Mefuta ea lithothokiso

Mefuta ea lithoko.

Mefuta ea lithoko.

Pele ho hlalosoa mefuta ea lithoko, ho hlokahala hore ho hlalosoe hore na thothokiso ke eng. Bakeng sa RAE (2020) ke "mosebetsi oa thothokiso ka tloaelo temaneng". Ka hona, ke litemana tsa mofuta oa lithoko, tse filoeng metara le morethetho. Tšimoloho ea pontšo ena ea bongoli e khutlela mehleng ea Greece ea khale.

Lithothokiso tsa Gilgamesh - tse qalileng Sumeria (2500-2000 BC) - mohlomong ke e 'ngoe ea libopuoa tsa khale ka ho fetisisa tse ngotsoeng. Ha e le karolo ea eona, e tsamaisana le thothokiso ea mahlohonolo La Odyssey -Homer— ho ba e 'ngoe ea lipina tse tsebahalang haholo mofuteng ona. Ho tloha tšimolohong eo e ntle, poko e fetohile ka mefuta e fapaneng ea lipina le moetlo, e nang le mekhoa e mengata ea sebopeho, mekhoa ea ho bitsa mantsoe, morethetho le lipina tsa thoriso.

Mefuta ea lithoko ho latela moetlo oa bophirima

Leboko la Lyric

Mesebetsi ea lithothokiso tsa 'mino e ile ea emoloa hore e pheteloe hammoho le harepa (ka hona ke lebitso la eona). Mehleng ea khale, Ba-Hellene ba ne ba tloaetse ho qapa lithothokiso tse khetholloang ke morethetho le 'mino oa bona. Ho theosa le makholo a lilemo, kutloano eo e sebelisitsoe ke liroki ka ts'ebeliso ea lipalo tsa puo (mohlala, alliteration).

Lithothokiso tsa 'mino li hlahisa "motho ea tebileng" oa seroki, hape le maikutlo a lerato kapa setsoalle. Hangata ke lithothokiso tse khutšoane (boholo ba litlotla tse kholo mofuteng ona ke li-sonnet). Ntle le Francesco de Petrarca (1304 - 1374), batšehetsi ba tummeng ba lithothokiso ba ile ba hlaha nakong ea lekholo la bo1808 la lilemo: José de Espronceda (1842-1836) le Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (1870 - XNUMX).

thothokiso ea mahlo-mafubelu

Ke moqapi o etselitsoeng ho binoa haholo ho fapana le ho phetoa. Joalo ka lipontšo tse ngata tsa thothokiso, lithoko tsa khale li simolohile Greece ea khale. Moemeli oa eona ea hlaheletseng e ne e le HomerLe ha ho sa khonehe ho siea mabitso a kang Hesiod kapa moqapi oa Moroma Virgil.

Litšobotsi tsa thothokiso ea mahlohonolo

  • Pale e behiloe nako e hole; letsatsi ha le boleloe seoelo.
  • Ke litemana tse telele, tse arotsoeng ka likhaolo tse bitsoang lipina.
  • Lihlooho tsa sebopeho sa bolumeli (Khopolokapa mohopolo (Tlatsetso).
  • O tloaetse ho kopanya litemana tse monate le likarolo tsa 'nete.
  • Morero oa ona ke ho phahamisa lintoa (lipina tsa tlholo le sebete) kapa mehlolo ea nalane.

Lipotso tsa mantlha ho khetholla mofuta oa thothokiso, mekhahlelo ea hona joale

  • E na le litemana tse kae setulong ka seng?
  • E na le linoko tse kae tsa metric temaneng ka 'ngoe?
  • Mofuta oa morethetho (assonance kapa selumisoa) ke ofe?
  • Na ho na le mofuta oa kutloano le / kapa cadence lipakeng tsa litemana?
  • Litemana li kopantsoe joang ntlheng ka 'ngoe? (Metric litšobotsi).

Likhopolo tsa bohlokoa tse lokelang ho tsotelloa

Pina ea Assonance le morethetho oa liluma-'moho

Felix Lope de Vega.

Felix Lope de Vega.

Ho tseba mofuta oa morethetho, ho hlokahala hore o ele hloko senoko sa ho qetela se hatelletsoeng sa temana ka 'ngoe. Haeba feela liluma-nosi li tsamaellana, morethetho o nkuoa e le assonance (mohlala, candelabra le mosebetsi oa likotoana). Ka lehlakoreng le leng, haeba papali e felletse - molumo oa liluma-nosi le lilumisoa - morethetho oa liluma-nosi; mohlala: khahloa le ho phatsima.

Litemana tsa bonono bo boholo le litemana tsa bonono bo bonyenyane

Phapang ntlheng ena e bonolo haholo, bala feela palo ea lilumaele tsa metric tse teng temaneng ka 'ngoe. Haeba palo eo e feta robeli, e khetholloa e le temana e kholo ea bonono. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, haeba lenane la lilumisoa li ka ba robeli kapa ka tlase, le bitsoa temana e nyane ea bonono.

Mefuta ea lithoko, tlhophiso ho latela palo ea litemana

Tsa litemana tse peli

Seka-detached:

E entsoe ka litemana tse peli (ho sa tsotelehe hore na ke tsa bonono bo boholo kapa bonono bo bonyenyane kapa mofuta oa morethetho).

Tsa litemana tse tharo

Ea boraro:

E entsoe ka litemana tse tharo tsa bonono bo boholo le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

Ea boraro:

E na le litemana tse tharo tsa bonono bo bonyenyane bo nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

solea:

E ts'oana le ea boraro, leha e na le morethetho oa assonance.

Tsa litemana tse 'ne

Quartet:

E entsoe ka litemana tse 'ne tsa bonono bo boholo, morethetho oa liluma-'moho ho tsona kaofela.

Kakaretso:

E entsoe ka litemana tse 'ne tsa bonono bo bonyenyane bo nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

Se-Serventesian:

E na le litemana tse 'ne tsa bonono bo boholo (hangata li-hendecasyllables) tse nang le lilotho tse lumellanang le tse ling (morero oa ABAB).

Quatrain:

E entsoe ka litemana tse 'ne tsa bonono bo bonyenyane (hangata lilumisoa tse robeli) tse nang le morethetho oa lilumisoa (abab scheme).

Banyalani:

E entsoe ka litemana tse 'nè tsa linoko tse robeli tsa lipina tsa liluma-'moho.

Sash:

Ke litemana tse ka bang nne tsa Alexandria tse nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

Tsa litemana tse hlano

Quintet:

E na le litemana tse hlano tsa bonono bo boholo tse nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho ho tsona kaofela, moo ho se nang litemana tse fetang tse peli ka tatellano tse nang le morethetho o tšoanang.

Limerick:

E entsoe ka litemana tse hlano tsa bonono bo bonyenyane le morero oa lipina tsa lilumisoa tse fapaneng.

Lira:

E fana ka litemana tse peli tsa hendecasyllable le litemana tse tharo tsa heptasyllable tse nang le morethetho oa lilumisoa.

Tsa litemana tse tšeletseng

Leoto le robehileng kapa couplet ea Manrique:

E entsoe ka litemana tsa bonono bo bonyenyane le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

Tsa litemana tse robeli

Royal Octave:

E fana ka litemana tse robeli tsa bonono bo boholo le morethetho oa liluma-'moho.

Pampiri:

E entsoe ka litemana tse robeli tsa bonono bo bonyenyane ka mokhoa o fapaneng oa lipina tsa liluma-'moho.

Tsa litemana tse leshome

Leshome:

Ke moqapi oa litemana tse nyane tsa bonono tse nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho kapa liluma, ho latela tatso ea mongoli. Tlhophiso ea lipina tse fapaneng e ea fapana.

Miguel de Cervantes.

Miguel de Cervantes.

Hona joale, Morero o tsebahalang haholo ke abba.accddc (ka nako moleng oa bone) mme e tsamaellana le spinel ea XNUMX. Lebitso lena la pele ka lipuo tse ling, lipuo le lipuo tse fapaneng, tse ling tsa basali le banna ba pele Vicente Espinel. Ka lehlakoreng la hae, Miguel de Cervantes le Félix Lope de Vega, ba ratoang ka lebaka la molumo le polelo ea methati e fihletsoeng ka spinel, le bona ba sebelisitse e le li-diffus tsa mofuta ona oa thothokiso.

Kemiso ho latela sebopeho sa eona

Sonnet:

E na le litemana tse leshome le metso e mene tsa hendecasyllable tse nang le morethetho oa liluma-'moho. Li-quartet tse peli le tse tharo tse tharo, ho nepahala. Kabo ea eona ke: ABBA ABBA CDC CDC. Kajeno mefuta e mengata e ka fumanoa ntlheng ena, ho kenyeletsoa le ea bangoli ba tummeng joalo ka Rubén Darío. Mofuta oa thothokiso o simolohile Italy ke bangoli ba kang Petrarca le Dante Alighieri.

Lerato:

Ke thothokiso e nang le palo e sa feleng ea litemana tsa hendecasyllable. Moo lipara li bonts'a morethetho oa litlatsetso 'me tse makatsang li lokolohile. Boholo ba litsebi li supa hore lerato le na le lebitso le sa tsejoeng - tšimoloho e tsebahalang.

Tseba:

Ke mofuta oa thothokiso e nang le tšusumetso e tšoailoeng ea Searabia, e khetholloang ke chorase ea eona ea pele ea mela e 'meli kapa e meraro e lumellanang le temana ea ho qetela ea stanza. Ka hlakoreng le leng, palo ea eona ea litemana e ea fetoha mme ho lula ho na le litemana tse tharo tsa monorhythmic seteng.

Carol:

Ke mofuta oa sebopeho o ts'oanang haholo le Zéjel, phapang ke boteng ba eona ba octosyllabic kapa heptasyllable verse. Tsena ke likotoana tse metseng ka metso moetlong oa Keresemese.

Silva:

E entsoe ka letoto la li-heptasyllable tse sa lekanyetsoang kapa li-hendecasyllables (e ka kenyelletsa litemana tse itseng). E khetholloa ka sebaka se sekhutšoanyane pakeng tsa litemana tse nang le morethetho.

Temana ea mahala:

Tsena ke mesebetsi e nang le setaele se hlophisitsoeng se sa ipapisang le maemo a metric a tloaelehileng. Joale, ho ba sieo ha morethetho le lipina tsa thoriso ha ho bolele hore ha ba na morethetho.

Mefuta e meng ea lipina tse tummeng tsa thothokiso

  • Sefela
  • Madrigal
  • letrilla
  • Haiku
  • Kamore
  • Epigram
  • Elegy
  • Eclogue

Tlhaloso, tlohela ea hau

Siea maikutlo a hau

aterese ya hao ya imeile ke ke ho phatlalatswa. masimo a hlokahala a tšoailoe ka *

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  1. E ikarabella bakeng sa data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Morero oa data: Laola SPAM, tsamaiso ea maikutlo.
  3. Molao: Tumello ea hau
  4. Puisano ea data: Lintlha li ke ke tsa tsebisoa batho ba boraro ntle le ka tlamo ea molao.
  5. Polokelo ea data: Database e hapiloeng ke Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Litokelo: Nako efe kapa efe o ka fokotsa, oa hlaphoheloa mme oa hlakola tlhaiso-leseling ea hau.

  1.   Stalin Towers a re

    Pontšo e ntle haholo, e phethahetseng haholo ebile e ea hlolla, haholo-holo ea bohlokoa bakeng sa ba qalang, joalo ka ka
    Litumeliso le katleho.

    Litora tsa Stalin.