Rosalía de Castro, munyori weSpanish Romanticism

Mufananidzo Rosalía de Castro

Rosalia de Castro akaberekerwa mu Santiago de Compostela mugore 1837 uye pamwechete nemudetembi weSevillian Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, akaumba vaviri ava vakapa mutsva kushushikana uye kufema kune iyo nhanho yeSpanish Romanticism. Mune ino yakakosha chinyorwa chakakumikidzwa kwaari, isu tinonzvera kwete chete muhupenyu hwake, zvinosiririsa chaizvo pfupi, asi zvakare mune rake basa rekunyora, iro rakazara zvakakwana kupfuura izvo zvinoratidzwa priori, semuenzaniso muzvikoro zveSpanish, uko kukosha kwazvo yakataurwa mumabhuku emunyika medu, uye kana zvirizvo, zvinongova nziyo dzenhetembo dzinotaura nezveRoma.

Muchinyorwa chino, tichabvisa munzwa uyu uye tichamupa nzvimbo yake kumunyori mukuru weGalician ... Tinovimba hatizosiye chero chinhu mupombi, ndokuendesa kuRosalía de Castro mukuzara kwayo uye kukosha kwayo kwese.

upenyu

Mhuri yaRosalía de Castro yakazara

Rosalía de Castro aive mwanasikana wemukadzi asina murume neyejaya rakagadzirwa mupristi. Mamiriro ako e mwanasikana asiri wepamutemo zvakaita kuti anyoreswe semwanasikana wevabereki vasingazivikanwe, seinotevera:

Musi waFebruary makumi maviri nemana wezviuru nezana nemazana masere nemakumi matatu nematanhatu, María Francisca Martínez, muvakidzani weSan Juan del Campo, aive godmother wemusikana wandakabhabhatidza kwazvo ndikaisa mafuta matsvene, ndichimudana kuti María Rosalía Rita, mwanasikana wa vasingazivikanwe vabereki, vane musikana mwari wamwari vakatora, uye anoenda asina nhamba yekusapfuudza kune iyo Inclusa; Uye zvechinyorwa, ini ndinosaina. Chitupa cherubhabhatidzo rwakasainwa nemupristi José Vicente Varela y Montero.

Sezvo akura seizvi achasimudzirawo zvine hungwaru hunhu hwake uye nekudaro hupenyu hwake nebasa rekunyora. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, isu tinoziva mazita evabereki: María Teresa de la Cruz de Castro y Abadía naJosé Martínez Viojo. Kunyangwe munhu aichengeta mwana achangoberekwa pakutanga aive amai vamwari uye mushandi wamai, María Francisca Martínez, chikamu chehudiki hwake chaizopedzerwa nemhuri yababa vake, mutaundi reOrtoño, kuti aende kuSantiago de Compostela, uko kambani yaamai vake, akatanga kugamuchira fungidziro yekudhirowa nemumhanzi, achigara achipinda zviitiko zvetsika zvaaizobatana nechikamu che Galician njere dzevechidiki zvenguva, senge Eduardo Pondal naAurelio Aguirre. Kunyangwe isu tichingoziva kubva kumakore ake ekuchikoro kuti akatanga kunyora nhetembo kubva padiki, isu tinoziva zvakare kuravira kwake kwemitambo yemitambo, maakashanda nesimba panguva yehudiki hwake uye kuyaruka.

Pane kumwe kwekuenda kwake kuguta reSpain, Madrid, sangana chero murume wake aive, Manuel Murguía, Munyori weGalician uye munhu akakurumbira we 'Kudzoka'. Rosalía akaburitsa kabhuku kanhetembo kakanyorwa muchiSpanish, kaakadaidza «The flower ", uye yakadzokororwa naManuel Murguía, uyo akataura nezvake mu Iberia. Kutenda kune imwe shamwari, vaviri vakasangana nekufamba kwenguva, kusvika pakupedzisira kuroora mugore ra1858, kunyanya muna Gumiguru, muchechi yeparishi yeSan Ildefonso. Vaive nevana 7.

Kunyangwe vamwe vatsoropodzi vezvinyorwa vachisimbisa kuti Rosalía anga asina izvo zvinonzi imba inofara chaizvo kunyangwe zvazvo aida murume wake zvakanyanya, zvinozivikanwa zvechokwadi kuti Manuel Murguía akamubatsira zvakanyanya pabasa rake rekunyora, kusvika pakudhindwa kwebasa yakakurumbira. inonyanya kuzivikanwa yeGalician «Galician Songs», kuva iye mukuru anotarisira mushure memunyori iye, chokwadika, kuti iri basa rinozivikanwa nhasi uye rine inofungidzirwa kumutsiridzwa kwemabhuku echiGalician muzana regumi nemapfumbamwe.

Kana pachezvayo, kunyora kwainetsa kuvakadzi panguva iyoyo, ngatisatombotaura nezvekuti zvaive zvakaoma sei kuzviita muchiGalician uye vakuverengere. Mutauro weGalician wakazvidzwa, ichiwedzera kure kure kubva panguva iyoyo yaive mutauro wakasarudzika wekusika lyric yeGalician-Portuguese. Waifanira kutanga kubva pakutanga, kubva pakutanga, nekuti tsika dzese dzaive dzarasika. Izvo zvaive zvakafanira kutyora nekusava nehanya uye nekushora kwaiitwa kumutauro, asi vashoma kwazvo ndivo vaifunga basa iri, nekuti izvi zvaizoumba chikonzero chekuzvidzwa munharaunda uye hazvina kutakura kukosha kwekuti iwe wakazviita ChiSpanish. Saka, Rosalía de Castro akapa mukurumbira kuGalician kana uchiishandisa senge rurimi rwe «Galician songs», nekudaro kusimbisa kumutsiridzwa kwetsika yemutauro weGalician.

Panguva yemuchato wako, Rosalía naManuel vakachinja kero yavo kakawanda: vakapfuura nemuAndalusia, Extremadura, Levante uye pakupedzisira, kuburikidza neCastile, vasati vadzokera kuGalicia, uko munyori akasara kusvika zuva rekufa kwake. Zvinotendwa kuti kuuya nekuenda kubva kunzvimbo imwe kuenda kune imwe, kunyanya nekuda kwebasa uye nezvikonzero zvehupfumi, ndizvo zvakatungamira kuna Rosalía kugara asina tariro. Pakupedzisira, akafa muna 1885 nekuda kwe kenza yechibereko kuti anga achirwara kubva kare 1883 asati asvika. Pakutanga, akavigwa kumakuva eAdina, ari muIria Flavia, kuzoburitsa mutumbi wake musi waMay 15, 1891 kuti aendeswe kuSantiago de Compostela, uko akavigwa zvakare mausoleum akagadzirirwa iye nemuvezi Jesús Landeira, iri muChapel yeKushanyirwa kweSanto Domingo de Bonaval Convent, muPantheon yazvino yeGalician. Nzvimbo, zvirinani zvirinani pasina kupokana, kune mukadzi wechiGalician uyo akapa zvese nekuda kwenzvimbo yake.

Caricature yaRosalía de Castro

Nzvimbo yekuvaka

Basa rake, senge re Gustavo Adolfo Becquer, chikamu che nhetembo dzepedyo kubva pahafu yepiri yezana ramakore rechiXNUMX, inoonekwa pamusoro pese nezwi rakapfava uye rakananga rinopa mweya mutsva, wakaperera uye wechokwadi kufambisa kweSpanish Romanticism.

Basa rake rekunyora rinozivikanwa pamusoro pezvose nekuda kwaro nhetembo kuumbwa, iyo inoumbwa nemabasa matatu akaburitswa: Nziyo dzeGalician, Iwe unobata novas y Pamabhangi eSarMabhuku maviri ekutanga akanyorwa muchiGalician, uye "Pamabhangi eSar", basa rake renhetembo muSpanish, rinopa chirevo chinotenderera nemanzwiro emunyori uye kunetsana kwemukati kwatakambotaura: kusurukirwa, kurwadziwa uye kushuvira kwakadzama kwenguva yapfuura ndiyo mhedzisiro inonyanya kukosha yekubata nenzwi renhetembo nenzvimbo. zvehuduku hwake.

Zvakare mubasa "Pamabhangi eSar", zvimwe zvezvimisikidzo izvo zvaive zvatove mukugadzirwa kwake kwekare muchiGalician kunoonekwa: "mimvuri", kuvapo kwevanhu vakafa, kana "vakasuruvara", vanhu vakafanorongerwa kurwadziwa uye kushungurudzwa nenhamo. Chaizvoizvo, kutambura kusinganzwisisike kwevanhu, uko hana yake inopandukira, dzimwe nguva kunotarisana nechitendero chavo.

Rosalía de Castro anorima nhetembo iyo inotarisa zvinoreva hupenyu kubva kune yakasurukirwa uye yakasarudzika chiratidzo chenyika. Aya maonero anosimudzira huripo hunhu hunoonekwa mune vamwe vanyori vakaita se Antonio Machado o Miguel de Unamuno. Zviri nenzira iyi zvakare, sekutaura kwayo kwekureurura, kuumbwa kwezvikamu zvitsva kana kushandiswa kwendima yeAlexander maitiro ehunhu enhetembo dzemazuva ano.

 

Chiumbwa chaRosalía de Castro muGalicia

«Galician songs»

Su basa rinozivikanwa, rakabudiswa mu 1863, yakanyorwa mururimi rwake rwekuzvarwa, chiGalician, kushora kusaruramisira kunoitirwa vanhu uye tsika dzechiGalician.

Iri bhuku renhetembo makumi matatu neshanu, kusanganisira chirevo uye epilogue, rinotanga nezwi remukadzi mudiki uyo anokokwa kuimba, achikumbira ruregerero, zvakare munhetembo yekupedzisira, nekuda kwekugona kwake kuimba nezveGalicia uye runako rwayo. Rosalía anoonekwa mavari sehumwe hunhu, nokudaro achijekesa kuda kwake munharaunda yainzi yeGalician.

MuRwiyo rweGalician, madingindira mana akasiyana akanyatso kujeka

  • Musoro werudo: Vakasiyana mavara eguta mune akasiyana mamiriro uye mamiriro, rarama rudo munzira dzakasiyana, zvinoenderana nemaonero anozivikanwa.
  • Musoro wenyika: Mune idzi nhetembo kudada kwevanhu veGalician kunosimbiswa, kushungurudzwa kwevagari vayo kune dzimwe nyika nekuda kwekuenda kune dzimwe nyika kunoshoropodzwa uye pakupedzisira, kusiiwa uko Galicia iri pachena kunoratidzirwa.
  • Tsika yetsika: tsananguro uye rondedzero inonyanya kuratidza zvitendero, mafambiro, kuzvipira kana hunhu hunhu hwechiGalician tsika dzinozivikanwa.
  • Musoro wepedyo: Ndiye munyori iyeye, Rosalía, uyo anoratidza manzwiro ake mune dzimwe nhetembo.

Mu "Cantares gallegos" uye zvakare mu "Follas novas", munyori akawana zvinhu zvakawanda zvemadetembo akakurumbira uye ngano yeGalician yakanga yakanganikwa kwemazana emakore. Rosalía anoimba nerunako rweGalicia munhetembo dzake uye anorwisawo avo vanorwisa vanhu vake. Iye anofarira varimi nevashandi uye anoramba achichema hurombo, kutama uye matambudziko anosanganisira izvi. Uyu muenzaniso kubva mubhuku iri renhetembo unoratidza kurwadziwa kweanobva kune imwe nyika anoonekana nenyika yake:

Kwaziwai kubwinya! Mofamba zvakanaka!

Ini ndinobva pamba pandakazvarirwa

Ndinosiya musha wandinoziva

kune nyika yandisina kuona.

Ndinosiya shamwari kune vatorwa 

Ndakasiya mupata ndichienda kugungwa,

Ini pakupedzisira ndinosiya zvakanaka zvakadii zvandinoda ...

Ndiani aisakwanisa kusiya! ...

"Follas novas"

Iri raive bhuku rekupedzisira renhetembo rakanyorwa nemunyori muchiGalician, rakaburitswa muna 1880. Muunganidzwa wenhetembo uyu wakakamurwa kuita zvikamu zvishanu: Kudzungaira, Zvepedyo do, Zvinosiyana, Da terra e Sezvo iwe wakararama vaviri vari vapenyu uye semakafa vaviri vakafa, uye nhetembo dzake ndedze nguva yaaigara nemhuri yekwaSimanca.

Mune nhetembo idzi, Rosalía anoshora kudzikisira vakadzi panguva iyoyo uyezve anoenderana nekufamba kwenguva, kufa, zvakapfuura senguva iri nani, nezvimwe.

Sechokwadi chinoda kuziva, isu tichati mune yake sumo, munyori akajekesa chinangwa chake chekusazonyora muchiGalician zvakare nemitsara iyi:

«Alá go, pois, as Follas novas, how nice they would call themselves vellas, because or they are, and last, nekuti yakabhadharwa nechikwereti icho chaiita senge ndiri coa miña terra, zvinonetsa kuti anyore mamwe mavhesi mururimi rwaamai ».

Yakadudzirwa, inoti zvinotevera: "Ipapo ndipo panobva, iwo mapeji matsva, angave nani kunzi ekare, nekuti aripo, uye ndeekupedzisira, nekuti chikwereti chandakaita kunge ndine munda wangu chakabhadharwa kare, zvakandiomera kunyora mamwe mavhesi mu rurimi rwaamai ".

Prose

Uye kunyangwe muzvikoro vachitizivisa Rosalía asinganyanyo shamisa munguva yake uye mudetembi chete, chokwadi ndechekuti iye akanyorawo prose. Tevere, tinokusiya iwe neakanyanya kuoneka iwo:

  • "Mwanasikana wegungwa" (1859): Akazvitsaurira zvakakwana kumurume wake Manuel Murguía. Nharo yayo ndeinotevera: Kuburikidza nezviitiko zvehupenyu zveEsperanza, musikana akanunurwa kubva mumvura mumamiriro asinganzwisisike, Teresa, Candora, Angela, Fausto uye neakaora Ansot, tinopinda muchadenga cheRosalian chizere nemimvuri, kusuwa uye kusuwa kwemoyo. Kugara kweicho chaicho uye chisingazivikanwe, kusava netariro kwehupenyu, hukuru hwekurwadziwa pamusoro pemufaro muhupenyu hwevanhu, kunzwisisika kwakanyanya kunharaunda, kudzivirira kwevasina kusimba, kurevererwa kwechiremera chevakadzi, kuchema kwenherera uye kusiiwa ... zvinodzokororwa zviumbwa mumabasa emunyori izvo zvatinoona kare mumavambo ekunyora, iro zita iri muenzaniso wakanaka. Rosalía harisi iro chete izwi rekunyongana rinobva kune nyika yemhute nekusuwa kumba iyo yanga ichiumba tsika yakakurumbira nekufamba kwenguva, asiwo munyori ane simba uye akazvipira uyo, atova murungano rwake rwekutanga munhoroondo, anozivisa mweya weumwe shasha ari mumwe, a mukadzi pamberi penguva yake uyo, sevamiriri vake, aiziva kufungisisa nyika nemaziso ehumwe hunhu. Unogona kuverenga basa rake mahara mune izvi link.
  • "Flavio" (1861): Rosalía anotsanangura basa iri se "rondedzero yenoverengeka" sezvo izvo zvaanorondedzera mariri makore ake ehudiki. Mubasa iri dingindira rerudo kusuwa rinowoneka nguva nenguva.
  • "Muchinda akapfeka bhutsu dzeblue" (1867): Sekureva kwaRosalía de Castro iye, basa iri rudzi rwe "nyaya isinganzwisisike" izere nekufungidzira kusingaite, iyo inogadzira assortment yenyaya-inonakidza nyaya nehunhu hwechinyakare hunotarisira kugutsa hunyengeri nekusaziva kwenzanga yeMadrid. . Kunyangwe ihwo husipo, inofungidzirwa nevanoongorora vanyori iro rinonakidza kwazvo basa reprose remunyori weGalician.
  • "Conto Gallego" (1864), yakanyorwa nemutauro weGalician.
  • "The literats" (1866).
  • «The Cadiceño» (1886).
  • "Matongo" (1866).
  • "Kupenga kwekutanga" (1881).
  • "Svondo yeMichindwe" (1881).
  • "Padrón nemafashama" (1881).
  • «Tsika dzeGalician» (1881).

Zita raRosalía de Castro nhasi

Rosalía de Castro Imba-MuseumNhasi, kune nzvimbo dzakawanda, mitero nenzvimbo dzeruzhinji dzinoyeuka zita rekuti Rosalía de Castro, nekuda kwekukosha kwazvakaita mukumuka kwemutauro weGalician munyika yedu. Kungodoma mashoma:

  • Zvikoro munharaunda dzeMadrid, Andalusia, Galicia, semamwe matunhu eSpain, nekune dzimwe nyika. Nzvimbo dzine zita remunyori weGalician dzakawanikwa muRussia, Uruguay neVenezuela.
  • Zvikwere, mapaki, maraibhurari, migwagwa, Etc.
  • Un waini iine sangano rekutanga Rías Baixas.
  • Un plane yendege Iberia.
  • Una ndege yekununura zvegungwa.
  • Zviratidzo zveyeuchidzo, zvivezwa, portraits, nhetembo mibairo, pendi, matikiti Spanish, nezvimwewo.

Uye sekuziva kwako kwagara kuri muzvinyorwa zvangu, ndinokusiya uine vhidhiyo mushumo pamusoro pemunyori, ingangoita maminetsi makumi mashanu, uyo anotaura nezveese hupenyu hwake nebasa rake. Yakakwana kwazvo uye inonakidza. Ini zvakare ndinokusiira iwe akati wandei makotesheni andinonyanya kuda.

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