Ubomi bukaRubén Darío

I-Biography yombhali waseNicaragua uRubén Darío

Ukhangele i-biography kaRubén Darío? I-Nicaragua URubén Darío wayengomnye weembongi zaseSpain-Amerika uninzi Ngesihobe sakhe wasiguqula isingqisho sendinyana yesiCastile. Kunokuthiwa kunye naye yangoku, engoyena mxhasi uphambili wayo.

URubén Darío wayengelogama kanye. Igama lakhe lokwenyani ngu Uyolo uRubén García Sarmiento, kodwa wathatha ifani kaDarío kuba yayiyigama lesidlaliso elalisaziwa ngutata wakhe. URubén waqala ukubhala ngaphandle kwesiqhelo, ngokungathi ukubhala imibongo kwakuyinto eqhelekileyo ngelo xesha nakwimeko-bume yakhe (ubuqaqawuli kofileyo, iiodes zoloyiso, njl. Njl.

Ubomi bakhe babungekho lula kwaphela. Ukhule ejikeleze iseti yokungavisisani kosapho okwamkhokelela ekubeni abaleke ngokubhala, ngaloo ndlela esenza uthando kunye nephupha elifanelekileyo kuzo zonke iingoma zakhe zokuqala.

Kwadlula amashumi eminyaka kwaye uRubén Darío wabizwa ukuba ahlaziye isingqisho i-Castilian ivesi kwaye agcwalise umhlaba woncwadi lwaseSpain-Amerika ngeengcinga ezintsha.

"Iintyatyambo ezingaqhelekanga ziyabonakala
kwiintyatyambo ezizukileyo zeendaba eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka,
naphakathi kwamasebe ahanjiweyo
Iipapemore, ingoma yazo iya kuvuyisa uthando
kwii-bulbeles.

(Papemor: intaka enqabileyo; ii-bulbeles: ii-nightingales.) "

Ubomi obufutshane, inkqubela phambili yomsebenzi wokubhala (1867-1916)

Imbeko kuDarío

URubén Darío wazalelwa eMetapa (Nicaragua), kodwa kwinyanga nje enye emva kokuzalwa kwakhe, wafudukela eLeón, apho utata wakhe u-Manuel García kunye nomama wakhe u-Rosa Sarmiento babecinga ukuba babenomtshato olungileyo kodwa ongenampumelelo kakhulu ogcwele ukungonwabi. Wazenza kamnandi kwii canteens zalapha kwaye wabaleka amaxesha ngamaxesha nezalamane zakhe. Isiphithiphithi sasikhona kolo sapho kwaye uRubén waya kuhlala nomalume kanina, UBernarda Sarmiento kunye nomyeni wakhe, UColonel Féliz Ramírez, eyamamkela kakuhle kakhulu kwaye njengabazali bokwenene. URubén wayengenalo uthando lukanina kwaye kungaphantsi koyise, awayeziva ukuba liqela lokwenyani.

Ufunde kwi Ikholeji yamaJesuit, ekungafuneki ukuba athathe uthando oluninzi ngokunikwa imibongo ehlekisayo kunye nehlekisayo awayebhala ngayo ngelo xesha. Ebutsheni bakhe, kungekudala wayiva impembelelo yothando UGustavo Adolfo Becquer y UVictor Hugo, bobabini baqwalaselwa njenge-ethenes eluthandweni, ihlala inikwa ukuthandana kunye nothando olungonwabisi.

Ngeminyaka eli-15 Sele ndinoluhlu olunamagama amantombazana amathathu: URosario Emelina Murillo (Ngokwenkcazo, intombazana ebhityileyo enamehlo aluhlaza), umzala okude, o-blond kwaye mhle kakhulu abathi kamva bakholelwa ukuba ngu-Isabel Swan, kwaye ekugqibeleni, ngumculi we-trapeze uHortensia Buislay. Kodwa akukho namnye oya kufikelela entliziyweni yakhe njengakuqala, uRosario Emelina Murillo, awathi wanikezela kuye inoveli engathandekiyo enomxholo othi "Emelina." Wayefuna ukumtshata, kodwa bobabini abahlobo bakhe kunye nezihlobo zakhe benza iyelenqe lokuba ashiye isixeko kwaye angazenzi izinto ngokungxama nangokungacingi.

Ngo-1882 wadibana UMongameli uZaldívar, e-El Salvador, apho wabhala oku kulandelayo: “… wayenobubele kakhulu kwaye wathetha nam malunga neevesi zam kwaye wandikhusela; Kodwa xa ndizibuza ukuba yintoni le ndiyifunayo, ndiphendule ngala magama angaqinisekileyo kwaye angalibalekiyo enza indoda yamandla yancuma: 'Ndifuna ukubanendawo entle yokuhlala'. "

Kule ngcaciso eyona nto yayixhalabisa kakhulu yabonwa ngokucacileyo kwaye yiyo loo nto URubén Darío wayesoloko enamabhongo oohlohlesakhe, ezazisoloko zikhathaza kabuhlungu.

Ukuya kwinqanaba lakhe laseChile, wazama kwakhona xa wadibana nomongameli wokuzibulala uBalmaceda kunye nonyana wakhe, uPedro Balmaceda Toro, awayegcina ubuhlobo kunye naye. Umnqweno wakhe wokuzijonga njengoohlohlesakhe wafikelela kwelo nqanaba otya ngasese kuphela umvumbo kunye notywala, ukuze akwazi ukunxiba kakuhle kwaye ngokufanelekileyo kwisikhundla sakhe sobuxoki.

Ukuhamba kancinci ngakumbi kubomi bakhe boncwadi, wapapasha eChile ukusuka nge-1886, "IiCaltrops", Eminye imibongo eya kuthi inike ingxelo ngemeko yakhe elusizi yembongi ehlwempuzekileyo nengavakali kakuhle. Kukhuphiswano loncwadi olubizwe ngusozigidi uFederico Varela wabhala "Ikwindla", athe wafumana indawo yesibhozo ngokuthozama phakathi kwabangama-8 ababonakalayo. Wathatha inxaxheba "Ingoma ye-Epic kubuqaqawuli baseChile", apho kuwela khona ibhaso lokuqala elinika ingxelo ngeepesos zakhe zokuqala ezingama-300 azifumene noncwadi.

UAzul, ingqokelela yemibongo yombongi waseNicaragua uRubén Darío

Kuze kube ngo-1888 xa beqonda ukubaluleka kweRubén Darío. Incwadi eya kumnika eli wonga iya kuba "Luhlaza", Incwadi yanconywa ivela eSpain ngumbhali wenoveli odumileyo uJuan Valera. Iileta zakhe zazisebenza njengesandulela esandisiweyo esandisiweyo esasiza kupapashwa ngo-1890. Nangona kunjalo, uDarío wayengonwabanga kwaye nomnqweno wakhe wokufumana ukugqwesa kwaye ngaphezu kwako konke ukuchuma kwezoqoqosho kwakusele kukugqithisa. Kuxa athi "abaleke" aye eYurophu, ngakumbi eParis.

URubén Darío eYurophu

Watshata noRafaela Contreras, umfazi onomdla ofanayo kunye nokuzonwabisa okubhaliweyo. Kwakungesiganeko senkulungwane yesine yokuFunyanwa kweMelika xa wabona umnqweno wakhe wokwazi ukuba ilizwe elidala lizalisekisiwe ithunyelwe njengonozakuzaku eSpain.

Wafika eLa Coruña ngo-1892, kwaye apho wasungula ubudlelwane kwangoko kunye nabona bantu baphambili kwezopolitiko zaseSpain kunye noncwadi. Kodwa xa yonke into ibibonakala ngathi iyancuma kuye waphinda walubona ulonwabo lwakhe lunqanyulwa xa umfazi wakhe wasweleka ngequbuliso ekuqaleni kuka-1893. Esi siganeko sibuhlungu samkhokelela ekubeni avuselele ukuthanda kwakhe utywala.

Kwakunjalo kanye kuloo meko yokunxila Wanyanzelwa ukuba atshate noRosario Emelina Murillo. Uyamkhumbula? Laa ntombazana intle, inamehlo aluhlaza ayithandayo xa yayisengumfana. Oku akuzange kuziphathe kakuhle noRubén, kuba wavumelana ngesicwangciso nomntakwabo ukuba uRubén Darío amtshate ekhonjwe ngemipu, ekubeni sele ekhulelwe enye indoda. Batshata ngo-Matshi 8, 1893.

URubén Darío warhoxa ekuqaleni, kodwa akazange avume ukuhlala ekukhohlisweni okunje kwaye wabaleka xa enako ukushiya loo mtshato wobuxoki. Ukufika eMadrid apho wadibana khona nomfazi olungileyo, ophantsi, UFrancisca Sanchez, isicakakazi sombongi u-Villaespesa, apho afumana ubumnandi kunye nentlonipho. Kwenye yemibongo yakhe wazinikezela kuye la mazwi:

"Lumkela intlungu oyaziyo

ndikuphakamisele eluthandweni ngaphandle kokuqonda ”.

Kunye naye waya eParis, emva kokuhlala iminyaka embalwa eBuenos Aires. IParis sisiqalo nje semali enomdla yokuhamba (IBarcelona, ​​iMallorca, i-Itali, iMfazwe, iNgilani,…). Kuleli xesha wabhala iincwadi zakhe ezixabisekileyo: "Iingoma zobomi kunye nethemba" (1905) "Ingoma ejikelezayo" (1907) "Umbongo wasekwindla" (1910) kunye "Igolide yaseMallorca" (1913).

Uyawubona umahluko phakathi kokubhalwa kwezi ncwadi zokugqibela, apho kunokufunyanwa iziqhulo, iziqhulo, iziqhulo kunye nomoya wokugcoba, xa kuthelekiswa nemibhalo yakhe yokuqala eyayigcwele ziintlungu kunye nokudana. Nanku umzekelo kwincwadi yakhe "Igolide yaseMallorca":

"Abafazi baseMajorcan basebenzisa
Isiketi esithobekileyo,
Iqhiya yentloko kunye nelaphu
ngasemva.
Le, le ndiyibonileyo, idlula,
kunjalo.
Kwaye abo bangayinxibiyo abayicaphukisi,
Yale".

Ixesha lokurhoxa

IMallorca yayiluhambo awalwenzela impilo yakhe ebuthathaka kunaso nasiphi na esinye isizathu. Ngaphandle kokhathalelo oluhle awathi walinikwa ngumfazi wakhe ngelo xesha uFrancisca, imbongi yayingenakuphuma.
Akazange ayifeze into awayeyifuna kwasekuqaleni, elangazelela isikhundla esifanelekileyo ekuhlaleni awayefuna ngomzamo omkhulu kwasekuqaleni, ngenxa yoko ekhokelela ubomi obundilisekileyo. Oku kungqinwa sisiqendu esibuhlungu awayenaso UAlexander Sawa, owayeneminyaka emininzi ngaphambili emsebenzele eParis njengesikhokelo sokwazi iindawo ezithile zedolophu. USawa wayeyindoda endala engaboniyo neyayinikele ubomi bakhe bonke kuncwadi. Ucele uRubén ukuba afumane imali encinci yeepesetas ezingama-400 ekugqibeleni abone ukuba ngowuphi owona msebenzi wakhe ubalulekileyo namhlanje opapashiweyo., "Izibane emthunzini". Kodwa uRubén wayengekho malunga nomsebenzi wokumnika imali kwaye wayedlala ukungakhathalelwa. USawa waye wacenga ukuba nomsindo, ade afune nentlawulo yeenkonzo ezityholwa ukuba zinikezelwe. Ngokuka-Sawa ngokwakhe, wayengumbhali "omnyama" wamanqaku athile athunyelwe ngo-1905 ukuya La Nación ezazisayinwe nguRubén Darío. Nangona kunjalo, uRubén wayeza kuba yintshayelelo yencwadi ka-Alejandro Sawa, owayesele efile xa yayipapashwa.

Akayi kwenza mali ininzi kodwa ukuba uphumelele ukuqaphela okukhulu sisininzi Ababhali bolwimi lwesiSpanish.

Ubomi bukaRubén Darío buphela ngo-1916, Kungekudala emva kokubuyela kwilizwe lakowabo iNicaragua, URubén Darío usweleke. Ezi ndaba zazalisa ukuzisola ngoluntu oluthetha iSpanish. UManuel Machado, Imbongi yaseSpain ebhalwe nguRubén epitaph:

"Njengokuhamba kwakho, mzalwana,
Awukho,
kwaye ikuzalise ngesizungu esilindeleyo
ukubuya kwakho ... uza kuza? Ngelixa,
primavera
izogquma amasimi, ukuze ivule
umthombo
Emini, ebusuku ... Namhlanje, izolo ...
Kwimeko engacacanga
Emva kwexesha, ekuseni
iingoma zakho ziyavakala.
Kwaye usezingqondweni zethu, kwaye ngaphakathi
iintliziyo zethu,
amarhe angacimiyo, umlilo
ayicimi.
Kwaye, eMadrid, eParis, eRoma,
eArgentina
Zikulindile ... Naphina apho zither yakho ifuna
Ngokobuthixo
iyashukuma, unyana wayo uyasinda, uzolile, uswiti,
yomelele…
Kuphela eManagua kukho i
ikona elimnyama
apho wabhala khona isandla esibuleleyo
kuse ekufeni:
'Ngena, mhambi, uRubén Darío akekho'. "

Eminye yemibongo yakhe ...

Azul

Le yile Ukukhetha imibongo NguRubén Darío esiwenzileyo ukuze wazi okungakumbi malunga nesingqisho sakhe, iivesi zakhe:

Inkampu

Lo uneenwele ezingwevu,
njengoboya be-ermine,
wahlanganisa ukungagungqi kwakhe njengomntwana
namava akhe njengendoda endala;
xa uyibambe ngesandla
incwadi yendoda enjalo,
Inyosi yintetho yonke
ukubhabha kwiphepha,
shiya ubusi emilebeni yakho
kwaye lihlaba entliziyweni.

Kubuhlungu, kubi kakhulu

Ngenye imini ndandibuhlungu, ndibuhlungu kakhulu
ubukele amanzi esiwa emthonjeni.

Yayibubusuku obumnandi nobaseArgentina. Ndiyakhala
ubusuku. Ubusuku bancwina. Ebhalwe
ubusuku. Kwaye ukutshona kwelanga kwiamethiste ethambileyo,
Yangxenga iinyembezi zomculi ongaqondakaliyo.

Kwaye loo mzobi wayengam, engaqondakaliyo kunye nokugcuma,
odibanise umphefumlo wam nejet yomthombo.

Busuku

Ukuthula ebusuku, ukuthula okubuhlungu
ubusuku ... Kutheni umphefumlo ungcangcazela ngoluhlobo?
Ndiva ukuduma kwegazi lam
Ngaphakathi kolukakayi lwam kudlula isaqhwithi.
Ukuphuthelwa! Ukungakwazi ukulala, kwaye okwangoku
Isandi. Yiba sisiqwenga esizenzekelayo
yokuqhekeka ngokomoya, i-self-Hamlet!
Nciphisa usizi lwam
ngewayini ebusuku
kwikristal ebumnyameni emangalisayo ...
Ndaza ndathi kum: Liza kufika nini ixesha?
Ucango luvaliwe ...
Kudlule umntu odlulayo ...
Iwotshi ibethe iiyure ezilishumi elinesithathu ... Ewe iya kuba nguYe! ...

Yeyam

Olwam: ligama lakho elo.
Yiyiphi enye imvumelwano?
Eyam: emini;
eyam: iiroses, amadangatye.

Liliphi ivumba olichithekileyo
emphefumlweni wam
ukuba ndiyazi ukuba uyandithanda!
Oh yam! Oh yam!

Ukwabelana ngesondo kwakho
ngesondo sam esomeleleyo,
ukunyibilika kweebronzi ezimbini.

Ndibuhlungu, ulusizi ...
Akufanelanga ukuba ubekho ngelo xesha
owam ukufa?

Umda we-biography kaRubén Darío

Kwaye apha, isishwankathelo sokulandelelana kwezinto eziye zabonwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ngobomi bukaRubén Darío:

  • 1867: NgoJanuwari 18: URubén Darío wazalelwa eMetapa, eNicaragua.
  • 1887: Papasha "Emelina ". Uyabhala "IiCaltrops", "Otoñales", "Ingoma ye-Epic kubuqaqawuli baseChile".
  • 1888: Thumela "Luhlaza" kwaye utata wakhe uyasweleka.
  • 1891: Umtshato wenkolo kunye noRafaela Contreras. Unyana wabo uRubén uzelwe.
  • 1892: Ukuya eSpain kuthunyelwe ngurhulumente waseNicaragua, kumsitho we-4th Centennial of the Discovery of America.
  • 1893: URafaela Contreras uswelekile. Watshata noRosario Emelina Murillo.
  • 1896: Thumela "Inqabile" y "Iprozi yeprane".
  • 1898: Waya eMadrid njengombhaleli weLa Nación.
  • 1900: Uhlanga lumthumela eParis. Umthandi wakhe uFrancisca Sánchez uhamba naye.
  • 1905: Thumela "Iingoma zobomi kunye nethemba".
  • 1913: Ukusuka eParis ukuya eValldemosa, eMallorca: "Igolide yaseMallorca" (umsebenzi opapashiweyo).
  • 1916: Usweleke eLeón, eNicaragua.
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
"Iingoma zobomi kunye nethemba", umsebenzi omkhulu wesithathu nguRubén Darío

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo ezi-10, shiya ezakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UJose Antonio Arce Rios sitsho

    I-dissertation egqwesileyo yokubhiyozela ikhulu leminyaka lokusweleka kweNkosana yeCastilian iileta, umqalisi kunye nommeli ophakamileyo weLatin American Modernism. URubén Darío wabizwa ukuba ahlaziye isingqisho i-Castilian ivesi, kodwa abuye azalise umhlaba wokubhala ngeengcinga ezintsha, ii-swans ezikhohlisayo, amafu angenakuphepheka, ii-kangaroo kunye ne-Bengal tiger ezihlala kwindawo enye engenakwenzeka. Yazisa kulwimi olwalubola ukubuyiselwa kwempembelelo yaseMelika kunye nemodeli yaseParnassian kunye neeSymbolist, ukuyivulela kwisichazi-magama esityebileyo nesingaqhelekanga, kuguqulelo olutsha kunye nomculo kwindinyana kunye neprozi, kwaye wazisa imixholo kunye nezinto ezithandwayo. yemveli, eyonwabise intelekelelo kunye nobuchwephesha bokufana.

    1.    UCarmen Guillen sitsho

      Enkosi uJosé Antonio ngengcaciso yakho!

      Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, sicinga ukuba uRubén Darío ufanelwe yindawo kwiphepha lethu kwaye senze njalo. Konke okugqibelele!

      1.    Manuel sitsho

        Igama likaRubén yayinguFélix, hayi uFéliz.

  2.   UAbhinere laguna sitsho

    Molo, molweni ekuseni, ibhayiloji intle kakhulu, enkosi kuba uRuben Dario yimbongi yam endiyithandayo, enkosi ngayo yonke into

  3.   Libhanon sitsho

    Ibhayografi elungileyo ndiyamvuyisana nomsebenzi wakhe kunye negalelo lakhe.

  4.   I-Axel sitsho

    Ukugqwesa kwi-biography kundincede kakhulu kuvavanyo

  5.   U-ELIEZER MANUEL SEQUEIRA sitsho

    Kuyakubaluleka ukuba bapapashe unyaka owapapashwa ngawo olu lwazi kunye nomhla nenyanga

    1.    Manuel sitsho

      Igama likaRubén yayinguFélix, hayi uFéliz.

  6.   URonaldo roque sitsho

    Molo, ibhayografi elungileyo kakhulu. Umbuzo ngowuphi unyaka oyenze le bhayografi imfutshane? Ndidinga ukwenza ibhibliografi ngalo uphando. Ungandinika umhla wokwenziwa kwale ncwadi nceda

  7.   UGEORGINA DIAZ sitsho

    Ndingawubona phi umhla wokupapashwa kwale ncwadi.

bool(yinyani)