Iincwadi zeNoveli eziPhambili

UKen Follett ucaphula.

UKen Follett ucaphula.

Ukukhangela "ezona ncwadi zembali zembali" kuqhelekile phakathi kwabafundi beeteksti zeetekisi ezisekwe kwiminyhadala yokwenyani. Nangona kukho ababhali abasebenzisa abalinganiswa abayinyani kwimisebenzi yabo, uphawu olungenakuphepheka loluhlobo kukungazinzi kwezibakala. Oko kukuthi, abalinganiswa abaphambili banokuyilwa, kodwa hayi i-nucleus yeziganeko okanye imihla.

Ke ngoko inoveli yezembali ifuna amaxwebhu afanelekileyo angaphambili, kungenjalo ukubhala kubekwa ngokweendidi njengentsomi okanye intelekelelo. Ewe kunjalo, uhlobo lolwimi, isitayile sempikiswano kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezithile zeengoma kunye / okanye zokubaliswa zezona zinto zikhethekileyo zombhali. Okwangoku, indlela umbhali amema ngayo umfundi ukuba "ahambe ngexesha" ixhomekeke kuphela ekugwebeni nasekuyileni.

Mna, Claudio (Ngo-1934), nguRobert Graves

Isiza kunye nomxholo

Mna Klaudiyo -Isihloko sokuqala ngesiNgesi - yeyona opera iphambili ngokwemiqathango yokwamkelwa kunye nokuthengiswa ngumbhali waseBritane uRobert Graves. Isekwe kwiakhawunti kaTacitus, uPlutarch kunye nesicatshulwa sikaSuetonius esasiguqulelwe ngaphambili ngamangcwaba, Ubomi babaKhesare abalishumi elinambini. Kubalulekile ukukhankanya ukuba uClaudio wayengumbhali-mbali ochaphazelekayo ngelo xesha kwaye wavelisa ibali lomntu (ngoku elilahlekileyo).

Kolu xwebhu kuyaziwa ukuba isixelela ngokulandelelana kobukumkani bukaJulio-Claudian. Ngokunjalo, kukho iinkcukacha malunga nezithintelo zomzimba (ukuthintitha, ukukhubazeka, ezinye izinto ezibangela uloyiko…) apho uClaudio waphathwa njengokhubazeke ngengqondo lusapho lwakhe. Lo "okhutshiweyo" weza kulawula eneminyaka engama-49 kwaye waseka ubukumkani bentsimbi ngembonakalo yeRiphabhlikhi.

Uthixo wemvula uyakhala eMexico (Ngo-1938), uLazarlo Passuth

Isishwankathelo kunye nesiseko somsebenzi

I-Laszlo Passuth idibanise amaxwebhu anamhlanje kunye nophando lwezinto zakudala ukuphinda enye yezona ndawo zinomdla kwihlabathi elitsha. Ngokukodwa, Inkcazo ijolise ekoyisweni kweMexico yimikhosi kaHernán Cortés. Ngubani owayecinga ukuba wenza igunya elingcwele ngokuseka ngokususa abemi bobuhedeni.

Iziphumo ziyingxelo eyoyikisayo nebonisa kakhulu malunga neziphumo zongqubano lwenkcubeko phakathi kwabaseSpain nabaseMexico. Yintoni egqithisile, Umxube wobuchule wabalinganiswa bokwenyani kunye nabanye babonisa ubungcali kuPassuth kwimeko yezembali echaziweyo.

Imfazwe yokuphela kwehlabathi (1981), nguMario Vargas Llosa

Umxholo webali kunye nomxholo wembali

Ngo-1897, abalimi abakumantla mpuma eBrazil ababekhokelwa ngu-Antonio Conselheiro benqabile ukuhlawula irhafu kwiriphabliki entsha ngenxa yezizathu zonqulo.. Ngesi sizathu, urhulumente ophakathi wayalela ukuba kudityaniswe amajoni ayi-10.000 XNUMX ukuze oyise abahlali ngenkani. Ngale ndlela, imfazwe yaseCanudos yaqala embindini womhlaba owonakaliswa yimbalela nezifo.

Emva kwexesha, abanini mhlaba - ababethetha amandla kunye nenqanaba eligcinwe ngexesha lobukhosi -, likhokelwa yiBaron de Cañabrava, bajoyina umkhosi waseRiphabhlikhi. Pha, abemi bayo bathwaxwa ziziphumo zokungqingwa okuphalala kwegazi kwindawo engumoya ube nokuphela kwenkulungwane (kunye nokuphela kwehlabathi).

Umwexuki (1998), nguMiguel Delibes

Umxholo wembali kunye nomxholo

UDelibes ukhokelela umfundi ngesandla kwiValladolid ngexesha lolawulo lukaCarlos V, ixesha elaliphawulwa zizidubedube zezopolitiko nezenkolo. Ekuqaleni, ukuqondana kwezinto kubonisiwe malunga nomhla: Okthobha 31, 1517. Ngalo mhla uMartin Luther wabethelela izikhalazo ezingama-95 ezakhokelela ekuveleni koHlaziyo lwamaProtestanti kwiminyango yecawa yaseWittenberg.

Ngeli xesha, kumazwe aseValladolid, uCipriano Salcedo wazalwa, inkedama yomama okoko wazalwa kwaye edelelwa ngutata wakhe. Ngelixa wayenako ukubala kunonophelo lukanesi, ilahleko yakhe ebuhlungu yaphawula indoda eyaba ngumrhwebi ophumeleleyo. Nangona, ewe, elona candelo libalulekileyo ebomini bakhe yayilulwalamano kunye nomsinga wamaprotestanti ongaphantsi komhlaba.

I-crypt yokugqibela (2007), nguFernando Gamboa

Isiza kunye nesishwankathelo

U-Ulises Vidal, ugqirha oyingcali, ufumana intsimbi yobhedu engcwatyelwe phantsi kweekorale kunxweme lweCaribbean eHonduras. Isuntswana lesinyithi esineempawu zeTemplar lisusela kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye langena emanzini ngenkulungwane ngaphambi kokufika kukaColumbus eMelika. Uchulumancile bubukho bobuchwephesha, uVidal wenza umfelandawonye nembali eyaziwayo kunye ne-archaeologist yase-Aztec ekrwada.

Iinjongo zokugqibela zinamabhongo (ikwaqulathe uluhlu lweengozi): ukuphanga okungummangaliso koMyalelo weNdlu. Uphando lwabo luza kubangenisa kwi-Barcelona, ​​iMalian Sahara, ihlathi laseMexico kunye nemida yeCaribbean. Imfihlelo yamaxesha aphakathi eza kutyhilwa inokutshintsha imbali eyaziwayo yoluntu kunye nombono womntu malunga nomhlaba kunye naye.

Imikhosi yaseGranada (2007), nguJuan Eslava Galán

Impikiswano

Unyaka we-1487, ixesha lokuphinda uhlasele i-Andalusia yangoku ngumkhosi kaKumkani uFernando. Ke, Ubukumkani bamaMoor baseGranada bujamelene nosongelo olusondeleyo oluza kugqitywa emva kokungqingwa isixeko saseMalaga. Ejongane nokuphakama okucacileyo kotshaba, u-Mohamed Ibn Hasin (umlawuli wase-Grenadia) ufika e-Istanbul kunye nesicaka sakhe ukuya kucela uncedo kubantu bakowabo base-Ottoman.

Injongo kaMohamed kukufumana inkxaso kunye nabezomkhosi kunye nezixhobo ezihlaziyiweyo. Nangona kunjalo, iSultan yaseTurkey imnika lonke uncedo ngokusebenzisa indoda engatshatanga: uOrbán, umkhandi weentsimbi waseThracian. Umntu omnye ukuba aqulathe yonke imikhosi yamaKrestu? IiArabhu azinakuphulukana neGranada ... okanye akunjalo?

Trilogy yenkulungwane, nguKen Follet

UKen Follett.

UKen Follett.

Ngobungqina bakhe obuninzi, uKen Follet wagqiba ekubeni angqinisise njengombhali waseBrithani othengisa kakhulu kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo. Ukwenza iyelenqe lakhe, umbhali wase-Welsh usebenzisa abalinganiswa abaziintsomi abanoluhlobo oluthile lokuziphatha, uvakalelo, ezopolitiko kunye / okanye ubudlelwane bemikhosi kuyo yonke i-saga. Nangona kunjalo, inkcazo yeziganeko ezizezona zichanekile ngokugqibeleleyo.

Ukuwa kweengxilimbela (2010), iziganeko eziyinyani zigutyungelweyo

  • Ukubekwa etroneni kukaGeorge V, uKing waseNgilani kunye ne-United Kingdom (1911).
  • Uhlaselo lwaseSarajevo kunye nokuqala kweMfazwe Enkulu (ngo-1914).
  • Ukubuya kukaLenin ePetrograd (1917).
  • Ummiselo weSithintelo eMelika (1920).

Ubusika behlabathi (2012), iziganeko eziyinyani zigutyungelweyo

  • Ummiselo Ukwenziwa Okutsha eUnited States (1933-37).
  • Iziganeko zokugqibela zeMfazwe yamakhaya yaseSpain (1939-40).
  • Inkqubo yeAktion T4, ekhokelele ekufudukeni kunye nokubulawa kwabantu ngezigidi zabantu abangamaJuda. Kwangokunjalo, amaNazi ahlasela ezinye iinkolo, ubuhlanga kunye nobufanasini.
  • El Blitz - Ukuqhushumba eLondon (1940-41) yimikhosi yomoya yaseJamani.
  • Itshata yeAtlantiki (1941).
  • Ukuhlaselwa kwiziseko zaseMelika zePearl Harbour ngenqwelomoya yaseJapan (ngo-1941).
  • Ukusebenza kweBarbarossa (iRussia, ngo-1941).
  • Imfazwe yaseStalingrad (1942).
  • Imfazwe yaseKursk (1943).
  • Inkomfa yaseMoscow (1943).
  • Ukuqala kogqatso lwenyukliya.

Umbundu kanaphakade (2014), iziganeko eziyinyani zigutyungelweyo

  • Ukuphakanyiswa kodonga lwaseBerlin (1961).
  • Intshukumo yamaLungelo oLuntu eMelika (1960s).
  • Ingxaki yeMissile yaseCuba (1962).
  • Ukubulawa kukaMongameli wase-US uJohn F. Kennedy (1963) kunye noMfundisi uMartin Luther King Jr (1968).
  • Ukuhlasela kweSoviet eCzechoslovakia (1968).
  • Imfazwe yaseVietnam (ukungena e-US emfazweni; 1965-73).
  • Isikhalazo se-Watergate (1972).
Ukuthengisa Umbundu kanaphakade ...

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo ezi-3, shiya ezakho

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UJose Pecho Camarena sitsho

    Ndinomdla kakhulu kumagqabantshintshi emisebenzi ebonisiweyo, ndiyathemba ukuqhubeka nokufumana abanye kwixa elizayo. Imibuliso evela eLima, ePeru.

  2.   UGustavo Woltmann sitsho

    "Imfazwe ekupheleni kwehlabathi" ngumsebenzi omkhulu ngesandla sikaVargas Llosa. Ndiyifunde xa bendisekholejini kwaye ndisayikhumbula ngokumangaliswa okukhulu.
    -Gustavo Woltmann.

  3.   Jose sitsho

    Musa ukubandakanya uSalammbo de Flaubert ...