UJane Austen: iincwadi

UJane Austen

UJane Austen

UJane Austen wayengumbhali wenoveli owaziwayo wenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, imisebenzi yakhe yathathelwa ingqalelo njengoncwadi lwakudala lwesiNgesi. Inoveli yakhe ebalaseleyo yayi Ikratshi nomkhethe, ibali lothando elalibekwe ngelo xesha, elipapashwe ngokungaziwayo ngo-1813. Kwiminyaka emininzi, le ngxelo iye yakhuthaza abanye ababhali, kunye nokulungiswa kwesikrini kwizihlandlo ezininzi.

UAusten ubambe isitayile esahlukileyo nesinamandla, silayishwe ngobomi bemihla ngemihla, isimilo kunye neenkcazo ezichanekileyo izithethe zoluntu lwelo xesha. Amagqwetha amaninzi amjonga njengombhali ozibambeleyo, nangona abagxeki bakwangoku besetyhini bema ngelithi wayengumkhuseli othembekileyo wabasetyhini. Ngo-2007, ubomi bombhali bathatyathwa bangena kwi-cinema, kunye nefilimu: Ukuba nguJane.

I-Biography

UJane Austen wazalwa ngoDisemba 16, 1775 kwidolophu encinci yesiNgesi yaseSteventon emantla eHampshire. Abazali bakhe yayingumfundisi waseTshetshi uGeorge Austen noCassandra Leigh. Wayengumntwana wokugqibela kubantwana abasibhozo bomtshato, ukongeza ekubeni wayeyintombazana yesibini yeqela. Kuba wayemncinci, uJane wayesondele kakhulu kudadewabo omdala, Cassandra.

Usapho, imfundo kunye nesiko lelo xesha

Kuluntu, iAusten babengabakwa "gentry", elinye lamaqela anezinga eliphantsi kubukhosi. Babengenabo ubutyebi obuninzi kwaye umvuzo wabo wagubungela kuphela iindleko ezisisiseko, Ke abantakwabo Jane babemele basebenze besebancinci. Nangona kunjalo, waqinisekisa ngeeleta ukuba babonwabile ubuntwana obonwabisayo apho utata wabo wabakhuthaza ngokwasengqondweni.

Ngelo xesha abafazi babefumana imfundo esisiseko ekhaya, nangona usapho lwalunokubanakho, babenokuzithumela iintombi zabo esikolweni. 1783, UCassandra wayefanele ukuya kufunda ngaphandle, kodwa uJane akazange amvumele ukuba ahambe kuye. Ngale nto, umfundisi wagqiba ekubeni abathumele kunye kwisikolo ekuhlalwa kuso eOxford, kodwa yayilixesha nje elifutshane, kuba bobabini kwafuneka babuye emva kokugula yindlala.

Ngo-1785, uJane noCassandra baya kwisikolo samabhodi i-Abbey kwidolophu yokufunda; kodwa, ngenxa yokuba bengakwazi ukuhlawula imali yokufunda, kuye kwafuneka babuyele. Ukusuka apho, baqhubeka nemfundo yabo ekhaya, apho utata wabo wayexhasa kakhulu.. Umfundisi wayenethala leencwadi elibanzi kwaye ihlala ikhuthazeka umkhwa we leer kwiqela losapho, kungoko uJane wayengumfundi okhutheleyo ukusukela ebusaneni.

Ukuqala kokubhala

Kuqikelelwa ukuba UAusten waqala ukubhala esemncinci, Ubungqina boku ziincwadana zamanqaku ezenziwe phakathi kwe-1787 kunye ne-1793, ezibandakanya amabali amafutshane aliqela. La mabali mancinci apapashwa ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, njengoko imisebenzi yolutsha yaqokelelwa kwimiqulu emithathu. Amanye amabali afakiwe ngala: "Inqaba kaLesley", "Oodade abathathu" kunye no "Catherine".

Novelas

Ukuqala ngo-1795, u-Austen waqulunqa iidrafti zeenoveli zakhe zokuqala, ezathi-emva kokufudukela eChawton ngo-1809-wazihlaziya phambi kokuba zipapashwe. Eyokuqala yamkelwe ngumhleli yile: Ukuziva kunye novakalelo (1811). Le ngxelo ingeniswe ngokungachazwanga, kuphela ngokusayina "NguNkosikazi”. Umsebenzi wonwatyisiwe ngabagxeki beli xesha.

Ukulandela impumelelo yale ncwadi, wapapasha Ikratshi nomkhethe (1813), Inoveli apho umbhali aqala ukwamkelwa. Kunyaka kamva kwavela Ipaki yaseMansfield (1814), iikopi zayo zathengiswa ngokukhawuleza. Ekupheleni konyaka we-1815, umbhali wapapasha umsebenzi wakhe wokugqibela ebomini, Emma. Ngo-1818 imisebenzi yakhe yaziswa Northanger Abbey y Ukunyusa.

Ukufa

UJane Austen Usweleke ngoJulayi 18, 1817 kwisixeko saseWinchester, eneminyaka engama-41 kuphela ubudala. Okwangoku, kucingelwa ukuba ukusweleka kwakhe kwakubangelwa sisifo sika-Addison. Intsalela yombhali uphumle eWinchester Cathedral.

Iinoveli zikaJane Austen

  • Ukuziva kunye novakalelo (1811)
  • Ikratshi nomkhethe (1813)
  • Ipaki yaseMansfield (1814)
  • Emma (1815)
  • Northanger Abbey Umsebenzi (1818) emva kokufa
  • Ukunyusa Umsebenzi (1818) emva kokufa

Isishwankathelo sencwadi kaJane Austen

Ukuziva kunye novakalelo (1811)

Ubomi be U-Elinor, uMarianne noMargaret Utshintsho lukaDashwood emva kokusweleka kukayise. Indoda ishiye zonke iimpahla zayo kumntwana oyindoda awayenayo kwimanyano yakhe yangaphambili, uJohn. Nangona indlalifa ifunga ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko kunye nokuthuthuzela kwabasetyhini abangenakuzinceda, uFanny-inkosikazi yakhe-uyenza nzima yonke into. Le meko ikhokelela amantombazana kufuneka ushukume kunye nomama wakhe ukuya kwindlu encinci nethobekileyo.

Amaziko jikelele e-Elinor noMarianne, njengoko uMargaret engumntwana nje. Ukusuka kwinyani yabo entsha yoqoqosho nezentlalo, ubomi benza into yabo, kwaye abafazi abancinci baqala ukudibana nabahlobo abatsha kwaye bahambe kumahla ndinyuka othando.

Umntu ngamnye uthatha ubomi ngokwahlukileyo; Elinor, ngubani oyena mdala, ubaluleke kakhulu aqolileyo kwaye egxile. Marianneyena, uyintombazana enomdla kwaye Iimvakalelo kakhulul. Nangona kunjalo, kuphuhliso lomxholo, ukutshintshwa kubuntu babalinganiswa abaphambili kunokubongwa.

Ibali lenzeka ukukhangela uthando ngokwembono yomntu ngamnye osemtsha. Ngelixa iingxaki zesiqhelo zenzeka, oodade baseDashwood bakrazukile phakathi kokuqonda kunye nokuziva kwisithethe sobukhosi kunye noohlohlesakhe benkulungwane ye-XNUMX eNgilane.

Ikratshi nomkhethe (1813)

Ekupheleni kwe Inkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kwilali yaseNgilani kuhlala usapho lakwaBennet, Esi sibini kunye neentombi zabo ezi-5: uJane, uElizabeth, uMary, uCatherine noLydia. Ngenxa yemeko yezoqoqosho kunye nezithethe ezazendele ngelo xesha, Umama ujolise ekufumaneni imitshato elungileyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukhathazekile ngo-Elizabeth-Lizzie- kunye nobuntu bakhe obunzima, othi akanamnqweno wokutshata.

Ngokukhawuleza, ukufika kwidolophu yabantu ababini abancinci abalulekileyo - Mnu. Bingley kunye no Mnu. Darcy-- vusa umdla kaNksk. Bennet, Owabona kubo ikamva elifanelekileyo leentombi zabo ezindala, uJane noLizzie. Ukusuka apho, bobabini ubudlelwane buhamba ngeemeko ezahlukeneyo. Isiphelo sabalinganiswa abaphambili sikrazukile phakathi komkhethe, ikratshi, iimfihlakalo, iinkanuko kunye neemvakalelo ezininzi ezixubeneyo.

Ipaki yaseMansfield (1814)

Ixabiso elincinci likaFanny lithathiwe ngoomalume bakhe abazizityebi: udadewabo kanina, uLady Bertram; kunye nomyeni wakhe, uSir Thomas. Usapho luhlala kwindlu enkulu yaseMansfield Park nabantwana babo abane: uTom, uEdmund, uMaria noJulia. Ngenxa yemvelaphi yayo ethobekileyo, ibhinqa eliselula isoloko idelelwa kubazala bakhe, ngaphandle kukaEdmund, amphethe ngobubele nangembeko

Le meko ihleli iminyaka UFanny ukhula enonyango olwahlukileyo, nangona umbulelo wakhe ku-Edmund ujika waba luthando olufihlakeleyo. Ngenye imini, uSir Thomas wenza uhambo olubalulekileyo oluhambelana nokufika eMansfield Park yabantakwabo baseCrawford: uHenry noMary.

Utyelelo lolu lutsha luza kurhuqa olu sapho kwizinto ezahlukeneyo ezibanjiswe kunye nokulukuhla. Phakathi kothando, ukungqubana kunye neenkanuko, kuphela nguFanny Ukusuka kwimbono yakhe ingabhengeza ezo zisongelo zifihlakeleyo.

Emma (1815)

Emma iinkuni ngumfazi omncinci okrelekrele, ngubani ithathe njengemishini yokulungiselela imitshato yabo bonke abo basondele kuye. Kuye, ubomi bakhe bothando abuyonto iphambili, ubakhathalele ngakumbi abantu besithathu.

Yonke into yayihamba kakuhle ebomini bukaEmma, ​​de UTaylor-umlingane wakhe kunye nomhlobo wakhe - uyatshata. Emva kwesi siganeko, imeko phakathi kwezi nguqu zimbini yaphawuleka, ke ibhinqa eliselula I-Woodhouse itshone kwisizungu esinzulu. Nangona kunjalo, le ntokazi ifuna ukumelana nosizi ngobizo lwayo lokuba ngumlingisi.

Kungekudala uEmma ufumana umhlobo omtsha, uHarriet Smith, intombazana ethobekileyo. Nangona intombazana ingenayo iminqweno ephezulu, Umlingisi uyanyanzelisa ekufumaneni umyeni osisityebi. Nangona kunjalo, uHarriet uyala ukwenziwa ngobuqhophololo, okuwa izicwangciso zikaWoodhouse. Inyani yile yokuba phakathi kweendlela ezahluka-hlukeneyo ze-plot zidityaniswe nokubonakala kwabalinganiswa abatsha nabemiswe kakuhle, "i-casadora" iphelela kwimeko angazange azicingele yona.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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