Fyodor Dostoevsky: umxholo kunye nomsebenzi

Umfanekiso kaFyodor Dostoevsky

UFyodor Dostoevsky ungomnye wababhali ababalulekileyo benkulungwane ye-XNUMX.. Uthathwa njengombhali wendalo yonke ngenxa yobukhulu bomsebenzi wakhe, kuba nangona engumbhali wababhali baseRussia, umsebenzi wakhe ufikelele kwinkcubeko, iingcinga kunye noncwadi lwaseNtshona. Kunye naye, kukho nababhali abakhulu baseRashiya benkulungwane ye-1828: Leo Tolstoy (1910-1860), Anton Chekhov (1904-1799) okanye Aleksandr Pushkin (1837-XNUMX). Bonke, nangona bephuhlise ezinye iintlobo, babengababalisi ababalaseleyo.

Kunye noDostoevsky, bakwazi ukuvula ingcamango yabafundi abaneempawu ezibonakala ziphantse zenziwe ngenyama negazi. UDostoevsky waguqula uncwadi lwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba ngeenoveli zakhe ezinkulu ezakhiwe ngokwenyani, umbutho owawukho kwisiqingatha sesibini saloo nkulungwane kumazwe aseYurophu. Iingcinga zakhe nomsebenzi wakhe zazinxibelelene ngokusondeleyo namaxesha awayephila ngexesha lobukhosi obukhulu baseRashiya obabuza kufikelela esiphelweni ngokuthe ngcembe.

I-Tsarist Russia: umxholo

Ubukhosi bamaRomanov baqhubeka ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. owangena esihlalweni ngeXVII. Ngexesha lokuphila kukaDostoevsky, ii-tsars ezimbini ezinkulu zazilawula ubukhosi: uNicholas I (ulawulo: 1825-1855) kunye no-Alexander II (ulawulo: 1855-1881).

Nicholas kwafuneka ndilwe nabo babemtyhola ngokuba nenkululeko enkulu kunye nokuzingqina ngokuthatha ulawulo oluluqilima phezu kwabemi ngemilinganiselo engqongqo (ingakumbi yohlobo lwemfundo olunentshutshiso eyunivesithi nakumajelo eendaba).

Unyana wakho, UAlexander II, wajamelana nokuphela kweMfazwe yaseCrimea, imfazwe eyaqala ngexesha lolawulo lukayise yaza yaphela ngokoyiswa kweRashiya kumazwe awahlukahlukeneyo aseYurophu. Nangona wayekhuthaza iinguqu ezahlukeneyo ngexesha lakhe, oku kwaphela ngokubulawa kwakhe., eyenziwa ziintshukumo zasekhohlo emva kwemizamo emininzi.

Ngoko ke, njengakwamanye amazwe amaninzi aseYurophu, imozulu yaseRashiya ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX yayilungele ukujamelana neemeko. Ngaphandle kophawu olubalaseleyo lobukumkani baseRussia, u-Alexander II waxhasa uhlaziyo olwahlukeneyo kwaye wazama ukukhuthaza olunye uhlobo lolawulo olukhululekileyo, kodwa bekungayi kwanela. Inguqulelo ka-1917 ifumana imvelaphi yayo kule nkulungwane.

Uluntu nalo lwaludinwe kakhulu yimodeli eyayihlala kuyo ngokwesiko. Uninzi lwabemi baseRussia ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX babengamahlwempu kwaye kunye nolawulo luka-Alexander II serfdom yaphela., apho abantu basemaphandleni babenokuqalisa ukuba nesidima kwaye bangaphathwa njengezinto ezilula ngabanini-mhlaba. Nangona kunjalo, uluntu lwezindlu lwalusele lungasebenzi kwaye le mozulu yayiza kuba yintshayelelo ekupheleni kwe-tsarism.

Petersburg

Fyodor Dostoevsky: engobomi

UFyodor Dostoevsky wazalelwa eMoscow ngo-1821.. Uyise, ugqirha kunye nomnini womhlaba, wayeyi-despot kunye negunya kunye naye kunye nomama wakhe ngexesha lobuncinci bakhe. Xa wafa kungekudala, uFyodor washiywa phambi koyise owayenesiphithiphithi owathi ngokukhawuleza wamthumela ukuba afunde kwiSikolo soBunjineli bezomkhosi eSt. Petersburg, apho wayeza kuphumelela njengegosa.

Ulwazi lobugcisa kunye ne-Army ayizange imtyhafise ekuqaliseni indlela yakhe yokubhala, kwaye emva kokuguqulelwa kweBalzac waqhubeka ebhala. Nangona kunjalo, emva kwempumelelo yenoveli yakhe yokuqala ngo-1846 (Abantu abahluphekileyo) wafumana uphononongo oluxubene kakhulu kwimisebenzi yakhe elandelayo ngoko wayeka ukubhala kwiminyaka embalwa elandelayo. Ekumele kongezelelwe kuzo iingxaki zakhe zokungcakaza notywala obuya kuvelisa amatyala aqhubekayo ubomi bakhe bonke.

Ngelo xesha Dostoevsky waphazamisana kumaqela otyekelo lwenkululeko nolwangqondo oluthetha isigwebo sokufa (khumbula intshutshiso la maqela aphantsi kwayo ngexesha lolawulo lukaNicholas I). Kodwa isigwebo sentambo satshintshwa sasebenza ngenkani kumazwe abandayo aseSiberia. Noko ke, emva kokuba efumene uxolelo, kwanyanzeleka ukuba asebenze njengomntu wabucala. Ngexesha lokuhlala kwakhe eSiberia wadibana nomfazi wakhe wokuqala awamtshata ngowe-1857, nangona wayeza kufa kwiminyaka kamva.

Emva kokugqiba isigwebo sakhe wabuyela kuncwadi Iinkumbulo zendlu yabafi (1862). Ukusuka apha andizukwenza nto ngaphandle kokubhala nokudlala. Waphila eyona minyaka yakhe ibalaseleyo njengombhali, kodwa ukuba likhoboka lokungcakaza kwakuza kumkhokelela kubomi bokubandezeleka, ukufumana ukudlala amalungelo omsebenzi wakhe.

Ngokunxulumene nokungcakaza kwakhe, wabhala omnye weyona misebenzi yakhe ibalaseleyo, Umdlali (1866). Kwaye emva kohambo ngeYurophu wabuyela eRashiya kwaye Petersburg wabhala owona msebenzi wakhe waziwa kakhulu, Ulwaphulo-mthetho kunye nezohlwayo (1866).

UDostoevsky watshata kwakhona ngowe-1867 kunye nomchwethezi owamncedayo ukukhuphela iitekisi zakhe. Kwakufuneka afike kwangexesha xa ehambisa izinto ezicwangcisiweyo ukuze angaphulukani nepropathi enomgangatho ophezulu wokuqonda emsebenzini wakhe. Wayenabantwana abane kunye naye kwaye Wasweleka ngo-1881 eSaint Petersburg ngenxa yokopha komphunga enxulunyaniswa nesifo sokuwa awasifumana kubo bonke ubomi bakhe.

ipaki ebusika

Fyodor Dostoevsky: umsebenzi

Waphefumlelwa yingcinga kunye nomsebenzi kaVoltaire, uKant, uHegel, uBakunin, uPushkin, uNikolai Gogol, uShakespeare noCervantes, uVictor Hugo noDickens, ukukhankanya abambalwa. Ifilosofi yayihlala ihleli ebomini bakhe, nangona uDostoevsky akazange azibone njengefilosofi. Kodwa mhlawumbi umdla kweli candelo unokumnceda ukuba aphuhlise abalinganiswa abanzulu kakhulu abanokuthi baphile kwiinoveli zakhe. Kangangokuba ipsychology yabalinganiswa bakhe iye yanxulumana nethiyori yesayikholoji yachazwa kamva nguSigmund Freud. Masingalibali ukuba uDostoevsky wathwala ubunzima boyise okhohlakeleyo nokhohlakeleyo.

Ngokuchanekileyo, nangona u-Dostoevsky wayehlala ethanda ukulingana kwezentlalo, mhlawumbi into yokuba uyise wabulawa lihlokondiba labantu abahlwempuzekileyo yayiphembelela ingcamango yakhe yobuKristu, ukuchasana nobusoshiyali bexesha. Ngokunjalo, Umbhali waseRashiya wayexoxa ngokwakhe kunye nomsebenzi wakhe phakathi kwe-Orthodoxy yaseRashiya kunye neenguqu ezintsha ezaziza eNtshona Yurophu.. Obu bumbini bufumaneka kwingcinga yakhe nakumsebenzi wakhe.

Dostoevsky kunye noveli yaseRashiya

UDostoevsky wabhala ibali elifutshane, nangona kunjalo ziinoveli zakhe ezimphakamisileyo. Uninzi lwazo lwapapashwa yi-fascicles kwiimpapasho ezahlukeneyo awayeza kuba noxanduva lokuhlela.

Ngokuhambela phambili kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwabakho izinto zokwenene. Eli yayilixesha leGolden Age kuncwadi lwesiRashiya, elona xesha libalaseleyo le noveli kunye namabali amnandi. Amabali amade kakhulu, agcwele iinkcazo kunye nabalinganiswa abanobuntu obuntsonkothileyo. UDostoevsky wayeyincutshe ekubhaleni ezi ntlobo zamabali. Wayeyazi indlela yokuluka umxholo wembali kunye nabalinganiswa bakhe kunye neengxabano ezazibathwaxa.

Wakha imizobo yokwenyani yobutyebi obuninzi obahlukana neRomanticism. Izicatshulwa zakhe ngaphakathi kokwenyani zisokwe kwinoveli yeengcamango. Ezi ziinoveli ezibalisa ibali kwaye, kwangaxeshanye, zicamngca nzulu ngemixholo emikhulu yabantu, enabalinganiswa abazotywe ngokunzulu.

Icawa yobuOthodoki

Imisebenzi ephambili

  • Abantu abahluphekileyo (1846). Inoveli yakhe yokuqala, umsebenzi we-epistolary.
  • Iinkumbulo zendlu yabafi (1862). Inoveli apho kufunyanwa khona iinkumbulo zexesha lakhe njengebanjwa eSiberia.
  • Iinkumbulo zomhlaba ongaphantsi (1864). Ubukhulu becala yimonologue yangaphakathi yomlinganiswa ngaphandle komntu wonke. Ukukhulelwa kwayo kwafika ngexesha lobuthathaka obukhulu kuDostoevsky emva kokufa komfazi wakhe wokuqala kunye nomntakwabo.
  • Ulwaphulo-mthetho kunye nezohlwayo (1866). Ngowona msebenzi wakhe waziwa kakhulu nonempembelelo. I-protagonist, u-Raskólnikov, ungumfundi ohlala ebugxwayibeni kwaye othatha isigqibo sokubulala ukrebe omdala. Imixholo ephambili yalo msebenzi ijikeleze ityala, ukukhangela ukunyaniseka kunye nokuziphatha okulungileyo kwaye, ekugqibeleni, ukuxolelwa kunye novelwano.
  • Umdlali (1866). Inoveli ebotshelelwe kumava obuqu ombhali kunye nokukhotyokiswa kwakhe kokungcakaza.
  • Isidenge (1868). Libali lika-a Moroni abaneengxaki zokuziphatha ezifana nezo ajongene nazo umlinganiswa oyintloko we Ulwaphulo-mthetho kunye nezohlwayo.
  • Iidemon (1872). Inoveli eqokelela iingcinga zezopolitiko.
  • Idayari yombhali (1873-1881) Yayiyimpapasho efundisayo apho uDostoevsky waphuhlisa khona ingcamango, ukuzazisa ngokomoya kunye nokugxeka kwezopolitiko, konke ngaphakathi kwesakhelo sexesha lakhe.
  • Abazalwana bakaKaramazov (1880). Umsebenzi awayeziva enebhongo kakhulu kwaye mhlawumbi ngowona ucingisisiweyo. Inoveli yeembono ezijongana nempixano phakathi kwabazali nabantwana, into eyayisoloko imthe ntsho. Ikwangumfanekiso ogqibeleleyo wenkulungwane ye-XNUMX yoluntu lwaseRussia.

Siyakumema ukuba ufumane okanye uphinde ufumane obu buchule boncwadi lwehlabathi ngokuthi ndlela ntle ngesicatshulwa esivela kuye: "Imfihlelo yobukho bomntu ayikokuphila nje kuphela, kodwa nokwazi ukuba umntu uphilela ntoni".


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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