Ababhali abathathu baseRussia abasendleleni eya kwiRevolution

Kushiyeke kuncinci kakhulu ukubhiyozela isenti ngesinye seziganeko ezibalulekileyo kwikhulu lokugqibela. Inkqubo ye- Uguqulelo luka-Okthobha ka-1917 eRashiya yaphawulwa kwimbali yoluntu. Lixesha elifanelekileyo lokuphonononga ezinye ze amagama amakhulu zoncwadi olubanzi nolukhethekileyo lwaseRussia. Ke sihamba ngaphambili, kwi XIX kwinkulungwane, apho bathanda amabali Pushkin, Afanásiev okanye eChekhov bahlala befanele ukujongwa.

UAlexander Pushkin - Ntombi kaKapteni

Imbongi, umbhali wemidlalo kunye nombhali wenoveli, uPushkin uthathwa njenge umseki woncwadi lwangoku lwaseRussia. Umsebenzi wakhe ubiyelwe ngaphakathi intshukumo yothando. Wayekwanguvulindlela ekusetyenzisweni kwe iilwimi zomthonyama kwimisebenzi yakhe nakwindlela yakhe yokuxuba idrama, ezothando kunye nokulingisa.

Ntombi kaKapteni Yiyo kwimbali, nangona ebalisa ngeziganeko phantse zangoku zePushkin. Kuqwalaselwa njenge enye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo kuncwadi lwaseRussia. Yayipapashwe ekuqaleni nge 1836 kwinkupho yesine yemagazini yoncwadi Okwangoku y Ibalisa ngobuxoki imvukelo yokwenene kaPugachov yenzeke phakathi kwe-1773 kunye ne-1774.

Abalinganiswa abaphambili ngu-PUIotr Griniov noMaria Ivanovna, ibali labo lothando lihamba ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo, ukusuka kwimvukelo yasePugachev ukuya esiphelweni sayo, kunye no-Empress Catherine etroneni. Ukungqingwa, ukulwa, ubuhlobo kunye nokungcatshwa, iintshaba ezithi kamva zibe ngabahlobo kwaye ngokuchaseneyo, ii-duels kunye nokuhlangula. Kodwa ngaphezulu kwayo yonke loo ndaba yothando eza neziqhamo ekugqibeleni.

Alexander Afanasiev - Russian iintsomi

I-Afanásiev (1826-1871) ikwabizwa ngokuba yi "I-Russian Grimm". Kungenzeka ukuba oku Ukuqokelelwa kwamabali yiyo, ecaleni kwale yenziwe ngabazalwana bakaGrimm, inde kakhulu ekhoyo. Nangona kunjalo, umxholo wayo awufani nemibhalo yeGrimm.

Los Russian iintsomi yingqokelela yamabali amafutshane aqokelelwe ngumbhali kwii-anecdotes zodidi oluphakathi nolusezantsi lwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX eRashiya. Ibandakanya amabali amafutshane aseRussia, eUkraine naseBelarusian kwaye yapapashwa okokuqala phakathi kuka-1855 no-1863. Ikopi yokuqala yapapashwa eGeneva ngo-1872, unyaka nje omnye emva kokubhubha kombhali.

La mabali Umxholo we-eschatological kunye noonografi ongaphezulu kwe-erotic, banokubamba uburharha kunye nokuchasa ubufundisi, nto leyo ethetha ukuba umsebenzi ibingu ihlolwe kwi tsarist Russia. Amanye amabali (angaphezulu kwezihloko ezichaziweyo) ezibandakanya: Umfazi nebhere Intwala nentakumba, incindi kunye ne-esile, Hlamba iesile!, Umtshato wesidenge, inkuku eshushu, Intlanganiso yokuqala yesoka nentombi, Inenekazi eliselula elinemincili, Ibali lompristi owazala ithole, Ndifudumeze! Kwaye njalo de Amabali angama-78.

UAnton Chekhov - Amabali okuqala

IChekhov ithathelwa ingqalelo inkosi enkulu yaseRussia. Wayengugqirha, umbhali kunye nomdlali odlalayo kwaye ubandakanyiwe ngaphezulu kwengqondo yangoku yokwenyani kunye nendalo. Wayephethe ibali elifutshane ngokungafaniyo nomnye umntu kwaye ungomnye wababhali abangabalulekanga kuphela kubabhali baseRussia benkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Ukususela ngo-1879 Chekhov wafundela ubugqirha kwiYunivesithi yaseMoscow. Kwaye xa wayeqala ukusebenzisana nokubhala kwiimagazini ezahlukeneyo. Wazeka nazo ezi amabali okuqala, evele yapapashwa kwiphephandaba Oskolki, Petersburg iphephandaba. UChekhov wasweleka nge-15 kaJulayi ngo-1904 kwisiza saseJamani saseBadenweiler ngenxa yesifo sephepha eneminyaka engama-44.

Kwibali ngalinye kula mabali uyakubona ukulawulwa kwe Iimpawu zemvakalelo kunye nomfanekiso wengqondo wabalinganiswa. Ukhethe i indlela ebalulekileyo kwizicatshulwa zabo, ezi egcwele ubuntununtunu kunye noburharha. Amabali akhe, ukukhanya kunye nokukhawuleza kwithoni, kusenza sincume. Kodwa kuxa sigqiba ukufunda apho obo bumenemene bujika busoyike xa siqonda ukuba sibonile nentlekele yonke yendalo yoluntu.

Abanye izihloko yamabali ngala: (1883) Isipili esigobile, uvuyo, ikhazi, Intombi ka-Albion, i-calumny, elwandle (ibali lomatiloshe), thethwano. (1884) Umhombiso. Iimvumi, Utyando, Ukusuka epanini yokuphekela ukuya kwiimbumba. (1885) Iyunifomu kaKapteni, isidumbu, umzingeli, umbhali, isipili, inja eduru.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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