Ibali lesicakakazi

Ibali lesicakakazi

Ibali lesicakakazi

Ibali lesicakakazi yinoveli ngumbhali waseCanada uMargaret Atwood. Yapapashwa ekwindla lowe-1985 kwilizwe lakhe lokuzalwa kwaye kungqineke iyimpumelelo enkulu, kwathengiswa izigidi zeekopi zazo. Abathandi beedystopias bajonga esi sihloko njengodidi lohlobo, njengoko libali elinomdla elinemfihlakalo eyoyikisayo.

Lo msebenzi wokubaliswa sisalathiso kwihlabathi liphela; ibangele impembelelo enkulu kumxholo wayo kunye nendlela ekrwada ebonise ngayo ucalulo kubantu basetyhini. Kungenxa yoko Iye yahlengahlengiswa amatyeli aliqela, zombini ifilimu, umabonwakude kunye neqonga; Kukho nohlobo lweopera. Ukubonakaliswa kwayo kwifomathi yechungechunge kubonakala-kuveliswe nguHulu kunye no-Elisabeth Moss-, apho ixesha lesithathu lisasazwa ngoku.

Ibali lesicakakazi (1985)

Yincwadi yenoveli ye-dystopian yexesha elizayo kunye nesayensi, yaqikelelwa ngonyaka wama-2195 ebekwe kwiRiphabliki yaseGiliyadi, Yenziwe emva koqhushululu kurhulumente wase-US. Apho, kulawula ubuzwilakhe ngokungqongqo, ngokusekwe kwiTestamente eNdala yeBhayibhile. Kulo msebenzi kubonakala tirade yentlalo kunye ucalucalulo olunamandla kwabasetyhini.

Ibali ibaliswa ngokobuqu ngu-OffredNgubani ubalisa ngobomi bakhe namhlanje kwaye ukhumbula izicatshulwa zakhe zangaphambili phambi kweziko laseGiliyadi. Yena, njengabo bonke abantu basetyhini, wabelwa ukuba afezekise umsebenzi othile, kwimeko yakhe ukwelinye iqela leqela abakhonzazana.

Imiba ngokubanzi yomsebenzi

Ulawulo lwahlula abantu basetyhini

Njengomlinganiselo wengcinezelo nolawulo lwabasetyhini, urhulumente omtsha uthatha isigqibo sokubahlula ngokwendima ekufuneka benayo kuluntu. Ukwahlula le misebenzi, ngalinye kula maqela amiselweyo amathandathu lahlulwe ngombala weempahla zawo.

Izicakakazi —Njengokuba kunikelwe banxiba bomvu, Umsebenzi wayo kukuzisa emhlabeni abantwana babaphathi. Kwelinye icala, abafazi ngabafazi abanemvelaphi yobukhosi kwaye banxiba iimpahla eziluhlaza ngokufana neNtombikazi enguMariya. Bona, ngaphandle kokonwabela ubomi obuzolileyo nobonwabisayo, Baxhomekeke kwizicakakazi ukuqinisekisa inzala yabo.

Abo babiziweyo "Oomakazi" bajonge Impahla emdakaBajongile abakhonzazana kwaye banoxanduva lokuqinisekisa ukuba bayayithobela imigaqo, bekwazi ukohlwaya ukuba akunjalo. Kukho nelinye iqela elingwevu-luhlaza libizwa i "marthas", abangakwaziyo ukuzala ngenxa yobudala babo; Umsebenzi wakhe kukupheka nokucoca iintsapho zabaphathi.  

Okokugqibela, kunjalo i "econowives", abasebenzisa isambatho esinemigca kwaye zi Abafazi babantu abangamahlwempu. Kuya kufuneka benze konke abanako. Abanye abafazi bagqalwa njengabantu "abangengabo ababhinqileyo", abathi ngenxa yobumnyama babo bangcungcuthekiswa bagxothelwa emideni bade bafe.

Ukumelwa kwamadoda

Amadoda, kwelabo icala, ngabo bathatha ulawulo kurhulumente wobuzwilakhe. Abo baqhuba ulawulo badweliswe njenge "Abaphathi", kwaye kufuneka unxibe iimpahla ezimnyama. Baye nabo Iingelosi ", abo khonza iGiliyadi.

Abagcini ", emva koko, zii abo baphethe ukhuseleko lwabaphathi. Kwaye ekugqibeleni, "Amehlo kaThixo" Ngoobani bajonge kwabangakholwayo ukugcina ucwangco olumiselweyo.

Isiqendu

Ngexesha elizayo, ukubulawa ngokwenene UMongameli wase-United States ucaphukise ubhukuqo-mbuso. Urhulumente wobuzwilakhe ufakiwe, kwaye ilizwe libizwa njenge "IRiphabhlikhi yaseGiliyadi". Ngelo xesha, inqanaba lokuzala kwabafazi lehla kakhulu, ngenxa yomonakalo obangelwe kukungcola. Oku kubangele ukuba amalungelo abasetyhini atshintshe kakhulu.

Kunikelwe ngumfazi oselula phila njengomkhonzazana kaMajor Fred Waterford kunye nomfazi wakhe uSerena Joy, oyinyumba. ella, njengokuyalelwa ngumsebenzi wayo, ungaphakathi kosapho ukuzisa umhlaba kumazibulo omtshato. Emva kwemizamo engaphumelelanga yokumitha, u-Offred uya kuthethwano lwezonyango. Apho ufunda ukuba oyena nobangela wengxaki ukuFred.

Ngenxa yale meko, ugqirha onyangayo wenza isindululo esinzima ku-Offred, angazange asamkele. Ngokulandelanayo, USerena ngokwakhe uyamnyanzela ukuba abenobudlelwane kunye negadi yosapho, konke ukuze ufumane la nyana bendimfuna kakhulu. Olu lwalamano luyaphumelela kwaye lubenza nzima ubomi buka-Offred kunye nomphathi. Izinto ezininzi ziya kwenzeka de yonke into ibuyele esiqhelweni.

Malunga nombhali

Imbongi kunye nombhali uMargaret Atwood wazalelwa okokuqala e-Ottawa, eCanada, ngoMgqibelo, nge-18 kaNovemba ngo-1939. Ubuninzi bobuntwana bakhe bachitha phakathi kwenyakatho yeQuebec, eOttawa naseToronto, ekhuthazwa ngumsebenzi kayise njengehlathi lezilwanyana zasendle.

Njengomntwana omncinci, Margaret wayengumntu othanda ukufunda; naye ngokwakhe uvumile amatyeli aliqela ndizifundile zonke iintlobo zoncwadi. Wayekwazi ukonwabela iinoveli eziyimfihlakalo, iicomic, isayensi, kunye neencwadi zembali yaseCanada. Ekugqibeleni, nganye nganye yayiluncedo kakhulu kuqeqesho lwayo njengombhali.

Izifundo

Izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphakamileyo zaziseLeaside High School eToronto. Ngo-1957, wangena Victoria KwiYunivesithi; Pha, Kwiminyaka emihlanu kamva, wafumana isidanga seBachelor kwisiNgesi Philology, ngezifundo ezongezelelweyo ngesiFrentshi nakwifilosofi. Kwakuloo nyaka mnye, wangena kwiYunivesithi yaseHarvard eRaddiffe College ukuze afumane isidanga sokubulela kwiWoodrow Wilson Research Fellowship..

Ubomi babucala

Umbhali unemitshato emibini, eyokuqala ngo-1968 noJim Polk, awayehlukanisa naye kwiminyaka emi-5 kamva. Ixesha emva, ndatshata kunye nombhali wenoveli uGraeme Gibson. Ngo-1976, ngenxa yalo manyano, babenentombi, eyabhaptizwa njengo: Eleanor Jess Atwood Gibson. Ukusukela ngelo xesha ukuza kuthi ga ngoku usapho luhlala phakathi kweToronto kunye nePelee Island, Ontario.

Uhlanga loncwadi

UAtwood waqala ukubhala xa wayeneminyaka eli-16 kuphela ubudala. Ayinaso isini esithile lonto ikubonakalisa; ivelise iinoveli, izincoko, imibongo kunye nezikripthi zikamabonakude. Ngokunjalo, uthathelwa ingqalelo luninzi loncwadi lobufazi, kuba eminye yemisebenzi yakhe eyimpumelelo isekwe kuloo mxholo.

Ngokufanayo, Uye waqhuba umsebenzi kwizihloko ezahlukeneyo ezinxulumene nelizwe lakhe, ezinje ngezi: Isazisi saseCanada, oomori bayo kunye nemiba yokusingqongileyo. Ngokunjalo, ubhale malunga nobudlelwane beli lizwe kunye namanye amazwe. Banokubalwa phakathi kwemisebenzi yakhe: iinoveli ezili-18, iincwadi ezingama-20 zemibongo, izincoko ezili-10 namabali amafutshane, iincwadi ezisi-7 zabantwana kunye nezicatshulwa ezahlukeneyo, ii-librettos, eBooks kunye neencwadi ezimanyelwayo.

Imisebenzi eyongezelelweyo

Umbhali wenoveli, ukongeza kuncwadi, uzinikele kwezinye izinto, phakathi kwawo umsebenzi wakhe njengoprofesa waseyunivesithi ubalasele. U-Atwood ufundise kwizindlu ezidumileyo zokufunda eCanada naseMelika. Banokukhankanywa: iYunivesithi yaseBritish Columbia (1965), iYunivesithi yaseNew York kunye neDyunivesithi yase-Alberta (1969-1979).

Ngokufanayo, I-literata ligorha lezopolitiko laseKhanada. Kule nkalo, Uye walwela izizathu ezahlukeneyo, ezinje: amalungelo abantu, inkululeko yokuthetha kunye noonobangela bendalo. Lo msebenzi unzima wenziwe kwilizwe lakhe nakwamanye amazwe.

Okwangoku, yeyama-Amnesty International (umzimba wamalungelo oluntu) kwaye uyinxalenye ephambili I-BirdLife yamanye amazwe (ukukhusela iintaka).


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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