UKumkani Arthur. Iziqwenga ezintsha zembali kunye nezinye ezingakumbi

1. Itafile ejikelezayo eWinchester. Yapeyintwa ngo-1522 ngokomyalelo ka-Henry VIII. 2. UKumkani Arthur, nguCharles Ernest Butler.

Igqala likaKing Arthur kunye neeKnights zeTafile ezijikelezileyo (okanye iTafile) yenye yeentsomi ezinkulu zelizwekazi elidala, ezifikelela kuncwadi. Kwaye ibali layo kunye nabalinganiswa baye bahamba notshintsho oluninzi ekuhambeni kwexesha. Ngoku kukho enye: ukufumana, koovimba abagcina iifayile ze IThala Leencwadi laseBristol, yamandulo nengaziwayo Inguqulelo yenkulungwane ye-XNUMX ukusuka kwimbali malunga nomlingo uMerlin noKumkani Arthur. Ukuthatha ithuba kwiindaba, ndiyajonga Iinguqulelo ezine ezingapheliyo uthini ngoArturo kunye neenqwelomoya zakhe.

Mna noKumkani Arthur

UArturo akangomnye wamagorha am amakhulu okubhala, kodwa Ndinovelwano ngaye. Mhlawumbi kungenxa yokuba zingenakubalwa Iinguqulelo zefilimu, ukusuka kwiklasikhi eyaziwayo I Knights kaKumkani Arthur (Ngo-1953) ukuya kutsho ekugqibeleni, UKumkani Arthur, ilivo lika-Excalibur (2017). Kodwa ndiyavuma ukuba ikhuthaze abalinganiswa kumabali am. Kwaye zombini iconography kunye namagama abo (Uther Pendragon, Lancelot, Merlin, Guinevere, Galahad, Morgana, njl.yaziwa jikelele.

Ukuhlala kwam okokuqala eNgilane nako Ndandikwisixeko saseWinchester kwaye ndabona itafile edumileyo kutyhilwa kwinqaba yakhe. Kwakhona, ngenxa yezizathu ezicacileyo zokufunda ifilology yesiNgesi, kuye kwafuneka ndijonge iklasi ye-XNUMXth yeThomas Malory.

Ukufumana okutsha

Amaqhekeza afunyenwe abelwe UJean gerson, umphengululi ongumFrentshi. Iyonke iyisixhenxe imisongo, Kubhalwe kwisiFrentshi esidala, Ngubani oqokelela Inguqulelo enomahluko ophawulekayo ukusuka kwibali elaziwayo. Banokuba yinxalenye yenguqulo yomnxeba U-Estoire de Merlin, kweminye imibhalo eyaziwa njenge ILanzarote-Grail okanye umjikelo we IVulgate.

Kwinto efunyenwe ngoku UArthur sele engukumkani. Yena noMerlin baphumelele edabini, elinye lamanqanaba angaphambili akhokelela kwimbali ye ukufuna i-grail engcwele ngu-Arthur kunye neeklights zakhe. Ukubaluleka kokufunyanwa kwala maqhekeza kukuba babonisa utshintsho oluthile kwiinkcukacha ezinikezela nge Inguqulelo etshintshe kancinci yebali lelo dabi, kunye neenkcazo ezinde zesenzo zibandakanyiwe.

Amabali amane

Izihloko zeencwadi kunye neenoveli ezinikezelwe kuArturo azinasiphelo, ke ndigqamisa ezi zine:

UTomas Malory - Ukusweleka kuka-Arthur

Lo msebenzi unoxanduva kwinguqulelo esinayo namhlanje yeentsomi zase-Arthurian.

mhlekazi UTomas malory (1408-1471), indoda enobomi obuxakekileyo eyayihlala ngexesha leMfazwe yeeRoses ezimbini, wabhala le ngqungquthela yokuqala kwiincwadi zesiNgesi. Wenza oko bekucingelwa ukuba usentolongweni kwaye usuka Ukudityaniswa endandinako kwimithombo yakudala yaseFrance neyaseBritane ebetolika ngelixa esongeza ezakho izimvo.

Yashicilelwa ngo-1485 kumasifundisane ka UWilliam Caxton, umshicileli wokuqala waseNgilani, obizwa ngokuba ngumxholo Le Morte D'Arthur. Wayeyintshayelelo kwaye amanyanise zonke iinoveli ezisibhozo zeMalory kwiincwadi ezingamashumi amabini ananye. Nguye okhuthaze ezona ndawo ziphinde zalungiswa kuzo zonke iinkalo zobugcisa, ukusuka kwiinguqulelo ezintsha zoncwadi ukuya kwimifanekiso ebonisa iiPre-Raphaelites.

UJack Whyte - IziKronike zeCamelot  

Umbhali waseScotland ohlala eCanada, a Kutheni Uyaziwa ngencwadi zakhe zembali, ngakumbi kolu ngcelele lubhalwe ngakwiminyaka yama-90s enikezelwe ku IziKronike zeCamelot, apho esebenzisa ithiyori yexesha elidlulileyo likaKumkani Arthur. Zimbini izihloko: Ilitye kunye nekrele Umgqumo wentsimbi

UValerio Massimo Manfredi - Umkhosi wokugqibela

UManfredi, enye enkulu yenoveli yembali yeli xesha, nayo uyavumelana no-Whyte ekuzobeni imvelaphi yaseRoma ka-Arthur kwesi sihloko kutshanje. Yasiwa kwi-cinema ngo-2007, kodwa ayingqinelani nombhalo wayo wokuqala.

UMark Twain - IYankee kwiNkundla yaseKing Arthur

Umbhali odumileyo waseMelika ukhethe ukuhamba ixesha njengesizathu sokubhala arehlekisayo elato kwaye egcwele intlekisa kunye nezopolitiko loo nto ibonakalisile. Yena caricature wonke: monarchical, amaziko ecawa kunye chivalric, kwakunye nabalinganiswa.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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