UJulio Cortázar: imibongo

Isicatshulwa nguJulio Cortázar

Isicatshulwa nguJulio Cortázar

UJulio Cortázar wayengumbhali owaziwayo waseArgentina owaphuma phandle kwiqonga lehlabathi loncwadi ngokubaluleka kwezicatshulwa zakhe. Imvelaphi yakhe yamkhokelela ekubeni avelise imisebenzi ebalulekileyo yemibongo, iinoveli, amabali amafutshane, iprozi emfutshane kunye neentlobo ngeentlobo. Okwexeshana, umsebenzi wakhe waqhekeka kunye neeparadigms; wahamba ngenkululeko epheleleyo kunye nokulawula phakathi kwe-surrealism kunye nenyani yomlingo.

Kumsebenzi wakhe omde, Cortazar wakha ingqokelela eyomeleleyo yeencwadi ezahlukahlukeneyo nezinentsingiselo. Hayi ngelize ithathwa njengomnye wababhali abaphambili be isiganeko soncwadi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "latin american boom”. Kwakhona uye wasebenza njengetoliki ephawulekayo kwi-Unesco nakwezinye iindawo zokushicilela. Kulo msebenzi wokugqibela, imisebenzi yakhe kwimisebenzi ka: Edgar Allan Poe, Daniel Defoe, André Gide, Marguerite Yourcenar kunye noCarol Dunlop bavelele.

Umsebenzi wezibongo nguJulio Cortázar

Ubukho (1938)

Umbhalo wapapashwa ngo-1938 phantsi kwegama elinguJulio Denis. Luhlelo olulinganiselweyo olunikezelwa nguMhleli we-El Bibliófilo. Kuphela kwaprintwa iikopi ezingama-250, ezineesonethi ezingama-43. Kule mibongo kwakugquba umculo, ukongezelela ekufuneni imvisiswano noxolo. ICortázar Wayengenabhongo ngalo msebenzi, wayewugqala njengesenzo sokutyhuthuzela nesingaqolanga, ngoko akazange avume ukuphinda ayipapashe.

Ngowe-1971, kudliwano-ndlebe noJ. G. Santana, umbhali wagqabaza ngokulandelayo ngalo msebenzi: “Isono sobutsha esingaziwayo, endingasibonisiyo bani. Ifihlwe kakuhle. ”… Nangona kuncinci okwaziwayo ngale ncwadi, ezinye zezo sonethi zihlangulwe, enye yazo yile:

"Umculo"

I

Kwelanga

Baphinda kabini amasiko obusuku, belindile

ikrele le-orenji - liphalaziwe

engapheliyo, i-oleander kwinyama enamaphiko-

kudlala iinyibiba entwasahlobo.

Bayakhanyela - ukukhanyela - i-wax swans

ukuphangwa kwekrele;

baya ngasentla ukuya ndawo

Ukuqubha ugwebu kude kufe ilanga

Udonga lweendiza ezizodwa zenziwe.

Idiski, idiski! Mjonge, Jacinto,

khawucinge indlela akuthobe ngayo ubude bakhe!

Umculo wamafu, melopea

yenze isiseko sokubhabha kwayo

Kufuneka ibe lingcwaba langokuhlwa.

I-Pameos kunye ne-meopas (1971)

Yingqokelela yokuqala yemibongo epapashwe phantsi kwegama lakhe. Ngaba Umdibaniso onemibongo yakhe emininzi. U-Cortázar wayemadolw' anzima ukuchaza imibongo yakhe, wayeneentloni kakhulu kwaye engazithembi iingoma zakhe kolu hlobo. Kule nkalo, wathi: "Ndiyimbongi endala [...] nangona ndigcine phantse yonke into ebhaliweyo kuloo mgca ingapapashwa ngaphezu kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu anesihlanu."

Ngo-2017, uMhleli weNórdica wanikela imbeko kumbhali ngokupapasha lo msebenzi, owawubonisa umbongo awubhalileyo ukusuka kwi-1944 ukuya kwi-1958. Le ncwadi yahlulwe yangamacandelo amathandathu —Nganye inesihloko sayo—, equlathe phakathi kwemibongo emibini kunye nemine, kungekho budlelwane phakathi kwayo okanye umhla wokucaciswa kwayo. Nangona kukho umahluko obonakalayo phakathi kwesicatshulwa ngasinye - ukunqongophala kokudibana kommkeli, isihloko, ubukhulu baso okanye isingqisho - bagcina isimbo sabo seempawu. Olu hlelo lunemifanekiso kaPablo Auladell. Omnye wemibongo ngulo:

"Ukubuyisela"

Ukuba andazi nto ngomlomo wakho ngaphandle kwelizwi

emabeleni akho ziiblowu eziluhlaza, nokuba ziorenji;

indlela yokuqhayisa ngokuba nawe

ngaphezu kobabalo lwesithunzi esiwela phezu kwamanzi.

Kwinkumbulo yam ndiphethe izijekulo, i-pout

indlela endonwabe ngayo, kwaye ngaloo ndlela

ukuhlala kuwe, kunye negophe

phumla umfanekiso wophondo lwendlovu.

Asiyonto inkulu le ndiyishiyileyo.

Kwakhona izimvo, umsindo, ithiyori,

amagama abazalwana noodade,

idilesi yeposi neyomnxeba,

iifoto ezintlanu, isiqholo seenwele,

uxinzelelo lwezandla ezincinci apho kungekho mntu unokutsho

ukuba ihlabathi lisithekile kum.

Ndithwala yonke into ngaphandle komgudu, ndilahlekelwa kancinci kancinci.

Andiyi kuqamba amanga angunaphakade.

ngcono ukuwela iibhulorho ngezandla zakho

ndizele ngawe,

ukukrazula inkumbulo yam,

eyinika amahobe abo bathembekileyo

oongqatyana, mabadle nina

phakathi kweengoma kunye nengxolo kunye nokuqhwaba.

Ngaphandle kokuhlwa (1984)

Yingqokelela yemibongo yombhali eyapapashwa emva nje kokufa kwakhe. Isicatshulwa si umboniso wezinto ozithandayo, iinkumbulo kunye neemvakalelo. Iingoma zinezinto ezininzi, ukongeza kumava akhe, zibonisa uthando lwakhe kwizixeko zakhe ezimbini: iBuenos Aires neParis. Kulo msebenzi unike imbeko kwezinye iimbongi eziphawule ubukho bakhe.

Ngo-2009, uHlelo lweAlfaguara lwanikezela uhlelo olutsha yale ngqokelela yemibongo, ethi iquka imibhalo-ngqangi yezilungiso ezenziwe ngumbhali. Ngoko ke, iimpazamo ezazikwincwadi yokuqala nezinye iinkupho zalungiswa. Le sonnet ilandelayo yinxalenye yolu papasho:

"Ukwenziwa kabini"

Xa irozi esishukumisayo

encrypted imiqathango yohambo,

ngexesha le-landscape

igama ikhephu licinyiwe,

kuya kubakho uthando oluya kusithatha ekugqibeleni

kwiphenyane labakhweli,

kwaye kwesi sandla ngaphandle komyalezo

iya kuwuvusa umqondiso wobulali bakho.

Ndicinga ukuba ndinguye ngenxa yokuba ndizenzele wena,

alchemy of ukhozi emoyeni

entlabathini nasebumnyameni,

nawe ke kuloo mlindo womeleza

isithunzi ondikhanyisela ngaso

kwaye uyambombozela ukuba undiyile.

Eminye imibongo yombhali

"Busuku"

Ngobu busuku izandla zam zimnyama, intliziyo yam ibilebile

ngathi emva kokulwela ukulibala ngomsi we-centipedes.

Yonke into ishiywe apho, iibhotile, isikhephe,

Andazi nokuba bebendithanda na, nokuba bebelindele ukundibona na.

Kwiphephandaba elele ebhedini ithi iintlanganiso zediplomatic,

i-sangria yokuhlola yambetha ngolonwabo kwiiseti ezine.

Ihlathi eliphakamileyo lijikeleze le ndlu kumbindi wesixeko.

Ndiyazi, ndivakalelwa kukuba indoda eyimfama isifa kuloo ngingqi.

Inkosikazi yam ihla inyuka ileli encinci

njengomphathi ongazithembi iinkwenkwezi….

 

"Umfana olungileyo"

Andizokwazi ukukhulula izihlangu zam ndivumele umzi undilume iinyawo
Andiyi kunxila phantsi kweebhulorho, andiyi kwenza iimpazamo kwisitayela.
Ndiyalwamkela eli kamva lehempe ezi-ayiniweyo,
Ndifika kwangexesha kwii-cinema, ndinikezela ngesihlalo sam kumanenekazi.
Ukuphazamiseka okude kwezivamvo kubi kum.

 

"Abahlobo"

Kwicuba, kwikofu, kwiwayini,
bavuke ekupheleni kobusuku
njengala mazwi ahlabela mgama
ngaphandle kokwazi ukuba yintoni, apha endleleni.

Abazalwana abancinci bexesha elizayo,
IDioscurios, izithunzi ezimhlophe, ziyandoyikisa
iimpukane zemikhwa, ziyandibamba
gcina udada phakathi kwe-swirl.

Abafileyo bathetha ngakumbi kodwa ezindlebeni,
kwaye abaphilayo banesandla eshushu kunye nophahla,
Isixa-mali sezinto ezifundiweyo kunye nezilahlekileyo.

Ngenye imini kwisikhephe sethunzi,
ngenxa yokungabikho kakhulu isifuba sam siya kuhlala
obu bumnene bamandulo obubabiza ngamagama.

"Nyakhomtsha"

 

Jonga andikuceli nto ingako

yiphathe ngesandla sakho kuphela

njengentshontsho lexoxo elilala kamnandi kanje.

Ndifuna laa mnyango undinike wona

ukungena kwihlabathi lakho, elo qhekeza lincinci

yeswekile eluhlaza, eyonwabileyo engqukuva.

Awunakundiboleka isandla sakho ngokuhlwanje

Ngobusuku bangaphambi komnyaka omtsha wezikhova?

Awukwazi, ngenxa yezizathu zobugcisa. Emva koko

Ndiyolula emoyeni, ndiluka umnwe ngamnye,

ipesika esilika yesundu

kwaye umva, elo lizwe lemithi eluhlaza.

Ngoko ndiyayithatha kwaye ndiyibambe, njenge

ukuba ibixhomekeke kuyo

kakhulu ehlabathini,

ukulandelelana kwamaxesha amane onyaka,

ukulila kwemiqhagi, uthando lwamadoda.

Isishwankathelo sombhali

UJulio Florencio Cortázar wazalwa ngo-Agasti 26, 1914 kummandla osemazantsi we-Ixelles eBrussels, eBelgium. Abazali bakhe yayinguMaría Herminia Descotte kunye noJulio José Cortázar, bobabini baseArgentina. Ngela xesha, uyise wayesebenza njenge-attaché yorhwebo yozakuzo wase-Argentina.

Isicatshulwa nguJulio Cortázar

Isicatshulwa nguJulio Cortázar

Buyela eArgentina

Xa iMfazwe Yehlabathi I yayiza kuphela, intsapho yakwazi ukulishiya iBelgium; Bafika kuqala eSwitzerland baza emva koko bafika eBarcelona. Xa uCortázar wayeneminyaka emine ubudala, wafika eArgentina. Wakhulela eBanfield—emazantsi eBuenos Aires—kunye nonina, udade wabo uOfelia nomakazi.

Ubuntwana obunzima

KuCortázar, ubuntwana bakhe babuzaliswe lusizi. Wafumana ubunzima bokushiywa nguyise xa wayeneminyaka eyi-6 ubudala kwaye akazange aphinde amve. Ukongeza, wachitha ixesha elininzi ebhedini, kuba wayehlala ephethwe zizifo ezahlukahlukeneyo. Noko ke, le meko yamsondeza ekufundeni. Kwiminyaka nje esithoba ubudala, wayesele efunde uVictor Hugo, uJules Verne noEdgar Allan Poe, nto leyo eyabangela amaphupha amabi aphindaphindiweyo.

Waba ngumfana okhethekileyo. Ukongezelela ekufundeni kwakhe rhoqo, wachitha iiyure efunda isichazi-magama esibizwa ngokuba yiLittle Larousse. Le meko yamkhathaza kakhulu unina kangangokuba watyelela inqununu yesikolo sakhe nogqirha ukuze ababuze enoba kukuziphatha okuqhelekileyo kusini na. Zombini iingcali zamcebisa ukuba akuphephe ukufunda umntwana kangangesiqingatha sonyaka, ubuncinane, kunye nokutshiswa lilanga.

Umbhali omncinci

Xa wayesele eza kuba neminyaka eyi-10 ubudala, uCortázar wabhala inoveli emfutshane, ukongeza amabali athile kunye neesonnethi. Le misebenzi yayingenasiphako, nto leyo eyabangela ukuba izalamane zakhe zingamthembi ukuba ziveliswe nguye. Umbhali wavuma kumatyeli aliqela ukuba le meko yambangela unxunguphalo olukhulu.

Izifundo

Waya kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi kwiSikolo seNombolo ye-10 eBanfield, emva koko wangena kwiSikolo saseMariano Acosta esiQhelekileyo sabaFundisi. Ngo-1932, waphumelela njengotitshala oqhelekileyo kwaye kwiminyaka emithathu kamva njengoNjingalwazi weeNcwadi. Kamva, wabhalisa kwiYunivesithi yaseBuenos Aires ukuba afunde iFilosofi. Wawuyeka isikolo emva kokuba ephumelele unyaka wokuqala, njengoko wayethathe isigqibo sokuqhelisela umsebenzi wakhe ukuze ancede umama wakhe.

Amava omsebenzi

Waqalisa ukufundisa kwizixeko ezahlukahlukeneyo zelo lizwe, kuquka iBolívar neChivilcoy. Kwelokugqibela waphila phantse iminyaka emithandathu (1939-1944) kwaye wafundisa uncwadi kwiSikolo esiqhelekileyo. Ngo-1944, wafudukela eMendoza kwaye wafundisa izifundo zoncwadi lwesiFrentshi kwiYunivesithi yeSizwe yaseCuyo. Ngelo xesha wapapasha ibali lakhe lokuqala, "Witch", kwiphephancwadi Imeyile yoncwadi.

Kwiminyaka emibini kamva—emva kokoyisa kwePeronism— Wawuyeka umsebenzi wakhe wokufundisa waza wabuyela eBuenos Aires, apho waqala ukusebenza kwiGumbi leeNcwadi laseArgentina. Kungekudala emva koko, wapapasha ibali elithi "Indlu ethathiweyo" kwiphephancwadi Iimbali zaseBuenos Aires —Ilawulwa nguJorge Luis Borges—. Kamva wabonisa imisebenzi engakumbi kwamanye amaphephancwadi aziwayo, afana nala: Inyani, on kunye Ijenali yeZifundo zeClassical kwiYunivesithi yaseCuyo.

Ukufaneleka njengomguquleli kunye nesiqalo sopapasho lwakho

Ngowe-1948, uCortázar wafaneleka ukuba ngumguquleli wesiNgesi nesiFrentshi. Esi sifundo sathatha iminyaka emithathu ukugqiba, kodwa samthabatha iinyanga ezisithoba kuphela. Emva konyaka, wanikela umbongo wokuqala osayinwe negama lakhe: “Los reyes”; Ngaphezu koko, wapapasha inoveli yakhe yokuqala: Ukonwabisa. Ngo-1951 wakhululwa Kumho, incwadi ehlanganisa amabali asibhozo yaza yamkelwa eArgentina. Kungekudala emva koko, wafudukela eParis ngenxa yokungavisisani norhulumente kaMongameli uPerón.

Ngo-1953 wamkela isindululo seDyunivesithi yasePuerto Rico ukuguqulela irepertoire epheleleyo kwiprose kaEdgar Allan Poe.. Lo msebenzi wawuthathwa ngabagxeki njengowona mbhalo ulungileyo womsebenzi wombhali waseMelika.

Ukufa

Emva kweminyaka engaphezu kwama-30 ehlala kumhlaba waseFransi, uMongameli uFrançois Mitterrand wamnika ubuzwe. Ngowe-1983, umbhali wabuyela okokugqibela - emva kokubuyela kwidemokhrasi - eArgentina. Kungekudala emva koko, uCortázar wabuyela eParis, apho Wasweleka ngoFebruwari 12, 1984 ngenxa ye-leukemia.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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