UFrankenstein. I-classic kaMary Shelley ijika i-200

Ngaba ifayile ye- 1 de enero de 1818 xa yayipapashwa UFrankenstein okanye iPrometheus yanamhlanje, umsebenzi wobugcisa wombhali wayo, iBritani UMary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Ke yintoni esele ikhona Iincwadi zakudala azipheleli nje ekuphazamiseni kodwa nakwihlabathi jikelele Ndigqibile eyokuqala 200 iminyaka. Akukho nto ingcono kunokuqalisa le 2018 ngokuthatha imbono yeshumi elinanye kwimbali engunaphakade evuyisayo, eyoyikisayo kwaye eyenza zonke izizukulwana zibonise ngokungakhathali. Kwiifom ezininzi kunye neenguqulelo uFrankenstein uya kuqhubeka nokunyamezela ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo.

UMary Shelley

Wayeyintombi yenoveli nefilosofi UWilliam Godwin kunye no-de UMary Wollstonecraft. Omnye uxhasa ukupheliswa kwepropathi kwaye uchasene nazo zonke iintlobo zikarhulumente, phantse i-anarchist yokuqala Kwaye omnye, umbhali kunye nelizwi lokuseka ubufazi banamhlanje, umbhali we Ukuthethelelwa kwamalungelo omfazi (Ukuthethelelwa kwamalungelo abasetyhiniapho abafazi babenelungelo lokufikelela kwimfundo njengamadoda.

Ngomnyaka we-1814, eneminyaka elishumi elinesithandathu ubudala, wachaza kunye nomlobi UPercy shelley, awayeqale naye ukuthandana nangona wayetshatile. Batshata ngo-1816, emva kokuba umfazi wokuqala kaShelley azibulale ngokuntywila. UMariya ngumdali wencwadi ethathwa njengeyokuqala intsomi yesayensi kwaye namhlanje iselinye lawona mabali mabi emanyumnyezi kuwo onke amaxesha.

Imbali ithi wabhala ibali lososayensi uVictor Frankenstein ngo ukubheja. Ngobunye ubusuku ngoJuni 1816 wadibana naye INkosi Byron nabanye Kwindlu yokuhlala ngaphandle kweGeneva. Apho, bezivalele endlwini sisiphango, babenjalo ukufunda amabali terror kwezolonwabo.

Frankenstein kwangoko yaba impumelelo ebalulekileyo noluntu. Kodwa uMary Shelley akazange ayifumane kwakhona ngomsebenzi wakhe kamva. Kuba wabhala ezinye iinoveli ezine, amabali amafutshane, imibongo kunye neencwadi zokuhamba ezininzi. Umzekelo, inoveli yakho Indoda yokugqibela Ikwaqwalaselwa njengenye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo awabhalayo kwaye isixelela ngentshabalalo yohlanga loluntu ngesibetho esoyikekayo. Y ULodore yingxelo ebaliweyo ebaliweyo.

Emva kokufa komyeni wakhe, ngo-1822, uMariya wazinikela ekusasazeni umsebenzi wakhe wembongi. Yakhe Usweleke eLondon ngoFebruwari 1, 1851. Umnqweno wakhe wokugqibela yayikukungcwatywa nabazali bakhe kwaye bonke baphumla emangcwabeni eSt.Peter, eBournemouth, kumazantsi eNgilane.

Frankenstein

UVictor Frankenstein Usisazinzulu kwaye ukwangumfundi wobugqi, othe phithi kukufumana owona mngeni mkhulu kwihlabathi lezenzululwazi: uvuse umzimba ofileyo. Kodwa impumelelo yakho iya kuba sisigwebo sakho. Ukudalwa kwesigebenga esoyikisayo esithi, ekuphenduleni ukwaliwa kuveliswe kuwo wonke umntu, kufuna ukuziphindezela kumdali waso, lowo simbek 'ityala ngelishwa laso. Ke iyamjikela nayo yonke into ayithandayo. I-monster, egula ngenxa yesizungu, ibuza umdali wakhe ukuba iqabane lakhe litshintshise ukuze linyamalale ngonaphakade, kodwa uVictor uyala ukwenza njalo. Ekuphela kwento enokuzisa uxolo nokuphumla iya kuba kukuphela kwesinye kwaba babini.

Isikweko esingasemva kweli bali sikwayi umzobo woloyiko lobuninzi, okwahlukileyo, kunye nesibongozo esikhulu ngokuchasene nokunganyamezelani. Indibaniselwano yento emnandi neyoyikisayo, inoveli yeGothic kunye nebali lefilosofi liyinxalenye yempumelelo enkulu kwaye iyaqhubeka nokuthakazelisa abafundi.

Ewe uVictor Frankenstein kunye nesidalwa sakhe esidalwe kwizidumbu zabantu sele kunjalo into kunye nokukhuthazwa phantse kwewaka kusebenza phakathi kwe-cinema, yeqonga kunye neekomiki.

Kwimiboniso bhanyabhanya

La ulungelelwaniso lokuqala Kwakukho kwiscreen esikhulu ngo-1910. Ukusukela ngoko kubekho iinguqulelo ezimalunga ne-150 kwiifomathi ezahlukeneyo. Nazi ezinye.

UFrankenstein, ngo-1910

Yintoni i Ifilimu emfutshane eyi-16 iveliselwe i UThomas Edison Inkampani yeFilimu ukuba kwiintsuku zokuqala zemovie wayesebenzisa uFrankenstein njengesifundo sakhe.

UFrankenstein, ngo-1931

Le nguqulo ye UJames Whale ngulo usinike owona mfanekiso wesilo sikhulu UFrankenstein, idlalwe nguBoris Karloff. Ifilimu yayineendlela ezininzi. Eyokuqala yayi Umtshakazi kaFrankenstein, ka-1935, eyalelwa kwakhona nguWhale, kunye no Boris Karloff kunye noColin Clive njenge-monster kunye noGqirha Frankenstein, ngokwahlukeneyo. Elsa lanchester ngolunye uluvo lwentsomi, wazisa intombi yesigebenga. Emva kweminyaka emine yakhululwa Unyana ka Frankenstein, yeluswa nguwe URowland V. Lee. UKarloff wayesisilo esikhulu sokugqibela.

Isiqalekiso sikaFrankenstein, ngo-1957

Inkampani yokuvelisa umboniso ingayenza njani into njenge Isando saseBritane? Ke ngo-1957 bazenzela eyabo ingxilimbela. Isiqalekiso saseFrankenstein Kwakunenkwenkwezi ngeenkolelo ezimbini zolu hlobo njengoko zazinjalo UChristopher Lee, kwindima yesilo, kunye UPeter Cushing njengoVictor Frankenstein. Yayiyimboniso bhanyabhanya yokuqala eyoyikisayo eneenkcukacha ezimnandi ngakumbi.

Usapho lweMunster kunye no-Frankenstein oselula

Kule 60s uhlobo wayefuna ukuya comedy kwaye kuthotho kamabonakude yaziwa kakuhle kwaye ethandwa kakhulu Usapho lakwaMunster, owadala eyakhe inguqulelo yesigebenga siphefumlelwe ngumfanekiso kaKarloff. UHerman Munster wayenguye ulungile, uyathandeka kwaye ulungile utata wosapho lwezilo, i-vampires kunye ne-werewolves.

UFrankenstein nguAndy Warhol, ngo-1973

Kwaye inkolelo yenkcubeko efana noAndy Warhol yavelisa le nguqulo ngo-1973 kunye neFransi ne-Itali kwaye ilawulwa nguPaul Morrisey. Yadlala u-Udo Kier kunye noMonique van Vooren kwaye ilayishwe ngogonyamelo kunye nokwabelana ngesondo okucacileyo.

UFrankenstein nguMary Shelley, ngo-1994

Yayingumlingisi owaziwayo wase-Bhritane kunye nomlawuli ofana noKenneth Branagh owayefuna ukubuyela kwisicatshulwa sokuqala sikaShelley kule mveliso yezigidi zeedola. Wenza inkwenkwezi kuyo edlala uVictor Frankenstein owayephindaphindiwe nguRobert De Niro enobuso obomileyo kunye nomzimba owawuthembekile kwinkcazo yasekuqaleni. nguShelley.

UFrankenstein, ngo-2011

Yayilulungelelaniso olukhulu kwiNational Theatre eLondon. Nabadlali Benedict Cumberbatch y UJohnny lee miller Baye batshintsha kwindima kaVictor Frankenstein kunye nesidalwa.


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