"Umbongo kaGilgamesh". Umbongo oyindumasi osusela ku-2.500 XNUMX BC. Okwangoku ngoku.

Gilgamesh

Unxibelelwano lwam lokuqala ne Umbongo kaGilgamesh kwathi xa wayeneminyaka engamashumi amabini. Ndiyifundile ngengcebiso yomhlobo, ngakumbi uhlelo lomguquleli, imbongi kunye nombhali UStephen Mitchell, endikucebisa kakhulu. Andizange ndicinge ukuba ndiza kulithanda kangakanani eli bali, kangangokuba ndaye ndazisola ngokucinga ukuba ingangumbongo oxineneyo okanye okruqulayo.

Ithebhulethi yeLapis Lazuli

«Lowo ubone yonke into, oye wahlangabezana nazo zonke iimvakalelo, ukusuka kuvuyo ukuya ekuphelelweni lithemba, ufumene inceba yokubona kwimfihlelo enkulu, iindawo ezifihlakeleyo, zeentsuku zokuqala ngaphambi koMkhukula. Uhambile waya eziphelweni zehlabathi kwaye ubuyile, ediniwe kodwa ephelele. Uye wakrola ukuxhaphaka kwakhe kumatye aqingqiweyo, uye wamisa kwakhona itempile engcwele kaEanna, kunye neendonga ezixineneyo zaseUruk, isixeko esingenakuthelekiswa nanto emhlabeni. Jonga indlela iindonga zayo ezikhazimla ngayo njengobhedu elangeni. Khwela kwizinyuko zamatye, indala kunokuba unokucinga; Fika kwitempile kaEanna, ungcwaliselwe uIshtar, itempile enobukhulu bayo nobuhle bayo abulinganiswanga nakowuphi na ukumkani; uhamba eludongeni lwaseUruk, ajikeleze isixeko, ajonge iziseko zaso ezibalaseleyo, ahlole indlela ezakhiwe ngayo izitena, hayi indlela enobuchule ngayo; Qaphela imihlaba eyirhangqileyo: amasundu ayo, iigadi zayo, iigadi zayo, amabhotwe kunye neetempile zayo ezintle, iindibano zokusebenzela kunye neemarike, izindlu zayo, nezikwere zayo. Khangela ilitye lakhe lembombo uze, ngezantsi kwalo, ityesi yobhedu ebizwa ngegama lakhe. Yivule. Phakamisa isiciko sayo. Thatha i-lapis lazuli tablet. Funda ngendlela uGilgamesh asokole ngayo konke kwaye woyisa konke. "

Ongaziwayo, "I-Epic kaGilgamesh" (iprozi ebhalwe nguStephen Mitchell).

Imbali ye Gilgamesh unayo isakhiwo setyhula: ibali liqala, kwaye liphela, kwangaxeshanye, njengoluhlobo lweeoboros eziluma umsila wazo. Iinkcukacha ezinomdla kakhulu kukuba kwimigca yokuqala ibandakanya umfundi, ngokungathi ubambe Iipilisi ze-lapis lazuli zibalisa ngemisebenzi kakumkani wookumkani. Ezi ndinyana sisibhengezo seenjongo: "funda indlela uGilgamesh ahlupheke ngayo konke kwaye woyisa konke." Umyalezo obalulekileyo, onxulumene nomxholo we I-Nietzschean iya kuba namandla kumawaka eminyaka ngaphambi kokuzalwa kwesithandi sobulumko saseJamani.

Impikiswano ye EpGilgamesh opeya Ayinkimbinkimbi, kwaye inokwahlulahlulwa kubini. Kweyokuqala, UGilgamesh ufuna uzuko, aze abalise ngobutshaba bakhe Enkidu (awathi kamva waba ngumhlobo ongenakwahlulwa), umlinganiswa omele endle phambi kukaGilgamesh, omele impucuko. Ukuxhaphaza kwakhe kuyaboniswa, njenge-epic yokulwa ne-monster Humbaba, okanye iingxabano zakhe nothixokazi u-Ishtar kunye ne-Celestial Bull yakhe.

Gilgamesh

Inxalenye yesibini, apho UGilgamesh ufuna ukungafi, beka i-epic ecaleni kwaye uthathe utshintsho olukhulu. U-Enkidu uyagula kwaye uyafa, oko kutshabalalisa umlinganiswa wethu ophambili kwimida engalindelekanga, kuba wayemthanda ngendlela awayezithanda ngayo. Ukumkani uyaqonda okokuqala ukuba inyama yakhe iyonakala, kwaye ngenye imini kuyakufuneka ukuba naye afe. Ke ngoko, uqala uhambo lokulandela ukungafi, okukrakra kwaye olungenalo nolonwabo.

Amagama agcwele amandla

«Ukuba ndiyawa, ndiya kuba ndizuze udumo.

Abantu baya kuthi: UGilgamesh uwile
silwa neHumbaba eyoyikekayo! ...
Ndizimisele ukungena ehlathini lomsedare.

Ongaziwayo, "Umbongo kaGilgamesh."

Amandla amakhulu oku umbongo oyindumasi kunjalo anamhlanje ngokumangalisayo. Kwaye ayisiyonto ndiyithetha kancinci, iyayenza. Indlela aphatha ngayo ubudlelwane bobuhlobo phakathi Enkidu kunye neGilgameshEzisuka kwiintshaba zethu ziphantse zibe ngabantakwabo, inokubonwa kumabali aliqela nakwizinto zobugcisa kunye noncwadi lwangoku.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umxholo wokuhamba kwexesha, ukufa, kunye nokukhathazeka okuvelayo kumntu, kuphela ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe, ngumxholo obonakala ngathi uqhelekileyo kwincwadi yenveli ekhoyo kule nkulungwane yethu, kunokuba Umbongo omiswe kuma-2.500 XNUMX a. C. eMesopotamiya. Ngezi zizathu, nabanye abaninzi, ndincoma kakhulu ukuba ufunde Umbongo kaGilgamesh.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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