Dostoevskiy

Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821 - 1881) anga ari munyori wenhau weRussia ane kudzika kwepfungwa kwakamuita iye - pamwe - munyori ane mukurumbira wezana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Aive zvakare mukurumbira wenyaya pfupi munyori, mupepeti, uye mutori wenhau, aikwanisa kushandura mimvuri yakasviba yemoyo wemunhu nenguva dzisina kufananidzwa dzechiedza.

Mifungo yake yakaratidza zvakadzama mafambiro eazvino, kuvapo, dzidziso yebhaibheri uye kushoropodza kwemanyoro, pamwe nezvikoro zvakawanda zvepfungwa. Zvimwechetezvo, basa rake rinoonekwa serechiporofita nekuda kwekujeka kwaakafungidzira kusimuka kwevashanduki veRussia kuenda pasimba.

Kusimuka kweimwe yevakuru vanyori venguva dzese

Zviitiko zvakakosha kwazvo muhupenyu hwaDostoyevsky - kuurayiwa kwakadzingwa, kutapwa kuSiberia nezvikamu zve pfari - zvinozivikanwa semabasa ake.. Muchokwadi, akatora mukana wezviitiko zvakawanda zvinoshamisa muhupenyu hwake kuti awedzere kuomarara kunoshamisa kune mavara ake.

Context yebasa rako

Sekureva kwaGary Saul Molson (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020) zviitiko zvakawanda zvakapoterera munyori weRussia zvichiri kujeka. Mukupesana, kumwe kufunga kusingakoshi kunogamuchirwa sechokwadi chechokwadi chekuvapo kwayo. Kune rimwe divi, Dostoyevsky akasiyana nevamwe vanyori veRussia (saTolstoy kana Turgenev) muchiitiko chebasa rake muzvinhu zviviri zvakakosha.

Kutanga, aigara achishanda achimanikidzwa nezvikwereti zvakawanda zvakawanikwa nekuda kwekubhejera uye nezvinetso zvemhuri. Chechipiri, Dostoyevsky akaputsa kubva kune chaiyo rondedzero yemhuri dzakanaka uye dzakagadzikana; pachinzvimbo, airatidzira mapoka ane njodzi, akakomberedzwa netsaona. Saizvozvowo, Dostoyevsky akaongorora nyaya - dzinopokana panguva iyoyo - senge kusaenzana munharaunda uye basa revakadzi mukati meruzhinji rweRussia.

Mhuri, kuzvarwa uye hudiki

Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky akaberekerwa muMoscow, Russia, musi waNovember 11, 1821 (Gumiguru 30 pakarenda yaJulian). Aive wechipiri pavana vanomwe pakati paMikhail Dostoyevsky (anokudzwa anobva kuDarayóve), wedzinza reBelarus, naMaria Fiódorovna, mukadzi ane tsika kubva kumhuri yevatengesi yeRussia. Hunhu hwehutongi hwababa - chiremba pachipatara cheMoscow chevarombo - vakapesana zvakanyanya nekutapira uye kudziya kwaamai vasingade.

Kuyaruka

Kusvikira 1833, mudiki Fyodor aive akadzidziswa dzimba. Muna 1834, iye nemukoma wake Mikhail vakapinda Chermak boarding chikoro chesekondari. Amai vake vakafa netibhii muna 1837. Makore maviri gare gare, baba vake vakapondwa nevaranda vake (Dostoyevsky akaziviswa) mukutsiva hunhu hwake hweudzvanyiriri. Chiitiko chine maitiro mazhinji engano muchiedza chevamwe vanyori venhoroondo.

Kurovedza munhare yeChikoro cheMasoja

Panguva iyoyo, hama Dostoevskaya vakanga vatove vadzidzi paSt., achitevera nzira yakateerwa nababa vake. Sezviri pachena Fyodor akanzwa kusagadzikana zvakanyanya panguva yake yepamusoro yekudzidziswa. Nekuoma kwemukoma wake - aive shamwari yake yepedyo - akatanga kupinda mune zvekunyora kudoma uye Gothic fungidziro.

Kunyangwe zvake akaratidzika ekunyora mafungiro, Dostoyevsky aive asina matambudziko nenhamba dzekuverenga panguva yekudzidziswa kwake. Uye pakanga pasina zvimhingamupinyi mukuwana basa kana apedza kudzidza; akawana chinzvimbo muDhipatimendi reMainjiniya Emasoja. Nekudaro, sekutaura kwakaita mwanasikana wake Aimée Dostoyevsky (1922), pasina kumanikidzwa nababa vanoshusha, makumi maviri nechimwe chinhu Fyodor aive akasununguka kushandisa kudana kwake.

Maitiro

Simba remudetembi wechiGerman Friedrich Schiller anoonekwa mumabasa ake ekutanga (haana kuchengetedzwa), Maria stuart y Boris Gudunov. Zvakare, mune iwo matanho ekutanga, Dostoyevsky aive nemufananidzo wevanyori vakaita saSir Walter Scott, Ann Radcliffe, Nikolay Karamzim, naAleksandr Pushkin. Ehe, kushanya kwaHonoré Balzac kuSaint Petersburg mu1844 chaive chiitiko chakakomba, mukukudzwa kwake akashandura Eugenie Grandet.

Kutanga kunyora mabhuku

Mutsara naFyodor Dostoyevski.

Mutsara naFyodor Dostoyevski.

Gore rimwe chetero akasiya mauto kuti azvipire iye ega kunyora. Makore makumi maviri nemana, Dostoyevsky akatsika muRussia zvinyorwa zvinyorwa pamwe neano epistolary novel Varombo (1845). Mune ino chinyorwa, munyori weMoscow akaita kuti hushamwari hwake huve nehunhu hwechokwadi. Iye kunyange akawana rumbidzo yakakurumbira mabhuku mutsoropodzi Belinsky, uyo akasuma naye kune vakadzidza uye aristocratic vepamusoro St. Petersburg.

Kuora kwaDostoyevsky kwakakonzera ruvengo kubva kune vamwe vanyori vechidiki veRussia (senge Turgenev, semuenzaniso). Neichi chikonzero, mutsivi wake anoshanda -Iyo yakapetwa (1846), Manheru akachena (1848) uye Nietochka Nezvanova (1849) - akagamuchira akawongorora mashoma. Aya mamiriro akamushungurudza zvakanyanya; chikamu chezvaakaita pakushungurudzika kwaive kwekujoinha mapoka ezvidzidzo zvehunyanzvi uye zvema libertarian, iwo anonzi maNihilist.

Njodzi sehuni

Epilepsy zvikamu

Dostoyevsky akarwara kekutanga aine makore mapfumbamwe. Dzingave zvikamu zvishoma nezvishoma muhupenyu hwake hwese. Nekudaro, vazhinji vanyori vezvinyorwa zvinoenderana mukunongedzera kufa kwababa sechiitiko chinokuvadza mumufananidzo wake wekukiriniki. Munyori weRussia akawedzera hutsinye hwezviitiko izvi kujekesa hunhu hwake hwaPrince Myshkin (Benzi, 1869) uye Smerdiákov (Hama dzaKaramazov, 1879).

Siberia

Uye 1849, Fyodor Dostoyevsky akasungwa nevakuru veRussia. Akapomerwa kuve chikamu chehurongwa hwaPetrachevsky, vezvematongerwo enyika vachipesana naTsar Nicholas I. Vese vaibatanidzwa vakatongerwa rufu, nemitongo yakachinjwa - chaiko - pamberi pemadziro. Mukudzoka, Dostoyevsky akaendeswa kuSiberia kunoita basa rekumanikidzirwa kwemakore mashanu akareba, septic uye ane hutsinye makore.

Sekureva kwaAimée Dostoyevsky, baba vake "vakazivisa nechimwe chikonzero kuti vasungwa vanga vari vadzidzisi vake." Zvishoma nezvishoma Dostoyevsky akashandisa matarenda ake mukushandira hukuru hweRussia. Uyezve, aizvitora semudzidzi waKristu uye anokanganisa zvakanyanya hutsinye. Nekudaro, Dostoyevsky aisazotsvaga kubvumidzwa nevamwe veEurope (kunyangwe asiri kuzvidza), asi akarumbidza nhaka yenyika yeSlavic-Mongol.

Kuroora kwekutanga

Dostoyevsky akashanda chikamu chechipiri chemutongo wake muKazakhstan sevamwe. Ikoko, akatanga hukama naMaria Dmítrievna Isáyeva; muna 1857 vakaroora. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, ruregerero rwakapihwa naTsar Alexander II akadzorera zita rake remukurumbira, nekudaro, aikwanisa kudzorerazve mabasa ake. Vakatanga kuoneka vaive Rwizi rwunorota y Stenpánchikovo nevagari vayo (zvese kubva muna 1859).

Hama dzaKaramazov.

Hama dzaKaramazov.

Hukama pakati paDostoyevsky nemukadzi wake wekutanga waive wedutu kutaura zvishoma. Akavenga Tver, iro guta ravakagara kwenguva zhinji yegore rechitatu nerechina remuchato. Panguva yaakange ajaira kune vanokudzwa vepamusoro mudunhu, iye - mukutsiva - akatanga kudanana nejaya retsamba. Mukupedzisira, Mariya akareurura zvese kumurume wake (kusanganisira zvaaida zvekuda pfuma), achimunyadzisa pakati pemutambo.

Kubhejera uye chikwereti

Muna 1861, Fyodor Dostoyevsky akatanga magazini iyi Vremya (Nguva) nemukoma wake Mikhail, vachangomutendera kuti adzokere kuSaint Petersburg. Ikoko akaburitsa Vakanyadziswa uye vakagumburwa (1861) uye Ndangariro dzeimba yevakafa (1862), aine nharo dzakanangana nezvakaitika muSiberia. Gore rakatevera akaita nzendo kuburikidza neEurope kuburikidza neGerman, France, England, Switzerland, Italy neAustria.

Munguva yerwendo rwake, Dostoyevsky akanyengerwa nemutambo mutsva wemukana wakabuda mumakasino eParis: roulette. Nekudaro, akadzokera kuMoscow mumatsutso a1863 abhuroka zvachose. Kuwedzera kutuka pakukuvara Vremya yairambidzwa nekuda kwechinyorwa pamusoro pekupanduka kwePoland. Kunyangwe, rakatevera gore rakaburitsa Ndangariro dzepasi pevhu mumagazini epoja (Nguva), magazini nyowani kwaakashanda semupepeti naMikhail.

Nhamo dzinoteedzana

Asi nhamo zvakare yakamutorera, sezvo aive akafirwa mukupera kwa1864 uye nguva pfupi mushure mekunge mukoma wake mukuru, Mikhail ashaya. Nechikonzero ichi, akawira mukushushikana kwakadzika uye kunyanya mumutambo, achiunganidza zvikwereti zvakawanda (kunze kwemakumi maviri nemakumi mashanu emaRubles, anofungidzirwa nekuda kwekufa kwaMikhail). Saka Dostoyevsky akasarudza kutizira kunze kwenyika, uko roulette vhiri rakamubata zvakare.

Zvinyorwa zvinyorwa zviri pasi pekumanikidzwa

Kubhejera kwaDostoyevsky (uye naivety) kwakakonzera vakweretesi kumutevera kusvika pakupera kwemazuva ake. Akadzokera kuSaint Petersburg muna 1865 kushambadza rimwe remabasa ake anozivikanwa, Mhosva uye Kurangwa. Mukuedza kugadzirisa maakaundi ake, akasaina kondirakiti nemuparidzi Stellovski muna 1866. Mari inokwana zviuru zvitatu yakananga mumaoko evanomukweretesa.

Chechipiri kuroora

Kontrakita yekutsikisa yakaisa panjodzi kodzero kumabasa ake kana akanonoka kuendeswa kwenhau gore rimwe chete. Musi waFebruary 12, 1867, akaroora Anna Grigórievna Snítkina, ane makore 25 mudiki. Aive anofarira stenographer akabhadharwa kuraira Mutambi (1866) mumazuva 26 chete. Panguva yechiitiko chemuchato wavo (pamwe nekunzvenga vakweretesi), avo vachangoroora vakagara kuGeneva, Switzerland.

Nekuda kwekubatana ikoko, Sonia akaberekwa muna Kukadzi 1868; zvinosuwisa, mwana akafa aine mwedzi mitatu. Dostoyevsky akawira mumutambo zvekare uye akasarudza kuenda nemukadzi wake parwendo rwepfupi rweItari. Muna 1869 vakatamira kuDresden, guta rekumusha kwemwanasikana wavo wechipiri, Liuvob. Iro gore zvakare rakaona kuvhurwa kwe BenziNekudaro, yakawanda yemari yakamutswa neye hit novel yakaenda kunobhadhara zvikwereti.

Makore apfuura

Munguva ye1870s, Dostoyevsky akaburitsa huwandu hukuru hwemabasa akamusimbisa semumwe wevanyori vakuru venhoroondo. Kwete chete kubva kuRussia, asi kubva kumativi ese epasi. Zvimwe zvezvirongwa uye mavara akagadzirwa akafemerwa nezviitiko zvehupenyu uye zviitiko zvezvematongerwo enyika zvakazunza Russia.

Kunze kwekunge Murume wekusingaperi (1870), mamwe mabhuku akanyorwa uye akaburitswa mushure mekudzoka kwaDostoyevsky kuSaint Petersburg muna 1871. Ikoko, mwanakomana wake wechitatu, Fyodor, akaberekerwa. Kunyangwe makore aitevera aive nerunyararo rwehupfumi, matambudziko eFyodor M. epilepsy akawedzera. Kufa kwemwanakomana wake wechina, Aleksei (1875 - 1878) kwakawedzera kukanganisa mufananidzo wekutya wemunyori weRussia.

Benzi.

Benzi.

Zvazvino zvinyorwa zveFyodor Dostoyevsky

  • Dhimoni. Novel (1872).
  • Mugari. Vhiki nevhiki (1873 - 1874).
  • Dhayari remunyori. Magazini (1873 - 1877).
  • Kuyaruka. Novel (1874).
  • Hama dzaKarámazov. Novel - aigona chete kupedzisa chikamu chekutanga- (1880).

Nhaka

Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky akafa kumba kwake muSaint Petersburg munaFebruary 9, 1881, nekuda kwemapapu emphysema ane chekuita nepfari. Mariro ake akapindwa nevanhu vakakurumbira uye vezvematongerwo enyika kubva kumatunhu ese eEurope, pamwe nevakakurumbira vekuRussia vanyori venguva iyoyo. Kunyangwe - gare gare akatsanangura chirikadzi yake, Anna Grigorevna Dostoyevsky - mhemberero iyi yakaunza huwandu hwakanaka hwevadiki vechidiki.

Nenzira iyi, kunyangwe vavengi vake vepfungwa vakapa mutero kuhunyanzvi hweRussia. Hazvishamisi kuti Dostoyevsky akakwanisa kufuridzira huwandu hukuru hwevazivi, masayendisiti kana vanyori vekupfuura kwaFriedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka naStefan Zweig, pakati pevamwe. Basa rake nderepasirese, ine nhaka yakafanana neiya yaCervantes, Dante, Shakespeare kana Víctor Hugo.


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