Ababhali bemihla ngemihla baseChile

I-Metonymy kwimibongo kaGabriela Mistral.

I-Metonymy kwimibongo kaGabriela Mistral.

Ababhali abaninzi bexesha laseChile bashiye uphawu olubalulekileyo kuncwadi lwehlabathi. Kwiinkulungwane ezimbini ezidlulileyo, eli lizwe laseLatin America libone ukuzalwa kwababhali abakhulu, abaziwa kakhulu kwilizwe liphela. Abaliqela kubo baphumelele amabhaso abalulekileyo, afana neNobel Prize, awathi uGabriela Mistral noPablo Neruda bawongwa.

Ngeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zoncwadi, Aba babhali bakwazile ukufaka izigidi zabafundi kwihlabathi liphela. Imisebenzi efana: Abacuphi basendle (URoberto Bolaño) kunye Imibongo engamashumi amabini yothando kunye nengoma enomdla (UPablo Neruda) ziyinxalenye yereferensi yelifa elikhulu. Okulandelayo, inxenye yento ethathelwa ingqalelo njengababhali baseChile abanefuthe elikhulu kwihlabathi lonke eliza kuboniswa.

UGabriela Mistral

ULucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga wazalwa ngo-Epreli 7, 1889 kwisixeko saseVicuña (kwiphondo lase-Elqui, eChile). Wayevela kwintsapho ethobekileyo, enokhokho baseSpain nabaseBasque. Ubuntwana bakhe wachitha kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo kwiphondo lase-Elqui, nangona yayinguMontegrande awathi wajonga idolophu yakhe.

Ngaphandle kokungabinazo izifundo zobungcali, ukusukela ngo-1904 wayesebenza njengomfundisi-ntsapho, okokuqala e-Escuela de la Compañía Baja, emva koko eLa Cantera naseLos Cerritos.. Kwi-1910 ulwazi lwabo kunye namava aqinisekiswa yiNombolo yesi-1 yesiSikolo saseSantiago, apho wafumana iwonga lokuba nguNjingalwazi kaRhulumente.

Ngokuhambelana nemisebenzi yakhe yokufundisa, wabhalela amaphephandaba ICoquimbo nangaphakathi Ilizwi likaElqui YeVicuña. Ukususela ngo-1908 wamkela elabo UGabriela Mistral, isetyenziswe okokuqala kumbongo "Ixesha elidlulileyo". Ukwamkelwa kwakhe kokuqala okubalulekileyo kuza Iimpawu zokufa, apho umbhali waseChile wafumana amabhaso eMidlalo yeentyatyambo (ngo-1914).

Ekuhambeni kwayo, Mistral wadala amakhulu imibongo, eziqulathwe ngokudibanisa ezahlukeneyo. Oku kubandakanya: Yinkangala (1922) Tala (1938) kunye ILagar (1954). Kwangokunjalo, umbhali waye wahlulwa ngee-laurels ezibalulekileyo, ezinje ngeNobel Prize yoNcwadi (1945) kunye neBhaso likaZwelonke loNcwadi laseChile (1951). U-Mistral usweleke eNew York ngomhlaza wepancreatic ngoJanuwari 10, 1957.

Pablo Neruda

URicardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto weza kweli lizwe ngoJulayi 12, 1904. Idolophu yakowabo yayiyiParral, kwingingqi yaseMaule, eChile. Wayengunyana kaJosé del Carmen Reyes Morales kunye noRosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo. Umama wakhe wabulawa sisifo sephepha kwinyanga emva kokubeleka imbongi. Pablo Neruda Njengoko wayeza kuthi kamva abize ukuba— Wahlala eTemuco ukusuka ebuntwaneni kude kube kwinqanaba lokufikisa. Kweso sixeko wenza izifundo zakhe zokuqala, kwaye oku, kamva, yayiyimpembelelo kwimisebenzi yakhe emininzi yemibongo.

Inqaku lakho lokuqala, Inzondelelo nokunyamezela (Ngo-1917), yapapashwa kwiphephandaba Kusasa kweTemuco. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, wadibana nembongi uGabriela Mistral, owamazisa ukuba afunde kwaye wamkhuthaza ukuba azondle ngemisebenzi yababhali abadumileyo baseRussia. Ukusukela ngo-1921 watyikitya imisebenzi yakhe njengo-Pablo Neruda, nangona kwade kwango-1946 xa kwathiwa igama lakhe elisemthethweni.

Ngo-1924 wapapasha ingqokelela yemibongo eyamazisa ukuba adume: Imibongo engamashumi amabini yothando kunye nengoma enomdla. Ukusuka apho, Wazisa ngaphezulu kwemisebenzi engama-40 esaphila kwaye wayenemisebenzi engama-20 emva kokuba efile. Kumsebenzi wakhe, uNeruda wanikwa amatyeli aliqela, phakathi kwabo oku kulandelayo: Ibhaso leSizwe laseChile loNcwadi (ngo-1945), i-Lenin Peace Prize (1966) kunye ne-Nobel Prize for Literature (1971).

Caphula ngu Pablo Neruda.

Caphula ngu Pablo Neruda.

UNeruda wayetshatile kathathu. Intombi yakhe ekuphela kwayo yazalwa kumtshato wakhe wokuqala, uMalva Marina Trinidad, owasweleka eneminyaka eyi-8 kuphela ngenxa yehydrocephalus. Iintsuku zokugqibela zobomi bukaPablo Neruda bachitha eSantiago, apho asweleka khona ngoSeptemba 23, 1973. ukusuka kumhlaza wedlala lobudoda.

URoberto Bolaño

URoberto Bolaño wazalwa ngo-Epreli 28, 1953 eSantiago de Chile. Ubuntwana bakhe budlula phakathi kweValparaíso, iViña del Mar kunye nedolophu yaseLos Ángeles, apho wagqiba khona izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphantsi. Xa wayeneminyaka eli-15 wafudukela eMexico nosapho lwakhe. Kwilizwe laseAztec uqhubeke nezifundo zakhe zamabanga aphakamileyo, awayeyishiya emva konyaka ukuze azinikele kuphela ekufundeni nasekubhaleni.

KwiSixeko saseMexico, UBolaño wadibana nembongi u-Mario Santiago kunye nabanye ababhali abancinci. Iqela labelana ngemidla yoncwadi, kancinci kancinci basondela kakhulu. Ukusuka kobu buhlobo kwazalwa intsingiselo yemibongo ye-infrarealism, Eyasekwa ngo-1975. Emva konyaka, uRoberto wapapasha lo msebenzi Vuselela uthando. Le ngqokelela yemibongo yayiyeyokuqala kwezintandathu awazibonakalisayo kulo lonke ikhondo lomsebenzi wakhe, kunye nohlelo ezimbini emva kokubhubha. Iincwadi zakhe zibandakanya: Izinja ezithandanayo (1993) Ezintathu (2000) kunye IYunivesithi engaziwayo (2007).

Incwadi yakhe yokuqala, Ingcebiso evela kumfundi waseMorrison kumlandeli kaJoyce (1984), wawongwa ngembasa yeNdawo yoNcwadi. Nangona kunjalo, ngaphandle kokusebenza ixesha elide, umsebenzi owenze ukuba lo mbhali adume yayiyincwadi yakhe yesithandathu: Abacuphi basendle (1998). Le noveli yamenza waphumelela ibhaso likaHerralde de Novela (1998) -umntu wokuqala waseChile ukuba ayifumane- kunye neRómulo Gallegos Award (1999).

URoberto Bolaño usweleke eneminyaka engama-50 e-Barcelona (Spain), ngoJulayi 15, 2003, emva kokubandezeleka ngenxa yeentlungu zesibindi ixesha elide. Umbhali waseChile washiya iincwadi ezininzi ezingagqitywanga, ezapapashwa kwiminyaka emva kokubhubha kwakhe. Umsebenzi wobugcisa uphume kolo luhlanganiso, inoveli 2666 (2004), apho waphumelela amabhaso abalulekileyo anje ngala: Salambó, Ciudad de Barcelona kunye neAltazor.

UAlejandra Costamagna

Alejandra Costamagna Crivell weza ehlabathini Matshi 23, 1970, eSantiago de Chile. Kuba wayemncinci wayethanda ukubhala, kodwa kwade kwaba lishumi elivisayo awuthathela phezulu lo msebenzi. Utitshala wakhe uGuillermo Gómez wayenento eninzi yokwenza naloo mnqweno. Kwelo nqanaba lobomi bakhe waqala ukufunda iMistral, iNeruda, uShakespeare kunye noNicanor Parra; Zonke zibe nempembelelo enkulu kuye.

UCostamagna wafunda ubuntatheli kwiYunivesithi yaseDiego Portales. Emva kwexesha elithile, wagqiba isidanga senkosi kuncwadi kule khampasi inye. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe uzinikele ekunikeni iindibano zocweyo, ukongeza, usebenze njengomhleli, umhlaziyi weqonga kunye nembali kwiimagazini zesizwe.

Njengombhali, wazisa umsebenzi wakhe wokuqala ngo-1996, Cwaka, ethe yafumana amagqabantshintshi kwaye yaphumelela ibhaso leMidlalo yoNcwadi yaseGabriela (1996). ICostamagna ivelise iinoveli eziyimpumelelo, ezinje: Ubusuku obubi (2000) Imililo yokugqibela (2005), kunye Izilwanyana zasekhaya (2011). Abagxeki abaliqela babandakanye eminye yemisebenzi yakhe ekuthiwa-njalo Uncwadi lwabantwana.

UAlberto fuguet

I-Santiago de Chile yabona ukuzalwa kuka-Alberto Felipe Fuguet de Goyeneche ngo-Matshi 7, 1964. Ubuntwana bakhe bachitha e-United States, kwaye kwada kwaba ngowe-1975 wabuyela kwilizwe lakhe lokuzalwa. Ukulinganiselwa ngolwimi, umbhali wexesha elizayo waqala ukufunda iincwadi ngeSpanish ukuze aziqhelanise nolwimi lweenkobe. Ndavuma oko Izinto zokubhala NguMarcela Paz wayenempembelelo enkulu kuye, enokubonwa kwincwadi yakhe yokuqala.

Wafunda kwiYunivesithi yaseChile. Ukhetho lwakhe lokuqala yayiyidigri yezentlalo, awayeyifundela unyaka, nangona kunjalo, emva koko watshintshela kubuntatheli, apho waphumelela khona waphela eyenye yeminqweno yakhe. Ukongeza emsebenzini wakhe njengombhali, wakhe ikhondo lomsebenzi owaziwayo njengombhali wembali, umbhali wenoveli, umbhali wesikrini, umculo kunye nomgxeki wefilimu. Iyabonwa ngenxa yempembelelo yayo kubabhali beli xesha, ukubheja kuluncwadi oluyinyani nolusezidolophini.

Ngo-1990 wazisa ibali lakhe lokuqala, Ukugqithisa, awaphumelela ngawo iMbasa kaMasipala yoNcwadi yaseSantiago. Kunyaka olandelayo wapapasha inoveli eyamkhokelela kwimpumelelo: Umtshangatshangiso ombi. Umsebenzi wakhe ukwaqaqambisa: I-inki ebomvu, Incwadi eyayilungiselelwe i-cinema ngo-2000. Kwiminyaka emithathu kamva, wakhupha i-semi-autobiography ebizwa Iifilimu zobomi bam, iinoveli zakhe zamva zezi: Bubuxoki (2015) kunye Ukubila (2016).


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.