandle lwaseBritane. NguSaleh Omar, oshiye yonke into eZanzibar wafudukela eNgilane, kunye noLatif Mahmud, umfana okwazi ukubaleka kwakudala kwaye uhlala eLondon iminyaka.

Ukulahlwa (2005)

Yincwadi yenoveli eyenzeka ngokwamanqanaba amabini, eyokuqala ngo-1899 ize emva kweminyaka engama-50. Ngo-1899, iNgesi uMartin Pearce uhlangulwe nguHassanali, emva kokuwela intlango kwaye efika kwisixeko saseMpuma Afrika.. Umrhwebi ucela udade wakhe uRehana ukuba aphilise amanxeba kaMartin kwaye amnyamekele ade aphile. Kungekudala, umtsalane omkhulu uzalwa phakathi kwababini kwaye banobudlelwane obunomdla ngasese.

Iziphumo zolo thando lungavumelekanga ziya kubonakala kwiminyaka engama-5 kamva, xa umntakwabo Martin ethandana nomzukulwana kaRehana. Ibali lixuba ukuhamba kwexesha, iziphumo zekoloniyaliyali kubudlelwane kunye neengxaki uthando olufanekisayo.

Ngokuphathelele le noveli, umgxeki uMike Phillips ubhalele iphephandaba lesiNgesi UMlondolozi: 

«Uninzi lwentlango ibhalwe kakuhle kwaye iyonwabisa njengayo nayiphi na into oyifundileyo kutshanje, inkumbulo emnandi yobuntwana bobukoloniyali kunye nenkcubeko yamaSilamsi eyanyamalalayo, echazwa yimikhwa ebonakalayo kunye nokuziqhelanisa, egqunywe yikhalenda yayo yeminyhadala kunye nemikhosi yenkolo.

Gcwalisa imisebenzi ka-Abdulrazak Gurnah

Novelas

  • Imemori yokuhamba (1987)
  • Indlela yeePilgrim (1988)
  • Dottie (1990)
  • IParadesi (1994) - Paraiso (1997).
  • Ukuncoma Ukuthula (1996) - Ukuthula okungathethekiyo (1998)
  • NgaseLwandle (2001) - Elunxwemeni (2003)
  • Ukulahlwa (2005)
  • Isipho sokugqibela (2011)
  • Intliziyo yeGravel (2017)
  • Emva kobomi (2020)

Izincoko, amabali amafutshane kunye neminye imisebenzi

  • Ngamandla (1985)
  • Iikati (1992)
  • Izincoko ezingoBhalo lwesi-Afrika 1: Uvandlakanyo ngokutsha (1993)
  • Ubuchule boTshintsho kwiNkolo kaNgũgĩ wa Thiong'o (1993)
  • Intsomi kaWole Soyinka ”kwiWole Soyinka: Uvavanyo (1994)
  • Umsindo kunye noKhetho lwezopolitiko eNigeria: Ukuqwalaselwa kweMadmen kaSoyinka kunye neeNgcali, Indoda yasweleka, kunye neXesha leAnomy. (1994, inkomfa yapapashwa)
  • Izincoko zoBhalo lwaseAfrika 2: Uncwadi lwangoku (1995)
  • Umbindi-ndawo wesikhalo ': UBhalo lukaDambudzo Marechera (1995)
  • Ukufuduswa kunye noTshintsho kwi-Enigma yokuFika (1995)
  • Ukuhambisa (1996)
  • Ukusuka kwiNdlela yePilgrim (1988)
  • Ukucinga ngoMbhali wePostcolonial (2000)
  • Umbono Wexesha Elidlulileyo (2002)
  • Amabali aqokelelweyo ka-Abdulrazak Gurnah (2004)
  • Umama wayehlala kwiFama yaseAfrika (2006)
  • Iqabane laseCambridge likaSalman Rushdie (2007, intshayelelo yencwadi)
  • Imixholo kunye neZakhiwo kuBantwana basezinzulwini zobusuku (2007)
  • Ukhozo lwengqolowa ngu Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (2012)
  • Ibali loMfiki: Njengoko kuxelwe ku-Abdulrazak Gurnah (2016)
  • Ukubongoza ukuba kungabikho ndawo: Wicomb kunye neCosmopolitanism (2020)

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
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