Iincwadi zembali zaseSpain

Xa umsebenzisi we-Intanethi othetha iSpanish ehlola ukukhangela "iincwadi zembali zaseSpain", inethiwekhi inika umsebenzi wababhali abanjengoPérez Reverte, uEslava Galán okanye uFernández Álvarez, phakathi kwabanye. Ke ngoko, ukuba noluhlu oluninzi lweencwadi, kufanelekile ukuba ube nezikhokelo zokukhetha ngokufanelekileyo, kuba ezi ntlobo zezicatshulwa zisusela kwangaphambi kwembali ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.

Kwelinye icala, kukho iincwadi zembali ezijolise kumaxesha athile. Injalo imeko ye Iziqendu zesizwe nguBenito Pérez Galdós, egxile ikakhulu kwiziganeko zenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Eli nqaku libonisa ukhetho lweetekisi noluhlu olukhulu lwamaxesha kunye ehambelana nokuqaliswa ngaphezulu Kutshanje

Speyin. ngobomi besizwe (2010), nguManuel Fernández Álvarez

Umbhali, ofanelekileyo njengomnye wababhali-mbali ababalaseleyo baseSpain bexesha langoku, uyangqina ubume bakhe ngalo msebenzi ubanzi wembali. I-Spain biography yesizwe Ibandakanya uphononongo oluneenkcukacha zezona ziganeko zigqibeleleyo nezixabanayo zembali Kwenzeka kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX.

Iminqweno malunga nencwadi

Ngaphandle kokubangumbhalo ongqongqo kunye opheleleyo oqala ngendoda endala yoSingasiqithi weIberia, ayisiyombali inde. Inyaniso, umbhali uyahamba kwaye aphonononge ngokweenkcukacha iziganeko ezinkulu zembali, kodwa ngaphandle kokuyeka ngaphezulu kokuyimfuneko. Ngenxa yoko, le ncwadi inokusetyenziselwa "umqali" kwimbali yaseSpain nakwingcali.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umfundi uya kufumana-njengoko isihloko sibonisa-uphononongo lobomi obude belizwe. Kuyamangalisa indlela emnandi eyenziwe ejikeleze iSpain kaFranco okanye amagcisa ayo amakhulu kunye nababhali. Ngamanye amagama, umbhali ubonakala ngathi akaphoswa zinkcukacha ngayo yonke into eyenzekileyo kubomi benkcubeko yaseSpain, ngaphandle kokufunda okumangalisayo.

Kwakungekho kwincwadi yam yembali yaseSpain (Ngo-2016), nguFrancisco García del Junco

Ngumsebenzi oneempawu ezicacileyo zobuzwe obuzinikele ekuhlalutyeni iindawo ezingaziwayo kwimbali yaseSpain. Ukulungiselela le njongo, umbhali uvelise isiqwenga esilungelelaniswe kwizahluko ezilishumi elinesithathu eqala ngokuzikhusela kweCagagena de Indias ekhokelwa nguBlas de Lezo. NgokukaGarcía del Junco, kokona "koyiswa kukhulu kumkhosi waselwandle eNgilane."

Olu khuphiswano aluzange lubangwe njalo yimibhalo yesiko yemfundo, kodwa ngexesha lewaka leminyaka elitsha kubekho uhlolo oluhle kakhulu ngalo mbandela. Kwelinye icala, Incwadi eyonwabisayo kaGarcía del Junco ivavanya imicimbi efanelekileyo, phakathi kwabo:

  • Uhambo lweMalasapina.
  • URoyal Vaccine Expedition.
  • Uphando olukhokelwa nguManuel Iradier emahlathini eGulf of Guinea.
  • UPedro Páez, "umSpanish ofumene imithombo yeNayile" (le feat yenye yezona zingaziwayo kuluntu lwaseSpain ukuza kuthi ga ngoku).
  • Uxolo lweenkomo ezintathu.
  • Uhlaselo lweViking ngexesha lamaXesha Aphakathi.

Imbali emfutshane yaseSpain (2017), nguGarcía de Cortázar kunye noGonzález Vesga

Le ncwadi yaqala ukupapashwa ngo-1993; Ukusukela ngoko kuye kwabhalwa ngokuprintwa okuninzi kunye nohlaziyo lwamva nje. Ukwengeza, inempumelelo emangalisayo yokuhlela; Iguqulelwe kwiilwimi ezininzi kwaye ukuthandwa kwayo kugqitha kwimida yaseSpain. Oku kungenxa yokuba-ngaphandle kwamaphepha phantse aliwaka-ifezekisa ukuchaneka kunye nokuchaneka okungaqhelekanga kwizicatshulwa ezininzi zembali.

Iindaba zembali

Ukuphindwaphindwa kwesi sihloko kwenziwe ukuba kube lula ukuphucula umxholo wawo ngendlela engaqhelekanga. Umgangatho obaluleke kakhulu kule mbali yaseSpain kukuba idibanisa onke amaxesha elizwe laseYurophu ngokuchanekileyo nangokudityaniswa. Ngokukwanjalo, ukubaliswa kweziganeko kumnandi ngakumbi kwaye kumlukuhla umfundi ukuba azi ilifa lenkcubeko leSpanish.

kunjalo, umxholo Imbali emfutshane yaseSpain ifumene ukugxekwa ngabanye ababhali-mbali, abatyhola ababhali bayo ngokungeyomfuneko kwezopolitiko nezimvo. Nangona kunjalo, ukwamkelwa njengombhalo wangoku akunakuphikiswa kuluntu olunomdla wokwazi ukuba luhlelwe njani ilizwe laseSpain.

Imbali yaseSpain ixelelwe abagxeki (2017), nguJuan Eslava Galán

U-Eslava Galán uye wayicacisa kaninzi injongo yokupapashwa kwayo: "ukunxibelelana ngembali yaseSpain ngendlela elula". Ngokombono wombhali, okufanelekileyo kukuxelwa kwebali kunokukhangela indlela esesikweni. Ngoba? Ewe, umbhali uyangqina ukuba obu bungqongqo bezemfundo buhlala bushenxiswa kukutolikwa.

Isiphumo ibe sisicatshulwa esinconyelweyo kakhulu kubafundi abangafundanga ngezihloko ezinxulumene nembali yaseSpain. Ngendlela efanayo, le ncwadi mayingabhidaniswa nohlalutyo lwembali. Ngokuchasene noko, yingxelo ephawulweyo emema umfundi ukuba angathembi.

Ukuqwalasela

U-Eslava Galán uchaze uhlobo lokupapashwa kwakhe ngegama elithi "anditsho ukuba liyinyani, lilungile kwaye linenceba, kuba akukho bali". Ke ngoko, ayingombhalo owahlulwe ngumnqweno wawo wokuqwalaselwa ngokwembali. Ngapha koko, ibonisa umbono we-atypical yeziganeko ukuze kuziswe imbali yaseSpain kwabo bangakholelwa kuyo.

Ngamanye amagama, Asiyoncwadi yokuqinisekisa, kodwa kukucacisela abo bathandabuzayo ukuba kutheni kwaye kutheni iziganeko ezithile zisenzeka. Ke ngoko, umfundi ujongene nengxoxo yokwahlulahlula kumaxwebhu amaninzi okubhalwa kwembali. Ngale ndlela, u-Eslava Galán uthe "ukuba umfundi ufunda into, iya kuthathwa njengehlawulwa kakuhle."

Imbali yaseSpain (Ngo-2019), nguArturo Pérez Reverte

Le ncwadi-ibhalwe yenye yezona ngcinga zaziwayo eSpain- Isincoko esinezihloko ngeziganeko ezahlukeneyo zelizwe laseIberia. Pha, UPerez Reverte iphonononga imicimbi ukusukela ekuqaleni kobuntu, ukuya kumaXesha Aphakathi ukuya kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba Imbali yaseSpain ayingomsebenzi wokufunda ngokungqongqo. Nangona, ngokucacileyo, umbhali uchaza umxholo ozibophelele kakhulu kwinto eyiSpain namhlanje. Ke ngoko, umbhali uyakwazi ukubonisa ngobuchule i-idiosyncrasy, i-gentilicio kunye nemvakalelo yeSpanish.

Uhlobo kunye nenjongo

Imbali yaseSpain Isicatshulwa esimnandi ukusifunda, sinomdla, sikude nezifundo zembali kwaye, ngamanye amaxesha, sinethoni ehlekisayo kunye nehlekisayo. Yayo, UPérez Reverte uphonononge Imbali yespanish ngqalelo kwiinkcukacha ze-anecdotal, ukusebenzisa intetho eyoyikisayo okanye ehlekisayo ukubamba ngokungathandekiyo umbukeli.

Ekugqibeleni, umfundi nguye ogqiba ukuba yintoni injongo yencwadi, kodwa umbhali unombono okhethekileyo ngayo. Ngokukodwa, Uthi uyibhalele ukuba "yonwabe, iphinde ifundwe kwaye yonwatyiswe, yimbumba yokujonga emva kumaxesha amandulo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku". Sibonwe ngolu hlobo, isimemo sahluke kwaphela esiqhelekileyo, kuba sijolise ekufundeni imbali yaseSpain ngenjongo yokudlala.

Ezinye izihloko zokujonga

  • Qonda imbali yaseSpain (2011), nguJoseph Pérez.
  • Imbali epheleleyo yeSpain (2013) nguRicardo de la Cierva.
  • Imbali yangoku yeSpain (2017), nguJordi Canal.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.