UBenito Pérez Galdós, oyena mmeli ubalaseleyo kwiRealism yaseSpain

UBenito Pérez Galdós, kunye noLeopoldo Alas «Clarín», ngabameli abaphezulu be Ubunyani beSpanish. Nangona kunjalo, namhlanje siyayityeshela eyesibini, esiza kuthetha ngayo kwelinye inqaku kungekudala, kwaye sigxile ngaphezulu kwako konke umsebenzi wokuqala, iGaldós.

UBenito Pérez Galdós kunye nenoveli yakhe

Ngomsebenzi kaGaldós, imveliso yakhe enkulu yenoveli ibalasele ikakhulu, apho amaqela ahlukeneyo ahlukeneyo:

  • Los Iziqendu zeLizwe bakha iseti yeenoveli ezingama-46 ezichaza ngembali yaseSpain ukusuka kwidabi laseTrafalgar ukuya ekubuyiselweni kobukumkani. Izihloko zakhe ezibalaseleyo kwezi ziQendu zeSizwe zezi "ITrafalgar", "Bailen" y "Saragossa".
  • Kwiinoveli zokuqala zikaGaldós, oku ibonisa ngokucacileyo imeko yayo eqhubekayoAbalinganiswa abamele izimvo eziphambili bajongene nabanye abazinzileyo, abamele ukunganyamezelani kunye nokungahambelani. Imisebenzi efana "Inenekazi eligqibeleleyo" (1876) "Uzuko" (1877) kunye "Usapho lukaLeon Roch" Ngo-1878. Uninzi lwezi noveli zimalunga «Iireveli zethisisi»Ngamanye amagama, iinyani ezichaziweyo zikwinkonzo yombono kwaye abalinganiswa abakubonisi ukubonakaliswa kobunzima bamanqanaba okugqibela.
  • Kwelinye icala, iiGaldós, ngokupheleleyo ukukhula kwimibhalo, Ubhala iinoveli zaseSpain zangoku. Kuzo, khetha i Ukuma ngakumbi kokujongwa kunye nokulahla indlela yokucinga icace gca. Kula manoveli impembelelo yendalo ikwabonwa, kodwa ayizukubekwa kule ntshukumo ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ubuchule obuqhelekileyo bendalo. IMadrid idla ngokuba sisixeko esikhethwe ngumlobi wale ncwadana: «Tormento» (1884), "La de Bringas" (1884) "I-Meow" (1888) kunye «Fortunata kunye neJacinta» (1887).

  • Isuka 1889, Imveliso yokugqibela yombhali. Oku kuphawulwa ngokwasemoyeni kwemisebenzi yakhe, kuba iGaldós igxile emntwini kunye nentsingiselo yobukho bakhe. Ngeli xesha, uzama ngeendlela ezintsha zokubalisela kwaye ubandakanya izinto ezinje ngamaphupha, umfuziselo okanye into emnandi. Iinoveli ezinje nge "Yinyani" (1889) «Angel Guerra» (1891) "Tristana" (1892) "Nazarín" (1895) okanye "Inceba" (1897).

Izimvo kunye nomxholo womsebenzi wakhe

Kukho inani lezimvo kunye nemixholo enokuthi ithathelwe ingqalelo ngokupheleleyo njenge "Galdosian":

  1. La ukugxekwa kwezentlalo. UGaldós uziva enentlonipho enkulu ngabo bahlelelekileyo, abafana nabangqibi, abagulayo okanye abakhubazekileyo, kwangaxeshanye ebonisa ukuba uzimasa abo bangakhange bazilungelelanise namaxesha anamhlanje, njengabefundisi, izidwangube okanye ubuvila. Udidi lwentlalo olugxeka kakhulu emsebenzini wakhe ngoohlohlesakhe.
  2. La política, etshutshiswa ngokwembono yomzuzu. Kukho imisebenzi eluhlalutyo olunempumelelo kakhulu lwangoku kunye nexesha elidlulileyo lombhali wabo. Kwezi kubonakala umoya wenkululeko, oweriphabliki kunye nowasososhiyali owongamele ukuvela kweembono zakhe. Ukuqhubela phambili kukaGaldó kumbono ongenathemba ngembali, ngakumbi ebudaleni bakhe, nto leyo ekhokelela ekubeni athathele ingqalelo isiphelo esibuhlungu selizwe njengeyona nto isisiseko eSpanish.
  3. La inkolo. Uchasene namandla abefundisi, nangona etyhila uvelwano ngalo mfundisi wevangeli.

Uhlobo olusebenzayo lweGaldós

UGaldós udala kwimisebenzi yakhe indalo eyinyani ethembekileyo kwinyani. Uluntu lwangoku, ewe, ngumthombo wakhe wokuphefumlelwa. Ke, kwintetho yakhe yokungena e Royal Spanish Academy, enesihloko esikhulu "Uluntu ngoku njengesihloko senoveli"ithi:

«Imifanekiso yobomi yiNoveli, kwaye ubugcisa bokuyila bulele ekuveliseni kwakhona abalinganiswa babantu, inkanuko, ubuthathaka, enkulu kunye encinci, imiphefumlo kunye neefizognomies, yonke into yokomoya neyomzimba eyenzileyo nathi ejikeleze, kunye nolwimi, luphawu lohlanga, kunye neendawo zokuhlala, eziluphawu losapho, kunye nezambatho, eziyila umkhondo wokugqibela wangaphandle wobuntu: konke oku ngaphandle kokulibala ukuba kufanele kubekho ukulingana okuthembekileyo phakathi kokuchaneka nobuhle bokuzala. 

Iingxoxo kunye nokuhlekisa kukwayimimandla esisiseko yesimbo sikaGaldós.

Ukuba uyayithanda inoveli yesitayile sokwenyani, ngomso siza kuqhubeka nokungena kuyo, sihlalutya omnye umbhali weenkwenkwezi wale ntshukumo: Leopoldo Awe «Clarín».


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.