Ixesha lobumsulwa

Ixesha lobumsulwa

Ixesha lobumsulwa

Ixesha lobumsulwa yiklasikhi yenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, ebhalwe ngumbhali odumileyo waseMelika uEdith Wharton. Libali lothando elenzeka eNew York kuluntu oluphezulu lwenkulungwane ephelileyo. Kule nto, abalinganiswa abaphambili kuya kufuneka balwe ngokuchasene neeparameter kunye namasiko asekwe ngabantu abakhethiweyo bexesha.

Inoveli —Beka ngo-1870— yenye yezona zacelwa kakhulu kumathala eencwadi eNew York nakwiivenkile ezithengisa iincwadi ngoo-20. Kwangokunjalo, isihloko saphumelela ibhaso lePulitzer ngo-1921. Ubunjani bomsebenzi obuye walungiswa kwinqanaba kwaye kathathu kwiscreen esikhulu (1924, 1934 and 1993).

Ixesha lobumsulwa

Yincwadi yamabali othando eyapapashwa ngo-1920, eyayibekwe ikakhulu eNew York ngo-1870. Eli yelenqe libandakanya iintsapho ze-New York elite, ezaziphila ngemigangatho ephezulu, zisiya kwi-opera zize zidibane emathekweni, kwizidlo nakwimidaniso. Emsebenzini, UWharton uchaza useto lobunewunewu kunye neziganeko ngokweenkcukacha njengoko wayezithanda ngelo xesha.

Umbhali ulisekela ibali ngokuyinxenye kumava akhe obuqu. Ezona zicace gca zizikhombisi zokuziphatha kwabazizityebi kwisixeko sabo semvelaphi, abagweba abancinci kwaye bakholelwa ukuba bagqibelele. Ukwengeza, Ibonakalisa ubunyani baseYurophu baloo minyaka Ngendlela yokuchasana-, kunye neklasikhi encinci kunye nenkqubela phambili yenkcubeko kuneNew York.

Isiqendu

Ibali liqala ngokubhengezwa kothethathethwano phakathi kweNewland Archer kunye noMeyi Welland; Zombini ezivela kwiintsapho ezikumgangatho ophakamileyo wentlalo. Ugqwetha; uqeqeshwe ngokufanelekileyo, umiliselwe kumasiko elo xesha. Uyintombazana encinci ethuleyo, efundiswe yimigaqo elungileyo kwaye uzimisele ukuba ngumfazi ogqibeleleyo; uhlala onwabile, kodwa ngaphandle komnqweno okanye uluvo olulolwakhe.

Ngezo ntsuku u-Countess Ellen Olenska wayesele efikile eNew York, Ngubani umzala kaMay. Ungumfazi omhle, ozimeleyo kwaye ongaqhelekanga. Eli nenekazi ome njengeqanda ubuyile eYurophu emva kokwahlukana nomyeni wakhe, Engamkelekanga kuluntu oluphezulu lwaseMelika. Amarhe okunyelisa awalindi kwaye aqala nokuchaphazela izihlobo zawo.

Umbono omtsha waseNewland Archer

Ngenxa yale meko imbi kangaka, Umphathi ka-Archer umcela ukuba athethe no-Ellen ngasese kwaye umqinisekise ukuba ayirhoxise inkqubo yoqhawulo-mtshato. Kwincoko, uyayiqonda indlela angonwabanga ngayo uEllen ngokutshata nomntu angamthandiyo. Kwelinye icala, wenza igqwetha ukuba liqonde ukuba uluntu luxinana kangakanani apho ahlala khona.

Okokugqibela, uEllen uyanikezela kwisicelo sika-Archer kwaye abuye umva ngoqhawulo mtshato, nangona engonelisekanga kwaphela. Ukwazi inxalenye yenkcubeko yaseYurophu kumenza avuke kubugqwirha awayekubo. Indlela yokucinga yegqwetha itshintshile kwaye ngoku iqala ukuzibuza ngokunxulumene ukuba umtshato olungileyo ufanele ukuba yintoni.

Ukuthanda ezintathu

Emva kwencoko leyo, INewland kunye ne Countess baba ngabahlobo abalungileyo. Ngenxa yendlela awayeziva ekhululeke ngayo kunye naye, uthatha isigqibo sokumkhapha aye kwikhaya leholide labanye babahlobo bakhe bosapho. Ukubakho, Utoli uyayiqonda indlela avakalelwa ngayo ngoEllen; umdla wabo ungaphaya kokuba ngabahlobo kunye nabazala.

ENewland Ngaphandle kokuba ngumntu ozolileyo nolungileyo, ebesoloko eneengcinga eziqhubela phambili, kwaye egxeka imigangatho aphila kuyo abantu abaphambili. Kungenxa yoko Uhendelwe ukushiya yonke into kuEllen Ngubani ohambelana nayo—, pero uxanduva lwakho lunobunzima obungakumbi kwaye uphela ngokutshata noMeyi; nangona iimvakalelo zakhe ngo-Ellen zisekhona.

Zininzi ziya kuba ziimeko eziza kuvela kolu nxantathu wothando, phakathi komzabalazo wento "echanekileyo" kunye nento engaqhelekanga. Abalinganiswa abathathu baya kugqiba ukwenza izigqibo ezichaphazela ubomi bomntu ngamnye kubos, ngesiphelo esinokungalindelwa ngabaninzi.

Ukulungiswa kwefilimu

Ixesha lobumsulwa Iziswe kwiscreen esikhulu kumathuba amathathus. Eyokuqala yayingo-1924, kwifomathi ethe cwaka kwaye nguWarner Brothers. Imovie yesibini yayingo-1934; Oku bekusekwe kwinoveli kwaye kwancedwa ngumbhalo wolungelelwaniso lwemidlalo yeqonga olwenziwa kwiminyaka emithandathu eyadlulayo-yenziwa kwi-Broadway ngo-1928.

Ifilimu yokugqibela yokuthimba imbali ebhalwe ngu-Edith Wharton yaveliswa ngo-1993 ngu-Columbia Pictures kwaye yayalelwa ngu-Martin Scorsese. Abalinganiswa bayo babenjalo UDaniel Day-Lewis, uMichelle Pfeiffer kunye noWinona Ryder; owayemele iNewland, uEllen noMeyi ngokwahlukeneyo. Ifilimu yatyunjelwa amabhaso eefilimu aliqela, aphumelela kula manqanaba:

  • Uyilo olugqwesileyo lweCostume (Oscar, 1993)
  • Owona mdlali uxhasayo uWinona Ryder (iGlobal Globes, 1993)
  • UMlawuli: UMartin Scorsese kunye noMlingisi weNkxaso: Winona Ryder (IBhodi yoPhononongo yeSizwe, 1993)
  • Owona mdlali uxhasa uMiriam Margolyes (BAFTA 1993)

Malunga nombhali

NgoLwesihlanu, nge-24 kaJanuwari, ngo-1862, kwisixeko saseNew York kwabonwa uEdith Newbold Jones. Kuba wayengowenye yeentsapho ezizezona zityebi kuluntu oluphakamileyo, wayefundiswe ekhaya, eneyona tutors ibalaseleyo. Ukwengeza, ndinethuba lokundwendwela izixeko ezikhulu eziphambili emhlabeni, Ukusukela ebutsheni bakhe wayehamba nabazali bakhe.

UEdith Wharton

UEdith Wharton

UEdith wayesoloko ekuthanda ukubhala; Wayengumlobi onobuchule. Nangona kunjalo, imisebenzi yakhe yayicotha ukupapashwa, kuba ngelo xesha kwakungathandwa ukuba umntu okwinqanaba lakhe azinikele kuncwadi. Kungenxa yale nto uninzi lwamabali akhe okuqala angeniswa ngokungaziwa, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha phantsi kwegama lokuzenzisa.

Uhambo

Wahlala kakhulu ebuntwaneni bakhe nabazali bakhe kwilizwekazi laseYurophu, nangona wayehlala esiya kwilizwe lakowabo iNew York. U-Edith wakwazi ukuwela iAtlantic malunga nezihlandlo ezingama-66, ezamvumela ukuba afunde iilwimi ezininzi kwaye azi iinkcubeko ezithile zehlabathi. Kwangokunjalo, oku kuncede ukutyebisa iincwadi zakhe kwaye kwenza kwalula kuye ukuba nabahlobo abalungileyo, abanjengoHenry James.

umshado

Watshata noEdward Robbins Wharton ngo-1885, ubudlelwane obungathathelwa ngqalelo ngokuvisisana, kodwa endaweni yoko bube sisiphithiphithi ngenxa yokungathembeki kwelinye iqabane lakhe. Emva kweminyaka engama-28 sitshatile, U-Edith wayengomnye wamanenekazi okuqala aqhawule umtshato, into enzima kakhulu ngeli xesha, kuba isifundo besithathwa njengesingavumelekanga.

Imfazwe Yehlabathi Yokuqala

Yindlela yakhe enqumla eYurophu, UEdith Wharton Yayinxulunyaniswa neziganeko ezininzi, kubandakanya iMfazwe yokuQala yeHlabathi. Ngelixa ungquzulwano lwalusenzeka, Wavunyelwa ukuba aye kumlo wokuqala wedabi ukuzisa uncedo lwezonyango kwabo bachaphazelekayo kuloo ndawo. Eso senzo samzuzela uMnqamlezo weLegion of Honor kurhulumente waseFrance.

Ukufa

Emva kwemfazwe, U-Edith Wharton wasusa iSaint-Brice-sous-Forêt. Wayehlala apho de kwaba ngumhla wokufa kwakhe nge-11 ka-Agasti. 1937, emva kokuhlaselwa sisifo sentliziyo. Isidumbu sakhe sikumhlaba ongcwele weGonards, eVersailles.


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