William Shakespeare anotamba

Comedies nematambudziko aWilliam Shakespeare.

Comedies nematambudziko aWilliam Shakespeare.

Mabasa aWilliam Shakespeare ipfuma yezvinyorwa zvepasirese; murume uyu aive mudetembi weBritish, munyori wemitambo uye wemuchitambo mutambi aigara pakati pezana ramakore rechiXNUMX nerechiXNUMX. Nekudaro, iko kutsika kwetsika kwemabasa ake kwakapfuura makore. Nhasi anoonekwa seye chiratidzo chehunyanzvi, tsamba uye tsika inozivikanwa yeWest. Kune avo vanaye semunyori anonyanya kukosha wenguva dzose mururimi rweChirungu.

Shakespeare inotamba span comedy, nhoroondo dzemitambo, uye nhamo. Izvi ndizvo zvetsika yeElizabethan yemitambo, asi zvimire pakati pevamwe vanyori nezvehunhu hwavo uye kukosha. Hukuru hwake huripo mukushandisa kwemutauro mutsva, uye muhukuru, hunyoro uye hunhu hwevatambi vaakasika.

William Shakespeare uye kuvimbika kwenhaka yake

Izvo zvataurwa pamusoro apa zvakachengetedza zvirongwa zvaWilliam Shakespeare, zvirevo, uye vatambi vari vapenyu mukati memazana emakore. Panguva dzakasiyana mabasa ake ekunyora akakurudzira vamwe vanyori, mapurasitiki, vatambi, vatambi uye vagadziri vemafirimu. Uyezve, zvisikwa zvake zvakashandurwa mumitauro isingaverengeke. Akanyorawo nhetembo uye nhetembo.

Pachine imwe nhaurirano nhasi nezve kunyorwa kwezvikamu zvake. Izvi zvinotaurwa kunyanya nekuti mabviro aShakespeare asiri ehunhu haapindirane nehunhu uye hupfumi hwekunyora kwake. Izvo zvinotaurwa zvakare nekuti pane mashoma zvinyorwa zvinyorwa zvinotsigira zviitiko zvehupenyu hwake. Zvisinei, vatsoropodzi vazhinji vanoti mabasa ake kune mumwe munyori anonzi William Shakespeare, aivewo mutambi uye muridzi-wekambani inozivikanwa yekambani yemitambo yeLondon inonzi Lord Chamberlain's Men.

Biography

Kuberekwa uye mhuri

William Shakespeare akaberekerwa mutaundi reStratford-upon-Avon musi waApril 23, 1564, kana pane rimwe zuva padyo nemwedzi iwoyo. Pane chokwadi pamusoro pekubhabhatidzwa kwake, kwakaitika musi waApril 26 wegore iro muChechi yeUtatu Hutsvene muStratford.

Iye aive mwanakomana wemuchato wakaumbwa naJohn Shakespeare naMary Arden, mutengesi ane zvimwe zvakakosha munharaunda yake uye mugari wenhaka yemuridzi wemunda weKaturike.

Studies

Zvinotendwa kuti panguva yehudiki hwake akaenda kuStratford Grammar Chikoro, chikoro chepuraimari chemuno kwaaive nekwaniso nekuda kwenzvimbo yenzanga yevabereki vake. Kana fungidziro iyi iri yechokwadi, ipapo akadzidza zvemberi ChiLatin neChirungu uye akadzidza zvinyorwa zvekare zvekare.

Dzidzo yake yese inofungidzirwa kuve yakazvimiririra, kuburikidza nemabhuku kubva kwakasiyana masosi. Nekudaro, nyanzvi zhinji dzakafungidzira kuti William Shakespeare aive nehunyanzvi hwekuziva pamusoro pehuwandu hwevanhu. Aya hunyanzvi vakamuita kuti awane mbiri, asiwo vavengi vazhinji.

Mufananidzo waWilliam Shakespeare.

Mufananidzo waWilliam Shakespeare.

muchato

Pazera remakore gumi nemasere (muna 18) munyori akaroora Anne Hathaway, mwanasikana wemurimi weko. Vana vatatu vakazvarwa kubva kumubatanidzwa. Zvinofungidzirwa kuti aive nenyaya dzakawanda dzekunze, uye kunyange Shakespeare aive ungochani. Chishoma chimwe chinozivikanwa nehunyanzvi hwehudiki hwemutambi wemitambo.

Kuenda kuLondon uye kujoina iyo Lord Chamberlain's Men kambani

Mukupera kwema1880 munyori akatamira kuLondon. Pakazosvika 1592 akange atonakidzwa neimwe mukurumbira uye kuzivikanwa semutambi uye munyori wemitambo pachiitiko cheguta. Panguva yekugara kwake muLondon akanyora uye akatanga kuratidzira yakawanda yemitambo yake yemitambo, akave akakurumbira uye akanakidzwa nebudiriro yehupfumi.

Pakati pemakore iwayo akabatana nekambani yaIshe Chamberlain's Men, imwe yeanonyanya kufarirwa panguva iyoyo uye anotsigirwa nekorona..

Dzokera kuStanford uye kufa

Pakati pa1611 na1613 akatamira zvakare kuStratford, uko kwaakatarisana nematambudziko epamutemo ane chekuita nekutengwa kwenzvimbo. Peni yemunyori haina kumbopedza kugadzira, Shakespeare aigara achionekwa achigadzira mitambo uye nhetembo, rake rekunyora zvinyorwa zvainakidza.

William Shakespeare akafa muna 1616, zuva rimwe chete nezuva rake rekuzvarwa makumi mashanu nemaviri. (Izvi, hongu, kana kuverenga pamusoro pezuva rekuzvarwa kwake kuri kwechokwadi).

Sezvo nebasa rechimwe chinhu chakasviba uye chinodemba, mwanakomana wake mumwechete, anonzi Hamlet, akafa achiri mucheche, uye vanakomana vevanasikana vake vakanga vasina mwana, saka hapana zvipenyu zvipenyu zvemuchato weShakespeare naHathaway.

William Shakespeare anotamba

Mitambo yake yemitambo yakarongedzwa mumakomedhi, nhamo uye madrama enhoroondo.

Comedies

  • Iyo inosetsa yekukanganisa (1591)
  • Vakuru vaviri veVerona (1591-1592)
  • Basa rakarasika rerudo (1592)
  • Kuchenesa kweShiri (1594)
  • Kurota kwenigth yezhizha (1595-1596)
  • Mutengesi weVenice (1596-1597)
  • Zvakawanda ado Nezve Hapana (1598)
  • Sezvaunoda (1599-1600)
  • Vakadzi Vanofara veWindsor (1601)
  • Husiku hwaMambo (1601-1602)
  • Kusvika kumagumo akanaka hapana mavambo akashata (1602-1603)
  • Measure yechiyero (1604)
  • Pericles (1607)
  • Cymbaline (1610)
  • Nyaya yechando (1610-1611)
  • Dutu (1612)

Njodzi

  • Titus Andronicus (1594)
  • Romeo naJuliet (1595)
  • Julius Caesar (1599)
  • Hamlet (1601)
  • Troilus naCressida (1602)
  • Othello (1603-1604)
  • Mambo Lear (1605-1606)
  • Macbeth (1606)
  • Antony naCleopatra (1606)
  • Coriolanus (1608)
  • Helm yeAtene (1608)

Nhoroondo dzekare

  • Edward III (1596).
  • Henry VI (1594)
  • Richard III (1597).
  • Richard II (1597).
  • Henry IV 1598 - 1600
  • Henry V (1599)
  • Mambo (1598)
  • Henry VIII (1613)

Shakespeare akanyorawo nhetembo. Mune iri runyorwa runyorwa, nhetembo dzakakura-dzengano-idzo dzinoonekera, senge, semuenzaniso, Venus naAdonis y Kubatwa chibharo kwaLucrecia, asi, pamusoro pezvose, zvavo Sonnets (1609).

Tsanangudzo yemamwe emabasa eShakespeare anomiririra

Kuchenesa kweShiri

Kutengesa Shrew shomana ...
Shrew shomana ...
Hapana wongororo

Iyo mutambo mune zviito zvishanu zvakatangirwa nesumo, mune izvo zvinotaurwa kuti zviitiko zvinofanirwa kugadzirwa zvinoumba chikamu chemitambo. kuti achazomira pamberi pechidhakwa, uyo anokudzwa paanoda kutamba jee. Iyi sumo (meta-theatre) inosimbisa kumuoni chimiro chekunyepedzera chenyaya.

Iyo nharo yepakati yaive yakajairika mumabhuku uye nemuromo tsika yenguva iyoyo, Kunyangwe mumutambo weItaly: mukadzi akatsamwa uye anopandukira uyo murume wake anoedza kudzora. Zvisinei, kuvandudzwa uye hunhu hwevatambi zvinonyanya kusiyanisa nemabasa apfuura, izvi, zvokwadi, nekuda kwekunaka kwepeni remusiki wayo. Nhasi ndechimwe chezvidimbu zvinozivikanwa zveShakespeare.

William Shakespeare akatorwa.

William Shakespeare akatorwa.

Protagonist yaro ndiCatalina Minola, mukadzi mumwe chete mwanasikana wemurume anokudzwa anobva kuPadua. Catalina anozvidza vafambi vake uye anozvidza kuroora. Mhosva yakasiana ndeye munin'ina wake, Blanca, ari musikana anotapira uye anorota ane masutu mazhinji. Ivo baba vavo vanoda kuroora Catalina kutanga kuremekedza tsika, achiputsa moyo yevanokwezva Blanca.

Kuuya kwaPetruchio kuguta, mukwikwidzi waCatherine, kunoburitsa nhevedzano yemamiriro uye kuvhiringidzika kwemazita. Pakupedzisira murume anokwanisa kudzora hunhu hwaCatalina uye kumuroora. Iri basa rave riri kurudziro yemanovhosi mazhinji uye ma comedies erudo emazana emakore apfuura.

Chidimbu

"Guild: Handizive. Ini ndaizoda kugamuchira roora rake pachiitiko ichi: kurohwa mangwanani ega ega munzvimbo yemusika.

"Hortensio: Ehe, sekutaura kwako, pane zvishoma zvekusarudza pakati pemapuro akaipa. Asi tarisa: sezvo ichi chipingamupinyi chepamutemo chichiita isu shamwari, ngative shamwari kusvika, mushure mekubatsira mwanasikana mukuru waBattista kuwana murume, isu tinosiya mudiki kuti titsvage murume, uyezve tinorwazve. Zvakanaka Bianca! Anofara chero anokunda. Chero ani anomhanya nekukurumidza anomira mhete. Unobvumirana here, mukuru Guild?

"Guild: Zvakanaka, hongu. Ini ndichapa bhiza rangu rakanakisa kune uyo, muPadua, anotanga kukwezva wedangwe, kumunyengerera kusvika pekupedzisira, kumutorera pfuma, kumuisa pamubhedha, uye kumusunungura imba yake. Enda!

(Gremio naHortensio vanobuda. Tranio naLucenzio vanogara).

"Tranio.":
Ndinokukumbirisai, changamire, mundiudze kana zvichibvira
rudo irworwo rwunongoerekana rwave nesimba rakawanda.

"Lucenzio:
Ah, Tranio, kusvikira ndaona kuti ichokwadi,
Handina kumbobvira ndatenda kuti zvaigona kana kuti zvaigona kuitika.
Teerera, apo ini, ndisingadi, ndakamutarisa
Ndakanzwa mhedzisiro yerudo muhusimbe hwangu.
Uye zvino ndinoreurura pachena kwauri
kwauri, iwe uri pedyo uye unodikanwa,
saAnne zvaive kuna mambokadzi weCarthage,
kuti ini ndinotsva, ndinozvidya ini uye ndinofa kuti ndikunde,
akanaka Tranio, rudo rwemusikana anozvininipisa uyu.
Ndirairewo, Tranio; Ndinoziva unogona;
ndibatsire, Tranio; Ndinoziva kuti uchazviita ".

Macbeth

Kutengesa Macbeth: Dudziro uye ...

Ndiyo imwe yenjodzi dzinozivikanwa uye dzakasviba dzemunyori wemutambo wechiRungu. Inosanganisira zviito zvishanu, mune yekutanga iyo Macbeth naBanquo vanoziviswa, vatungamiriri vaviri veScotland avo varoyi vatatu vanoonekwa vachiporofita kuti mumwe wavo aizove mambo uye baba vemadzimambo, zvichiteerana. Mushure mekusangana uku Macbeth anotanga kudyiwa nechishuwo uye nekuzadzisa zvinangwa zvake, kuuraya mambo, shamwari yake Banquo nevamwe vazhinji munzira yake kuenda kuchigaro chehushe.

Kuchiva kwesimba, kutengesa, kupenga uye kufa ndiyo misoro mikuru yebasa. Macbeth pakupedzisira anofa akaurayiwa, izvi mushure mekupa mukurumbira monologue pane zvisina maturo zvehupenyu. Saka zvese zviporofita zvinozadzikiswa, kungoitika kwenjodzi dzechiGreek.

Muchikamu chino masimba aSophocles naAeschylus pabasa raShakespeare zvinopfuura pachena. Izvi hazvishamise, munyori aigara achiverenga uye achifarira zvinyorwa zvechiGreek, zvehunyanzvi hwayo.

Chidimbu

"Chiitiko chekutanga
(Kunzvimbo iri yoga, mabhanan'ana nemheni zvinonzwika. Uye varoyi vatatu vanosvika).

"Muroyi wekutanga:
Ko isu vatatu tichasangana zvakare? Chero chiitiko apo mabhanan'ana nemheni zvinorova, kana kana kuchinaya?

Wechipiri muroyi:
Mushure mekudya kwapera, apo kurwa kwakundwa uye kwakundwa.

"Muroyi wechitatu:
Izvi zvichaitika zuva risati ravira.

"Muroyi wekutanga:
Uye tichasangana kupi?

Wechipiri muroyi:
Pakati pemakwenzi.

"Muroyi wechitatu
Ikoko tichasangana naMacbeth.

"Kutanga muroyi
Ndiri kuenda, mamvemve!

"Zvese:
Iyo scarecrow inotidaidza… pakarepo! Runako runotyisa uye runotyisa runotyisa: ngatibhururuke nemumhepo nemhepo yakashata.

(Vanoenda)".

Sonnets

Kutengesa Shakespearean Sonnets: ...

Shakespeare akanyora sonnets dzakawanda nenzira yeChirungu pamusoro pemakore akati wandei. Dzakazoburitswa, pamwe nekusiiwa, muna 1609. Mumagazini dzakazotevera vhezheni yesarudzo ine nhetembo 154 yakazounganidzwa.

Macheneti ekutanga gumi nemaviri anonyorerwa kujaya risingazivikanwe, mamwe kune mukadzi ane vhudzi rakasviba, uye mamwe kune nyanduri "anokwikwidza". Iko kuunganidzira kunoiswa kuna "Mr. WH ”, murume asiri kuzivikanwa, kunyange hazvo paine dzidziso dzakawanda. Mavara anoimbwa nezwi rerwiyo, pamwe nekusava nechokwadi kwekutsaurira, zvinowedzera kune zvakavanzika uye gakava rakakomberedza mamoneti uye hupenyu hwaShakespeare mune zvese.

Misoro yakafukidzwa ndezverudo, kuziva nezverufu, rudo rwemhuri uye runako. Nekudaro, zvinozviita neimwe nzira yakatosiyana kubva kune vakaitangira uye venguva yavo. Mune nhetembo idzi Shakespeare anotamba nemhando dzevatambi vake, achikumikidza chinotapira uye chinonyanya kufadza kune jaya pachinzvimbo chemukadzi, achigadzira satires yakajeka uye fungidziro pabonde. Izvo zvakare dzimwe nguva zvinoshandura echinyakare chimiro cheChirungu sonnet.

Aya maNetoni akashandurwa mumitauro yese uye akadhinda zvakapetwa kanoverengeka.

Sonnet 1

"Tinoda kuti vapararire, zvisikwa zvakanaka kwazvo,

mhando yake, nekuti iro rose harife rakafa

uye kana uchinge wakura, unoora nenguva

endesa ndangariro dzako, mudiki wenhaka yako.

Asi iwe, wakatsaurirwa kumeso ako anopenya,

iwe unofudza murazvo, mwenje wako neako hunhu,

kusika nzara, kune zvakawanda.

Iwe, muvengi wako, une utsinye pamweya wako.

Iwe, unonhuwirira, kushongedzwa kwenyika ino,

mureza chete, unozivisa matsime,

Mune yako cocoon, iwe unoviga mufaro wako

uye iwe unoita, inotapira inonamira, splurge pakukara.

Iva nengoni nenyika, kana pakati pako neguva,

iwe uchadya zvakanaka izvo nyika inazvo ”.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
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