Iminyaka engama-40 yoTshintsho. Ezinye iincwadi malunga nalo mzuzu

Kwiminyaka nje engamashumi amane eyadlulayo namhlanje, a Nge-15 kaJuni, 1977 Unyulo lokuqala lwentando yesininzi lwenzeka emva kokubhubha kukaFranco nokuphela kolawulo lobuzwilakhe. A Ixesha yoTshintsho eyavumela utshintsho lweSpain kuzo zonke iinkalo, kwezopolitiko, kwezentlalo nakwinkcubeko.

Kukho iincwadi ezininzi ibhaliwe ngokuhamba kwexesha malunga naloo mzuzu. Ndikhethile ezi zihloko zisixhenxe ukujonga kubo. Kubo bonke abo banomdla kwelo xesha lokuthatha isigqibo kwimbali yethu kunye nabalinganiswa abaphambili abenze ukuba kwenzeke.

Unyaka wobugqi ka-Adolfo Suárez kunye no-King Juan Carlos  -Rafael Ansón

URafael Ansón ungumzalwana wentatheli uLuis María Anson kunye nombhali uFrancisco Anson, wayenjalo Umlawuli jikelele we-RTVE. Ngombhalo ongezantsi we Ukumkani kunye nomongameli ngaphambi kweekhamera. Julayi 1976-Juni 1977, le ncwadi iqokelela ifayile ye ibhalansi kunye neenkumbulo zombhali ngaloo minyaka. Kwaye uphonononge ukuba zazinjani iindaba kunye notshintsho kwindlela yokubalisa ngeziganeko ezibalulekileyo ezenzekileyo.

Ndiyakuthembisa kwaye ndiyakuthembisa - UFernando Ónega

Ipapashwe ngo-2013, intatheli uFernando Ónega, ingcali enkulu yoTshintsho, usinika i-biografi yezopolitiko njengeyona nto ingenakulibaleka. Umxholo wayo sele usitsho: Iminyaka yam noAdolfo Suárez.

Phakathi kwe i-biology kunye nembali, le ncwadi ixelela i Ezopolitiko, ezobuqu kunye neemvakalelo zendlela yendoda ebalulekileyo kwimbali yedemokhrasi yaseSpain. Ne ubungqina kwabo babenaye, kubandakanya naye UKumkani uJuan Carlos, U-ganega unika uSuárez imbeko kuye.

Ukuphela kolawulo lobuzwilakhe -Nicolás Sartorius kunye noAlberto Sabio

Kuthunyelwe kuyo 2007Le ncwadi inesihloko kuba kwiinyanga ezenzeka ngalo eli bali sibona ukuphela kobuzwilakhe. Bane amaqela nemibutho yabasebenzi isemthethweni, inkululeko yezopolitiko yamkelwe, uxolelo lwamkelekile kwaye kubanjwa unyulo simahla kwiinkundla zamatyala. Kwaye konke oku akwenzeki ngokusweleka uzwilakhe, kodwa ngoJuni 1977.

Elinye igalelo lale ncwadi ngu inkcazo yendima edlalwe ngamazwe afana ne-USA, France, Germany ne England kwezi nyanga zilishumi elinesibhozo, ukusukela ngoNovemba 1975 ukuya kuJuni 1977.

Ibali oza kwabelana ngalo -U-Landelino Lavilla Alsina

Landelino Lavilla wayenjalo umfundisi yezoBulungisa ukusukela ngoJulayi 1976 ukuya nge-Matshi 1979 kunye nomongameli weCongress of Deputies. Kule ncwadi khetha ifayile ye phakathi kukaJulayi 1976 noJuni 1977, Ehambelana norhulumente wokuqala ka-Adolfo Suárez, ukuhlalutya imiba yayo ebaluleke kakhulu.

Nguwuphi umbala uAdolfo wayenxibe iikawusi zakhe? -UJose Luis Sanchis

Kuthunyelwe kuyo 2016, le ncwadi ngu Ukudityaniswa kwemibhalo kunye neeleta, iinkumbulo, amanqaku abhaliweyo, amaxwebhu agciniweyo kunye neengxelo eziyimfihlo nezimfihlo KaSurez.

Phakathi kowe-1977 nowe-1981, iqela labacebisi baka-Mongameli Adolfo Suárez elalikhokelwa ngu-José Luis Sanchís lavelisa amaxwebhu amaninzi abonisa indlela lo mcebisi wezopolitiko wase-Valencian awafaka ngayo okokuqala eSpain iindlela zokusebenza nezicwangciso zokucinga kunye nonxibelelwano olungeniswe kumazwe anamava akhululekileyo.

Iintlola zikaSuarez -U-Ernesto Villar

Kuthunyelwe kuyo 2016 kanjalo. Inomxholo ongezantsi we Imbali engashicilelwanga yoTshintsho ngeengxelo eziyimfihlo "zeentlola ezibomvu" zikaRhulumente. Kwaye luhambo oluneenkcukacha ngembali yezentlalo nezopolitiko yelizwe lethu iingxelo zeenkonzo zobuntlola AbaseSpain phakathi kowe-1974 nowe-1977.

Amabali angama-333 oTshintsho - UCarlos Santos

De 2015. Enye incwadi enomxholo ongezantsi: Iibhatyi zeCorduroy, ezingenanto, ezingxolayo, ukugcuma, ukukhwaza kunye… nesivumelwano.

Umbhali, intatheli owayephila ngeli xesha kumqolo ongaphambili, ukholelwa ukuba inguquko ayenzekanga eziofisini kodwa «imivalo, izitrato, iindibano zocweyo, iibhedi kunye nezibingelelo ». Kwaye yayingeyonkqubo yezopolitiko nje kodwa, ngaphezu kwako konke, inkqubo yenkcubeko, yokubonisana neyentlalo.. Yonke into ixelelwa ngokwembono yabemi. Iziphumo ziluhlu olonwabisayo lweziqendu ezihlekisayo kunye neemvakalelo malunga nexesha


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.