Samuel Beckett

Landscape yeIrish.

Landscape yeIrish.

Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) aive munyori anozivikanwa weIrish. Akabudirira mumhando dzakasiyana siyana dzekunyora, senge nhetembo, nganonyorwa pamwe nedrama. Mukuita kwake mubazi rekupedzisira iri, basa rake Kumirira Godot yakanga iine budiriro inoshamisa, uye nhasi ichi chiratidzo pakati pemitambo yemapenzi. Kuedza kunoshamisa muhupenyu hwake hwakareba - hwakasarudzika nekutanga uye kudzika kwemavara ake - zvakamupa iye Mubayiro weNobel weMabhuku muna 1969.

Becket yaizivikanwa nekuratidzira nenzira isina kuchena, yerima uye yakapfupika chokwadi chaicho chemunhu, ichisimbisa iyo isina musoro yekuvapo kwayo. Naizvozvo, vatsoropodzi vazhinji vakaiumba mukati mehusiku. Kunyangwe zvinyorwa zvake zvaive zvipfupi, munyori akakwanisa kupa hudzamu hwakakura kuburikidza nekushandisa kwakasiyana zvinyorwa zvekunyora, uko mifananidzo yakatanhamara kupfuura zvimwe zvese. Zvichida mupiro wake wakanyanya kukosha kumabhuku waityora mazhinji ezvirevo zvakamiswa kusvikira asvika.

Hupenyu hwenyaya hwemunyori, Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett akazvarwa nemusi weChishanu Kubvumbi 13, 1906 mudhorobha reDublin reFoxrock, Ireland. Aive mwana wechipiri wemuchato pakati paWilliam Beckett naMay Roe - muongorori uye mukoti, zvichiteerana. Pamusoro paamai vake, munyori aigara achirangarira kuzvipira pabasa rake uye nekuzvipira kwake kwekunamata.

Udiki uye zvidzidzo

Kubva paudiki hwake, Beckett aikoshesa zviitiko zvishoma zvinonakidza. Uye izvo, zvinopesana nemukoma wake Frank, munyori aive mutete uye aigara achirwara achienderera. Nezve nguva iyoyo, akamboti: "Ndakanga ndine tarenda shoma rekufara."

Ndichiri kuenda kuchikoro chekutanga aive nemaitiro mapfupi nekudzidziswa kwemimhanzi. Yake yekutanga kuraira yakaitika kuElslsford House Chikoro kudzamara ave nemakore gumi nematatu ekuberekwa; zvichitevera akanyoresa muPortora Royal Chikoro. Panzvimbo iyi akasangana naFrank, mukoma wake mukuru. Kusvika nhasi, ichi chikoro chekupedzisira chinonakidzwa nemukurumbira wakawanda, kubvira Oscar Wilde ane mukurumbira akaonawo makirasi mumakirasi ayo.

Beckett iyo polymath

Chikamu chinotevera mukuumbwa kwaBeckett kwaive kuTrinity College, kuDublin. Ikoko mativi ake mazhinji akauya pamberi, kuda kwake mitauro kwaive kumwe kwacho. Nezve ichi chitandadzo, zvakafanira kusimbisa kuti munyori akadzidziswa muChirungu, French neItaly. Akazviita chaizvo pakati pa1923 na1927, uye akazopedza kudzidza muazvino Philology.

Vaviri vevadzidzisi vake vemitauro vaive AA Luce naThomas B. Rudmose-Brown; Wekupedzisira ndiye akamuvhurira mikova yemabhuku echiFrench akamupawo basa raDante Alighieri. Vadzidzisi vaviri ava vakaratidza kushamisika kwavo nekugona kwaBeckett mukirasi, zvese zviri zviviri dzidziso uye inoshanda.

Mune ino kambasi yezvidzidzo zvipo zvake zvemitambo zvakaonekwawo zvine simba, kubvira Beckett akakunda mune chess, rugby, tenesi, uye - zvakanyanya, zvakanyanya - mukiriketi.. Kuita kwake mumutambo webheti uye bhora kwaive kwakadai kuti zita rake rionekwe pa Wisden Cricketer 'Almanack.

Pamusoro pezvambotaurwa, munyori aive asiriwo mutorwa kune hunyanzvi uye tsika mune zvese. Nezve izvi, mumabasa aJames Knowlson - mumwe wevanyori vanonyanya kuzivikanwa nezvezvinyorwa zvehupenyu - Polymathy yaSamuel iri pachena. Uye ndeyekuti Beckett's multidisciplinarity yaive nemukurumbira, kunyanya nenzira yakanakisa yaakazvibata nayo mune yega yekutengesa yaakashandisa.

Beckett, yemitambo uye nehukama hwayo hwepedyo naJames Joyce

KuTrinity College, kuDublin, chimwe chinhu chakaitika icho chakatora danho muhupenyu hwaBekkett: kusangana kwake nemitambo yemitambo Luigi pirandello. Munyori uyu Chaive chinhu chakakosha mukukudziridza kwaSamuel semutambi wemutambo.

Gare gare, Beckett akatanga kutaura naJames Joyce. Zvakaitika panguva yekumwe kuungana kwemabhohemiya muguta, nekuda kwekurevererwa kwaThomas MacGreevy - shamwari yaSamuel - akavazivisa. Chemistry pakati pavo yaive yekukurumidza, uye izvo zvaive zvakajairwa, nekuti ivo vese vari vaviri vaida basa raDante uye vanofarira philologists.

Kusangana naJoyce kwaive chinhu chakakosha pabasa ra Beckett nehupenyu. Munyori akazove mubatsiri kumunyori anokunda mubairo, uye munhu padyo nemhuri yake. Nekuda kweiyo nexus, Samuel aitova nerumwe rudzi rwehukama naLucia Joyce - mwanasikana waJame.Hongu - asi haina kupera mushe - kutaura zvazviri, akapedzisira achitambura neschizophrenia.

Pakarepo, semhedzisiro yeiyo "kushaya rudo", pakave nekupesana pakati pevanyori vaviri; zvisinei, mushure megore vakaita mapasipoti. Zvehushamwari uhwu, kuwirirana pamwe nekubata kumeso kwakauya naJoyce kwaive nemukurumbira. zvine chekuita nekufunga kwaBeckett.

Becket uye kunyora

Dante… Bruno. Vico… Joyce ndiyo yaive yekutanga kuburitswa zvakanyorwa naBeckett. Yakauya pachena muna 1929 uye yaive chinyorwa chakakomba nemunyori chaizove chikamu chemitsetse yebhuku Kufungidzira Kwedu Kutenderedza Kwake Kujekesa kweKusanganisa kweBasa Mukufambira Mberi -Chinyorwa pamusoro pekudzidza kwebasa raJames Joyce. Vamwe vanyori vakakurumbira vakanyorawo zita iri, kusanganisira Thomas MacGreevy naWilliam Carlos Williams.

Pakati pegore iro, zvakauya pachena Yekutanga nyaya pfupi yaBeckett: Fungidziro. Magazini yacho kuchinja yaive chikuva chaitora zvinyorwa. Iyi avant-garde yekunyora nzvimbo yaive yakakosha mukuvandudza nekusimbisa kwebasa raIrish.

Muna 1930 akaburitsa nhetembo Whososcope, chinyorwa chidiki ichi chakamupa rukudzo rwemuno. Gore rakatevera akadzokera kuTrinity College, asi zvino ari purofesa. Chiitiko chekudzidzisa chakange chiri chenguva pfupi, sezvo iye akasiya gore uye akazvipira iye kushanya kuEurope. Nekuda kwekuzorora uku, akanyora nhetembo Gnome, iyo yakaburitswa zviri pamutemo makore matatu gare gare mu Magazini yeDublin. Gore rakatevera bhuku rekutanga rakaburitswa, Ini ndinorota zvevakadzi zvisina fu kana fa (1932).

Kufa kwababa vake

Muna 1933 chiitiko chakaitika chakazunza hupenyu hwa Beckett: kufa kwababa vake. Munyori aisaziva kubata chiitiko ichi nemazvo uye aifanirwa kuona chiremba wezvepfungwa - Dr. Wilfred Bion.. Zvimwe zvinyorwa zvakanyorwa nemunyori zvinozivikanwa kubva panguva iyoyo. Pakati peizvi, pane imwe kunyanya inomira pachena: Hunyoro hwevanhu Kunyarara (1934), mune mitsara yaakaita ongororo yakaoma yeunganidzwa wenhetembo naThomas MacGreevy.

Iyo "Sinclair v. Gogarty" kutongwa uye kuzvidzora kwaBeckett

Ichi chiitiko chaireva shanduko huru muhupenyu hwemunyori, sezvo zvakamutungamira kune rudzi rwekuzvitapa. Yakanga iri gakava pakati paHenry Sinclair - babamunini vaSamuel - naOliver St. John Gogarty. Wekutanga akachera wekupedzisira, achimupomera mhosva yekutora chikwereti, uye Beckett aive chapupu mukutongwa ... kukanganisa kukuru.

Gweta raGogarty akashandisa zano rakasimba kwazvo kupokana nemunyori kumunyadzisa nekuparadza mhosva yake. Pakati pezvakaipa zvakafumurwa, Beckett kusatenda kuna Mwari uye hupombwe hwake hunobuda pachena. Ichi chiito chakakanganisa zvakanyanya hupenyu hwemunyori uye hwega, nekudaro akafunga kuenda kuParis., zvakanyatsojeka.

Paris: kudanana kwemusango, kusangana nerufu uye kusangana nerudo

Eiffel Shongwe

Eiffel Shongwe

Chimwe chinhu chakaratidzira Beckett paakapinda mumakore ake makumi matatu, pamusoro pechakakura zvinyorwa zvake, hwaive hupombwe. Kwaari, Paris ndiyo yaive nzvimbo chaiyo yekuburitsa runako rwake nevakadzi. Imwe yenyaya dzinozivikanwa kwazvo mune izvi yakamuka pakati pekupera kwa1937 nekutanga kwa1938, pakati pemhemberero pamberi uye pakupera kwegore.

Kubva panguva iyoyo zvinozivikanwa kuti Beckett aive nemamiriro ezvinhu erudo panguva imwe chete nevakadzi vatatu. Pakati peizvi, mumwe anonyanya kumira, nekuti, mukuwedzera pakuve mudiwa, aive mubati wemunyori: Peggy Guggenheim.

Chimwe chiitiko chinosuwisa-chakaipa pandakauya ndiri mutsva muParis aive akabaya (1938). Ronda racho raive rakadzika uye risingabate moyo waBeckett, uyo akaponeswa nenzira inoshamisa. Iye akarwisa aive murume anonzi Prudent, pimp wepano uyo akazopinda mudare - uye akatarisana nemunyori - akataura kuti aisaziva zvakaitika kwaari panguva iyoyo, uye kuti ane urombo.

Beckett akaponeswa nekuda kwekukurumidza kuita kwaJames Joyce. Iye munyori anokunda mubairo akafambisa pesvedzero yake uye nekukurumidza akawana kamuri yeshamwari yake muchipatara chega. Ikoko, Samuel zvishoma nezvishoma akanaya.

Suzanne Dechevaux-Dumesnil —Muimbi anozivikanwa uye mutambi- aiziva zvakaitikaZvakanaka, munguva pfupi, chiitiko ichi chakazozivikanwa muParis yese. Iye yakaita fungidziro kuna Beckett izvi zvinogona kunge zvichinyatsojeka, ipapo havana kuzomboparadzanazve.

Makore maviri gare gare, muna 1940, Beckett akasangana kekupedzisira -kusaziva- game murume akaponesa hupenyu hwake, shamwari yake inodiwa uye chipangamazano James joyce. Iye anokunda mubairo munyori weIrish akashaya nguva pfupi yapfuura, kutanga kwa1941.

Beckett uye Hondo Yenyika II

Beckett aive asiri mutsva muhondo iyi yehondo. VaGerman pavakangotora France muna 1940, munyori akabatana neResistance. Basa rake raive rakakosha: kutakura mutakuri; Zvisinei, kunyangwe riri basa riri nyore, raive richine njodzi. Muchokwadi, achiri kuita basa iri, Samuel akareurura kuve aive padanho rekutorwa neGestapo kakawanda.

Mushure mekunge yuniti yaive yakabatanidzwa yaburitswa, munyori anofanira kunge akakurumidza kupunyuka naSuzanne. Vakaenda kumaodzanyemba, kunyanya kuimba yeRoussillon. Yakanga iri chirimo cha1942.

Kwemakore maviri anotevera, vese - Beckett naDechevaux - vainyepedzera kuve vagari vemunharaunda. Zvakadaro, munzira yekuba zvakanyanya vakazvipira kuti vavanze zvombo kuti vachengetedze kubatana kwavo neResistance; Uyezve, Samuel akabatsira mabhunu mune zvimwe zviitiko.

Chiito chake cheushingi hachina kupfuura pasina pamberi pehurumende yeFrance, saka Beckett Akazopihwa iyo Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 uye Médaille de la Résistance. Kunyangwe paine chokwadi chekuti shamwari dzake makumi masere chete makumi matatu chete ndivo vakasara vari vapenyu, uye vari munjodzi yekufa kakawanda, Beckett haana kuzviona seakakodzera kurumbidzwa kwakadai.. Iye pachake akatsanangura zviito zvake se "zvinhu zve mukomana scout".

Samuel Beckett akatorwa

Samuel Beckett akatorwa

Yakanga iri munguva iyi - pakati pa1941-1945 - iyo Beckett akanyora Watt, novel yakaburitswa makore masere gare gare (8). Gare gare kwenguva pfupi akadzokera kuDublin, uko - pakati pebasa rake neRed Cross uye kusangana zvakare nehama- akanyora rimwe remabasa ake ane mukurumbira, mutambo wemitambo Yekupedzisira Tepi. Nyanzvi zhinji dzinoti icho chinyorwa cheupenyu hwedunhu.

Ma40 nema50 uye Beckett's zvinyorwa zvinyorwa

Kana paine chimwe chinhu chakaratidza basa rekunyora reIrish mumaXNUMX nemaXNUMX zvichiteerana, ndiko kwaive kugadzirwa kwavo. Akaburitsa akati wandei ezvinyorwa mumhando dzakasiyana - nyaya, zvinyorwa, zvinyorwa, mitambo. Kubva panguva ino, kutumidza zvidimbu zvidiki, tora nyaya yake "Suite", iri novel Mercier et Camier, nekutamba Kumirira Godot.

Kuburitswa kwa Kumirira Godot

Ichi chidimbu chinouya makumi maviri emakore mushure mekumuka "kwenyaya" kwatanga mumagazini shanduko. Kumirira Godot (1952) -Iye yeakakosha mareferenzi emitambo isina musoro uye yakaratidza pamberi uye shure kwebasa rake-, yakanyorwa pasi pesimba rakakurumbira remhirizhonga yehondo, kurasikirwa kwakanyanya kwababa vake uye zvimwe kusawirirana muhupenyu pachahwo.

Kutengesa Kumirira Godot: ...
Kumirira Godot: ...
Hapana wongororo

Beckett: munhu anotadza

Sezviri pachena, hunyanzvi hwese hunoratidzwa nekuwedzeredza uye hunhu hunodarika kupfuura zvakaisirwa tsika. Beckett haana kupunyuka izvi. Kudhakwa kwake uye hupombwe hwaizivikanwa. Muchokwadi iweimwe yeanonyanya kuzivikanwa kudanana fue la , que yakachengetwa naBarbara Bray. Panguva iyoyo aishandira iyo BBC muLondon. Akanga ari mukadzi akanaka wetsamba dzakakumikidzwa mukugadzirisa uye kushandura.

Izvo zvinogona kutaurwa, nekuda kwehunhu hwese ari maviri, kuti kukwezva kwavo kwaive pakarepo uye kusingamiswe. Nezve hukama uhu, James Knowlson akanyora kuti: "Zvinoita sekunge Beckett akabva akwezva kwaari, zvakafanana naye kwaari. Musangano wavo waive wakakosha kwazvo kune vese, nekuti kwaive kutanga kwehukama hwakafanana neyaSuzanne, iyo yaizogara hupenyu hwese ”.

Uye zvirokwazvo, kunyangwe paine Suzanne, Beckett naBray vaigara vachichengetedza chisungo. Zvakadaro, kukosha kwaSuzanne muhupenyu hwaBekkett kwanga kusingashamisike - munyori mumwe chete akazvizivisa kanopfuura kamwechete-; Kunyangwe nguva pfupi yapfuura, muna 1961, vaviri vacho vakaroora. Mubatanidzwa wavo waive wave wekupedzisira kupera makumi matatu emakore gare gare.

"Ndine chikwereti chose kuna Suzanne," chinogona kuwanikwa muhupenyu hwake; Uyu mutsara une simba wakataurwa apo kufa kwake kwaive padhuze.

Samuel Beckett naSuzanne Dechevaux

Samuel Beckett naSuzanne Dechevaux

Iyo Nobel, kufamba, kuzivikanwa uye kuenda

Iyo yasara nguva yehupenyu hwaBeckett mushure mekuroora kwake ikashandiswa pakati pekufamba uye kuzivikanwa. Pakati pebasa rake rese rakakura, sezvakataurwa,Kutsvaga Godot ndiye aive iye yakamiririra iwo mazhinji emawadhi ake, kusanganisira Mubayiro weNobel weMabhuku muna 1969. Chimwe chinhu chisiri chakashamisa mukati mehunhu hwemunyori yaive maitiro ake mushure mekuziva kuti akahwina mubairo wakakura kudai: akazviparadzanisa nenyika uye haana kuvaita kuti vazive chero chinhu nezvake. Ngatitii Beckett anga asiri wekunze nemhando dzekokorodzano.

Mushure memakore makumi maviri nemasere ekuroora, fungidziro yavakabvumirana kupinda muwanano yakazadzikiswa: "Kusvikira iwe waparadzaniswa nerufu." Suzanne ndiye akatanga kufa. Rufu rwakaitika akafa neMuvhuro, Chikunguru 17, 1989. Beckett, ukuwo, akabva pakupera kwa dgore rimwe chete, Chishanu, Zvita 22. Munyori anga aine makore makumi masere nematatu.

Masara evaviri ava anozorora muMontparnasse Cemetery muParis.

Makomendi pabasa raBecket

  • “Beckett akaparadza dzakawanda dzemisangano yakavakirwa ngano dzemitambo yazvino; yakatsaurirwa, pakati pezvimwe zvinhu, kushora izwi senzira yekuratidzira kwehunyanzvi uye kugadzira nhetembo dzemifananidzo, zvose zvinoyevedza uye zvinorondedzera ”Antonia Rodríguez-Gago.
  • “Bhuku raBeckett rose rinoratidza kutambudzika kwemamiriro ezvinhu munyika isina Mwari, isina mutemo uye isina chinangwa. Iko kwechokwadi kwechiratidzo chako, kupenya kwakapusa kwemutauro wavo (muchiFrench neChirungu) kwakapesvedzera vanyori vadiki kutenderera pasirese" Encyclopedia yeWorld Literature mu20th Century.
  • “Beckett akaramba chirevo cheJoycean chekuti kuziva zvakawanda yaive nzira yekunzwisisa kwekusika nekutonga kwenyika. Kubva ipapo zvichienda mberi Basa rake rakafambira munzira yekutanga, yekundikana, kutapwa uye kurasikirwa; yemurume asingazive uye akazvimiririra ”, James Knowlson.
  • Kutaura Kumirira Godot: "Akanga aita dzidziso yekuti hazviiti: mutambo umo pasina chinoitika, icho chinochengeta muoni akanamatira pachigaro. Uyezve, nekuti chiito chechipiri hachizi chinhu kunze kwekutevedzera kwekutanga, Beckett akanyora mutambo umo, kaviri, hapana chinoitika ”, Vivian Mercier.

Inoshanda naSamuel Beckett

Theater

  • Eleutheria (yakanyorwa 1947; yakabudiswa muna 1995)
  • Kumirira Godot (1952)
  • Ita pasina mazwi (1956)
  • Kupera kwemutambo (1957)
  • Tepi yekupedzisira (1958)
  • Rough yeTheatre I (kunonoka makumi mashanu)
  • Rough yeTheatre II (kunonoka makumi mashanu)
  • Mazuva anofadza (1960)
  • tamba (1963)
  • Huya uende (1965)
  • mweya (yakaburitswa muna 1969)
  • Kwete ini (1972)
  • Nguva iyoyo (1975)
  • Tsoka (1975)
  • Chikamu cheMonologue (1980)
  • Rockaby (1981)
  • Ohio Impromptu (1981)
  • njodzi (1982)
  • Ko kupi (1983)

Novelas

  • Kurota Kwezvakanaka kuMiddling Vakadzi (1932; rakabudiswa muna 1992)
  • Murphy (1938)
  • Watt (1945)
  • Mercier naCamier (1946)
  • Molloy (1951)
  • Malone anofa (1951)
  • Vasina mazita (1953)
  • Zviri sei (1961)

Pfupi novel

  • Vakadzingwa (1946)
  • Kudzikama (1946)
  • Magumo (1946)
  • The Lost Vanoitawo (1971)
  • Company (1979)
  • Kurwara Kuonekwa Kurwara (1981)
  • Zvakaipisisa Ho (1984)

Ngano

  • Zvimwe Zvidhinha Kupfuura Kick (1934)
  • Nyaya uye Zvinyorwa Zvechinhu (1954)
  • Kutanga rudo (1973)
  • Fizzles (1976)
  • Kukurudzira Zvakadaro (1988)

Nhetembo

  • Whososcope (1930)
  • Echo Mapfupa uye mamwe maPrecipitates (1935)
  • Yakaunganidzwa Nhetembo muChirungu (1961)
  • Yakaunganidzwa Nhetembo muChirungu neFrench (1977)
  • Nderipi shoko (1989)

Zvinyorwa, colloquia

  • Kuzvikudza (1931)
  • Nhaurirano nhatu (1958)
  • Disject (1983)

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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