Ingcungcu inyathela

Ingcungcu inyathela

Ingcungcu inyathela

Ingcungcu inyathela Incwadana yengqondo ngumlobi weprozi waseSwitzerland-waseJamani, umbhali wezincoko kunye nembongi uHermann Hesse. Kukhutshwa ngo-1927 (ingxelo yokugqibela yavela emva konyaka), Der steppenwolf -Igama lokuqala lesiJamani -yincwadi eyayidunyiswa kakhulu eYurophu kwaye iyimpumelelo ekupapasheni. Nangona kunjalo, umbhali wamaTeutonic wakhalaza kaninzi esithi wayechazwe gwenxa.

Kule meko, abagxeki boncwadi bathi ibali lengcuka linemvelaphi yalo kwingxaki enzulu yokomoya eyehlelwa nguHesse phaya ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-20. yenye yeencwadi zakudala zaseJamani zoncwadi lwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Akumangalisi ke ukuba, esi sihloko sithathwa njengombhali wobugcisa owaziwa ngokuba ngumsebenzi weNobel Prize for Literature ngo-1946.

Uhlalutyo Ingcungcu inyathela

Umxholo womsebenzi

Der steppenwolf Ibe ngumxholo weethisisi ezingenakubalwa kunye nezifundo zemfundo; uninzi lwazo lungqamana ekubonakaliseni isimilo somntu kule ncwadi. Ngokuqinisekileyo, Kukho izinto ezifanayo phakathi kwengqondo yomntu ophambili ebalini kunye nobomi bukaHesse. Ngapha koko, phakathi kowe-1916 nowe-1917 wayenesigulana sikaGqirha uJoseph B. Lang, iwadi kaGqirha uCarl Gustav Jung owaziwayo, owathi umbhali wahlangana naye kamva.

Unyango ngengqondo lwaluyimfuneko ngenxa yengxaki yombhali ebangelwe kukusweleka kukayise kunye nokugula kakhulu konyana wakhe uMartin. Ukongeza, umfazi wakhe wokuqala wabandezeleka ngeziqendu ze-schizophrenic (umtshato awuzange uphumelele). Emva koqhawulo-mtshato wakhe ngo-1923, uHesse wadlula kwelinye ixesha lokuba yedwa nokuxinezeleka, zombini ezi zinto zibonakala kwimbali yengcuka.

Izihloko

Ingxoxo yesicatshulwa Ibonakalisa ubutshaba bombhali wamaTeutonic kumbutho wongxowankulu bexesha lakhe. Kwangokunjalo, uHesse usebenzisa umzobo wesilwanyana njengesahluko ukuthelekisa iindlela ezimbini zokuphila: umntu nengcuka. Kwelinye icala, umntu ukhathazekile kukuziphatha okuphucukileyo, izimvo ezintle, iimvakalelo ezintle kunye nengcinga yobuhle bezinto.

Endaweni yokuba inja ingumntu onoluvo ngendalo esingqongileyo kunye nabo bamngqongileyo abahlala bephazamisa ukuhlekisa kunye nokuhlekisa. Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, isidla-busuku esidla inyama lutshaba loluntu kunye namasiko awamkelekileyo ekuhlaleni ukuba aqulathe indalo yasendle yomntu. A) Ewe, ibali lijikeleza ingxoxo yokuziphatha engapheliyo ngaphakathi kwentloko yomlinganiswa ophambili.

Izinto zengqondo yohlalutyo

Isakhiwo ngokwawo luhlalutyo lwengqondo lukaHarry Haller, umlinganiswa ophambili, umbhali okrelekrele nembongi, uphazamisekile engqondweni kwaye udakumbile. Nangona kwasekuqaleni oku Ucocekile kwaye ucocekile, Ukuxinana kwigumbi lakho luphawu lokuqala lokuphazamiseka kwakho ngaphakathi. Njengoko iziganeko ziqhubeka, imida phakathi kwenyani kunye namaphupha ayacacanga.

E-Haller, iimvakalelo ezinzulu zetyala zihlala kunye nokukhohlisa okucacileyo kobukhulu. Ngendlela efanayo, wayenengqondo ebalaseleyo emvumela ukuba abuxabise ubugcisa kunye nokuqonda kakuhle ubungakanani bezinto ezimngqongileyo. Nangona kunjalo, obo bukrelekrele bumkhokelela ekubeni azilahle kwimithunzi yakhe yengqondo esembindini embindini wengxoxo yakhe yefilosofi.

Isishwankathelo se Ingcungcu inyathela

Intshayelelo

Umbalisi wokuqala (wazazisa "njengomhleli" wombhalo-ngqangi kaHarry) ngumtshana okwishumi elivisayo womnini-penshini apho kuhlala khona umlinganiswa ophambili. Le rapporteur amaxesha ngamaxesha iveza uluvo lwayo kwiHaller, amchaza njengendoda zikrelekrele kwaye ziyacinga, kodwa ziphazamisekile ngokomoya.

Imibhalo kaHaller

Ophambili uzichaza njengowasemzini, ocinga, othanda iMozart nemibongo. Ikwabhaptizwa njenge "steppe wolf", into ebaluleke kakhulu ukungaqondwa kakuhle kunye nesizungu. Ngobunye ubusuku ugqiba kwelokuba aphume, Kwaye kufezekiswa ngomnyango oya kwi "Magic Theatre", kodwa usilele ukuwuwela. Sondela apho, ubalekela kumrhwebi, ngubani, emva kwencoko emfutshane, Umnika incwadi encinci.

Emva kokubuyela egumbini lakhe, uHarry ufumanisa ukuba le ncwadi imalunga naye. Umsebenzi uqulethe uluhlu lweengcinga zefilosofi malunga nokulunga, iingxaki kunye nokusilela kweengcuka ezizithandayo. Nangona kunjalo, Isicatshulwa siqikelela ukuzibulala komntu ophambili, into avumelana nayo, njengoko eziva edanile ebomini bakhe.

Isilwanyana sasebusuku

Emva kohambo olude, UHarry ungena kwi-bar "Ukhozi Olumnyama", apho udibana noHermine, ibhinqa eliselula elinomtsalane nelikhotha amadoda. Ke, UHeraller uba luhlobo lomlandeli wakhe kwaye uyavuma ukuthobela yonke imiyalelo yakhe (kubandakanya nokumbulala). Ukubuya, umlinganiswa ophambili unikezelwa "ukuba afunde ukonwabela iziyolo zobomi."

Kamva, UHarry wadibana noPablo, imvumi ethandekayo kunye nomphathi weMicrosoft Theatre. Kwakhona, UHermine umazisa kuMaria, oba ngumthandi kaHaller. Ekugqibeleni, umlinganiswa ophambili uzamile ukudanisa kwaye ahleke ingcuka kunye nendoda. Okulandelayo, iivesi zilayishwe kukuhleka, iziyobisi kunye neendlela ezingaqhelekanga phakathi kwenyani kunye neentsomi ngaphakathi kweMidlalo yeTheatre.

Isisombululo

Kwiindawo ezingenangqondo zemidlalo yeqonga, uHarry wafumana amava esiqhelo ephupha kakubi; Ude aye kude axoxe ngefilosofi kunye nokubakho kwezinto ngenguqulelo yanamhlanje kunye ne-burlesque yeMozart. Ngasekupheleni, UHerler ufumana uHermine elele ze ecaleni kukaPablo, que iqwalasela njenge uphawu lokufezekisa ukuthanda kwentombazana eccentric.

Ekugqibeleni, umlinganiswa ophambili ubulala uHermine ngokuhlaba. Ngenxa yoko, ugwetyelwe ubomi obungunaphakade. Njengenxalenye yesohlwayo, kufuneka anyamezele ukuhleka kwamalungu enkundla iiyure ezilishumi elinambini. Ekuvaleni, uHaller uthatha isigqibo sokuguqula ubomi bakhe bube phantsi, kwaye azimisele ukufunda ukuhleka ngekamva lakhe.

Malunga nombhali, uHermann Hesse

Ukuzalwa kunye nobuntwana

UHermann Karl Hesse Wazalelwa kwidolophu encinci yaseCawl, eWürttemberg, eJamani, ngoJulayi 2, 1877. Utata wakhe, uJohannes Hesse, wayeligqirha lomthonyama lase-Estonia eliphuma kubafundisi abangamaKristu; Unina yayinguMarie Gundert owayevela eIndiya. Ngexesha lobuntwana bakhe, UHermann omncinci Wafunda isiLatin eGöppingen phakathi kowe-1886 nowe-1891.

Ukususela ngo-1891 umbhali elizayo Wayefumana iingxabano eziqinileyo nabazali bakhe kwaye wadlula kwimeko ezinzima zoxinzelelo (awathetha kaninzi kamva). Ngapha koko, wabaleka kwisikolo sabefundisi kwaye kunqabile ukuba achithe iinyanga ezintandathu kwiziko elifanayo lemfundo. Ngo-1892, abazali bakhe bamnikela kwisibhedlele saseStetten im Remstal ngenxa yemibhalo yakhe yokuzibulala.

Imisebenzi yokuqala

Izikolo zokugqibela awafunda kuzo yayiliziko elikhethekileyo eBasel kunye neJymnasium kufutshane naseStuttgart. Ngo-1893 wagqiba isikolo samabanga aphantsi kwaye wayeka isikolo. Emva koko, wasebenza njengomncedisi kwivenkile yokubukela kwaye kamva njengomthengisi weencwadi eTübingen. Apho waqala ukufunda iintsomi, imibhalo yezakwalizwi kunye nefilosofi ngababhali abanjengoGoethe, Lessing kunye noSchiller, phakathi kwabanye.

Ukupapashwa kwakhe kokuqala kwavela kwiphephancwadi laseVienna ngo-1986, lo mbongo Madonna. Emva kwexesha, uHesse wapapasha Romantische liede (1898) kunye U-Eine Stunde uthinte iMitternacht (Ngo-1899). Kuzo zombini iingqokelela, uHesse ubonakalise ifuthe lezinto ezaziwayo zothando lwaseJamani (iBrentano, von Eichendorff kunye noNovalis, ikakhulu).

Ukuzinikezela kuncwadi kunye nemitshato

Impumelelo yenoveli UPeter camenzind (Ngo-1904) wavumela uHermann Hesse ukuba aphile ngokubhala ubomi bakhe bonke. Ngelo xesha umbhali waseJamani wayesele enomdla kwizinto zokomoya (ngakumbi amaHindu) kwaye wayelahliwe kwinkonzo yasemkhosini. Kwelinye icala, Umbhali waseJamani uye wafumana ubunzima kubomi bakhe bothando (wayetshatile kathathu).

Amaqabane

  • UMaria Bernoulli, phakathi kuka-1904 no-1923
  • URuth Wegner, ukusuka ngo-1927 ukuya ku-1927
  • UNinon Dolbin, ukusukela ngo-1931 de kwasekufeni kuka-Hesse ngo-1962 evela kwincindi yokopha.

Imisebenzi eyaziwa kakhulu

  • UGertrude (1910)
  • Idemon (1919)
  • uSiddhārtha (1922)
  • Ingcungcu inyathela (1927)
  • umdlalo weabalors (1943).

Ilifa

Umsebenzi kaHermann Hesse ubandakanya ngaphezulu kwama-40 apapashiweyo kubandakanya iinoveli, amabali amafutshane, imibongo kunye nokubonisa, kunye nohlolo olungaphezulu kwe-3000 kunye nohlelo. Ke ngoko, ayimangalisi into yokuba ithengise ngaphezulu kweekopi ezizigidi ezingama-30 kwihlabathi liphela, iguqulelwe kwiilwimi ezingaphezu kwama-40. Ukongeza, umbhali waseJamani unerekhodi ebanzi yeencwadi (ngaphezulu kwama-35.000 iileta) kwaye wayengumzobi obalaseleyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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