Ramón del Valle-Inclán, biography uye mabasa

Ramon del Valle-Inclan.

Ramon del Valle-Inclan.

Ramón José Simón Valle y Peña aive akabudirira mutambi wechiSpanish, mudetembi uye munyori wenhau. Iye anoonekwa semumwe wevane neuralgic manhamba ezana ramakore rechi98 zvinyorwa zveSpanish, aive chikamu chechizvino chinonzi Modernism uye ndiye mumwe wevanyori vanomiririra veGeneration yemakore makumi masere nemapfumbamwe. Munguva dzakasiyana dzehupenyu hwake akashandawo semutori wenhau, mupfupi munyori wenhau uye munyori wenyaya.

Muchokwadi, kudzidziswa kwake kuyunivhesiti kwaive mumutemo - basa raasina kana kumbonzwa kugadzikana naro.. Nekudaro, akasiya chikoro achangofa baba vake mukutanga kwema1890s.Iyo ingave nzvimbo yekutanga yehupenyu hwebohemian, yakanangana nemabhuku uye yakazara nzendo dzaisanganisira akawanda maanodhi sekushanyira kumberi kweFrance panguva yeGreat. Hondo.kana kurasikirwa neruoko muhondo.

Biography

Valle-Inclán's biography yakakodzera kuita bhaisikopo.

Kuzvarwa, hudiki uye kuyaruka

Zita rake rizere, Ramón José Simón Valle y Peña, rinongowanikwa chete pachiratidziro chekubhabhatidzwa. Akazvarwa mumhuri ine mbiri muna Gumiguru 28, 1866, muVillanueva de Arosa (Ruwa rwePontevedra). Aive mwana wechipiri kubva kumuchato wechipiri waRamón del Valle Bermúdez naDolores de la Peña y Montenegro, vese vagari venhaka yezvinhu zvakasiyana zvaive zvichishomeka nekuda kwekurasa kwababa.

Little Ramón akapihwa basa rekudzidzisa kwaCarlos Pérez Noal, mufundisi wePuebla del Deán. Muna 1877 akapinda muInstitute of Santiago de Compostela semudzidzi wepachena.Ikoko, akadzidza chikoro chepamusoro kusvika ave nemakore 19 asina kuratidza kufarira kukuru. Nekudaro, panguva iyoyo simba raJesús Muruáis raive rakanakira kudzidziswa kwake kwekunyora kwekupedzisira.

Vechidiki, zvinofurira uye zvidzidzo

MunaGunyana 1885 - pakumisikidzwa nababa vake - akatanga zvidzidzo zvake zvemutemo paYunivhesiti yeSantiago pamwechete nemukoma wake Carlos.. MuCompostela kusava nehanya kwake nezvidzidzo kwaive pachena, kwete zvakadaro kune dzimwe tsika dzisina basa dzakadai semitambo yemukana uye kuungana kwevanhu kwaakasimudzira hushamwari nevanovimbisa vechiGalicia, pakati pavo Vázquez de Mella, Enrique Labarta, González Besada naCamilo Bargiela.

Kushuva mutauro weItaly uye fenzi

Akadzidzawo kudzivirira uye chiItaly nekuda kwehukama hwake hwepedyo naFlorentine Attilio Pontarani. Muna 1877 akasunungurwa kubva muchiuto. Gore rakatevera akazonyoresa muChikoro cheUnyanzvi uye Zvekugadzira mukati meKudhiza uye Mufananidzo Kushongedza kosi, achiva mumwe wevadzidzi vane mukurumbira.

Zvinyorwa zvekutanga

Panguva iyoyo akaburitsa zvinyorwa zvake zvekutanga mumagazini Kofi ine madonhwe weSantiago de Compostela uye akatanga kuve anoshingairira kubatikana mukutora nhau munzvimbo iyi. Kushanya kwaJosé Zorrilla akazvitsaurira kuYunivhesiti yeSantiago kunosiya mudiki Ramón "chipembenene" chemabasa ekunyora iyezvino kupfuura nakare kose ... yaingova nyaya yenguva. Muna 1890 baba vake vakafa uye aive akasununguka kubva kumhuri.

Dzokera kuPontevedra uye enda kuMadrid

Mushure memakore mashanu ezvidzidzo zvipfupi zvisina kupera, akadzokera kuPontevedra asati agara kwemakore maviri kuMadrid (nekushanya kupfupi kuItaly). Muguta guru reSpain ave kuzivikanwa pakati pekuungana kwemakofi mazhinji ePuerta del Sol nekuda kwehunhu hwake hunoshamisa uye nehunyanzvi.

Panguva iyoyo, haasati avaka zita rakasimba semunyori. Nesimba rakawanda, akakwanisa kutora chikamu mune kumwe kudyidzana kwenhau kusvika kupera kwa1891 kwemapepanhau senge Bharuni y Chiedza cheIberian, umo, iye anosaina kekutanga pasi pezita "Ramón del Valle-Inclán". Zita rake reunyanzvi rakatorwa kubva kuna Francisco del Valle-Inclán, mumwe wemadzitateguru emadzibaba ake.

Rwendo rwekuMexico

Asi mari inowanikwa haina kukwana kuti ivimbise kugadzikana kwehupfumi. Neichi chikonzero, Valle-Inclán anosarudza kuenda kuMexico kunotsvaga mikana mitsva. Akadzika muVeracruz musi waApril 8, 1892; vhiki rakatevera akazogara muMexico City ndokutanga kushanda semuturikiri weItari neFrench kumapepanhau senge Iyo Spanish Post, El Universal y Iyo yakazvimirira Veracruz.

Yakanga iri nguva yezviitiko uye kukura kwakakosha pakati pekudzvinyirira uye kudzora kwakatemwa neMutungamiri Porfirio Díaz. Kubva pane hushamwari hwake naSóstenes Rocha akawana mhedziso yakazara nezvematongerwo enyika eMexico uye akafuridzirwa nenyaya zhinji dzakazofumurwa Mukadzi. Valle-Inclán akavhara kugara kwake kwekutanga munyika yeAztec pakupera kwa1892, paakakwira chikepe kuenda kuCuba.

Kutanga kuburitsa

Munguva yechirimo ya1893, histrionic, ndebvu uye mvere Valle-Inclán akadzokera kuPontevedra. Ikoko, akasimbisa ushamwari hwepedyo naJesús Muruáis naRené Ghil. Muna 1894 akaburitsa bhuku rake rekutanga, Mukadzi (Nyaya nhanhatu dzerudo). Parizvino, mudiki Ramón atora zvizere basa rake semunyori. Kubva panguva iyoyo hupenyu hwake hwese hwaitenderera pamabhuku uye nehunyanzvi.

Mutsara naRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Mutsara naRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Dzokera kuMadrid nemamwe mabhuku

Muna 1895 akadzokera kuMadrid; Akashanda sevoruzhinji mune Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. Akave nemukurumbira mumakamuri mazhinji eMadrid enguva iyoyo nekuda kwekutaura kwake, kugona kutonga hurukuro, kuparadza mukurumbira uye hunhu hunopisa, izvo zvakamutungamira kunhaurirano dzakakasharara nehunhu hwakadai saPío Baroja kana Miguel de Unamuno.

Muna 1897 bhuku rake rechipiri rakaburitswa, Epitalamio (Nyaya dzerudo), yakakwana yekunyora kutadza. Mutongo uyu waive wakakura zvekuti Valle-Inclán akanyatsoongorora sarudzo yekuchinja mabasa uye kuita muturikiri. Muna 1898 na1899 airidza mabasa emhando dzakasiyana siyana mumabasa emitambo Mutambo wezvikara naJacinto Benavente uye mukati Madzimambo ekutapwa naAlejandro Sawa, zvichiteerana.

Kusangana naRubén Darío uye nematambudziko ake pakupera kwezana rino

Munguva yechirimo ya1899 matambudziko ezvehupfumi aive pachena, akatove nenzara. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, Valle-Inclán anga achine nharo mune mamwe maonero (mukuda rusununguko rweCuba, semuenzaniso). Kuti ararame, aifanira kuvimba neshamwari dzake dzepedyo, Rubén Darío ari mumwe weavo vasina mvumo.

Muzhizha regore iro pakanga paine chiitiko chakakosha kuCafé de la Montaña, uko akakuvara mumusoro uye ruoko mushure mekukakavadzana nemunyori Manuel Bueno. Ramón akaregeredza kukuvara, nekudaro, chakazova chironda chine hukasha uye kudimburwa kwegumbo reruboshwe.

Kamwe mune imwe nguva yakaita shanduro uye ikashandura yeSpanish State (Chiso chamwari kubva kuArniches, semuenzaniso) kuti uwane imwe mari. Muna 1901 akazvipfura netsaona mutsoka panguva yekuenda kuLa Mancha. Kukunda, akafuridzirwa kugadzira Autumn Sonata, rakabudiswa muna 1902 sekuvhurwa kwe Ndangariro dzeMarquis yeBradomín, muvhiki Kusasarura Muvhuro.

Kukura uye kuroora

Kubva ipapo akatora nzira yekunyora inoenderana nekufambira mberi mukuburitswa kwemapepanhau kusvika pakupera kwemazuva ake asati atangisa mabhuku ake.. Mumakore akatevera akaburitsa Zhizha sonata (1903), Chitubu sonata (1904) uye Nguva yechando sonata (1905), wekupedzisira akazvipira kumukadzi wake weramangwana, mutambi Josefa María Ángela Blanco Tejerina. Panguva iyoyo aive atozivikanwa semumiriri ane mukurumbira weSpanish Modernism.

Iyo Marquis yeBradomín yakazotanga kuratidzwa kuPrincess Theatre (1906), kumutsa kuyemurwa kukuru pakati peveruzhinji nepepanhau. Muna 1907 akaunza mutambo wake wekutanga wehutsinye muBarcelona, Blazon Makondo. Akaburitsawo akati wandei mabhuku: Kunhuwirira kwengano, Mavhesi ekurumbidza mutsvene mutsvene, Iyo Marquis yeBradomín - dzeRudo hurukuro y Kudanana kwemhumhi.

Akaroora Josefa Blanco muna Nyamavhuvhu 1907, naye aive nevana vatanhatu: María de la Concepción (1907), Joaquín María (1919 - akafa mwedzi mishoma aberekwa), Carlos Luis Baltasar (1917), María de la Encarnación Beatriz Baltasara (1919), Jaime Baltasar Clemente (1922) naAna María Antonia Baltasara (1924). Kunyangwe vaviri ava vakaedza kugara muGalicia, vakapedza makore gumi nemashanu anotevera muMadrid.

Ramón nemukadzi wake vakatanga rwendo rwemwedzi mitanhatu rweSpanish neAmerica muna 1910 nekambani yeFrancisco Ortega García. kuburikidza neArgentina, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay neUruguay. Saizvozvo, Valle-Inclán akaenderera mberi nekuvhura mitambo muSpain, senge Matauriro echiratidzo (1911), WeMarchioness Rosalinda. Sentimental uye inotyisa farce (1913) uye Anoshamisa mwenje. Kudzidzira pamweya (1915, vhoriyamu yekutanga ye Opera Omnia).

Kubatanidzwa muHondo Yenyika I

Rufu muNicaragua muna 1916 yeshamwari yake huru Rubén Darío rwakatapura zvikuru Valle-Inclán. Gore rimwe chetero Hondo Huru yakanga iine imwe yenzvimbo dzayo dzepamusoro. Kunyangwe pfungwa muMadrid dzakakamurwa, Valle-Inclán akajekesa chinzvimbo chake mu < >. Neshoko iri hurumende yeFrance yakamukoka kuti ashanyire kumahombekombe ehondo eAlsace, Flanders, Vosges neVerdun.

Saizvozvowo, Pakati paApril 27 naJune 28, 1916 Ramón Valle-Inclán akashanda semunyori wehondo Kusasarura, kwaakaburitsa zvakateedzana zvakanyorwa Pakati pehusiku Nyeredzi Chiono (Gumiguru - Zvita 2016) uye Mumasikati (Ndira - Kukadzi 1917). Pamusoro pezvo, akabata chinzvimbo chepurofesa weAesthetics of Fine Arts paSpecial School yePainting uye Engraving yeMadrid kubva mugore ra1916.

Iyo "inotyisa", matambudziko ehutano uye rwendo rwechipiri kuenda kuMexico

Muna 1919 akaburitsa bhuku rake rechipiri renhetembo, Pombi ya Kif y Musha tragicomedy (pepanhau Zuva). Munguva ya1920 Ramon akapa runyorwa rwake rwechitatu, Mutakuri, Mazwi matsvene y Mwenje yeBohemian, yekutanga "inotyisa" yakaburitswa pakati paJuly naGumiguru (akateerana emabhurocha gumi nematatu) mumagazini España. Yechipiri inotyisa, Nyanga dzaDon Frijolera, akaonekwa mukati Chinyoreso pakati paApril naAugust 1921.

Sekureva kwaJavier Serrano anobva kuYunivhesiti yeSantiago, "Iyo inotyisa inoratidza nguva yakakosha mukugadzirwa kwounyanzvi kweValle-Inclán, uye inomiririra danho rakaomesesa uye rakabudirira rezvinyorwa zveSpanish mubhuku reEuropean rekuvandudzwa kwekunyora kwezana ramakore rechiXNUMX Icho chinotyisa chakagadziriswa senzira yakaoma kunzwisisa yekududzira chokwadi, icho chinofungidzirwa zviri pamutemo, kuitira kubvisa mufananidzo wenhema uyo munhu waakambova nawo… ”.

Mutsara naRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Mutsara naRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Valle-Inclán pachake akatsanangura kuti kukurudzira kwake kukuru mukugadzira chinotyisa kwaive "Kutsvaga komiki padambudziko rehupenyu". Zvichida, hutano hwake husina kutsarukana hwaive nesimba rakakura pachisikwa chechinyorwa ichi, nekuti aida kuvhiyiwa kuti abudise bundu mudundira rake (chichava chimiro chinozomuperekedza kusvika parufu rwake).

Pakutanga kwezhizha ra1921 Ramón Valle-Inclán akaenda kuMexico, akokwa neMutungamiriri Álvaro Obregón, nekuda kwemhemberero yezana remakore kuzvitonga. Mushure mehurongwa hwakazara nezviitiko zvetsika, akagara kwemavhiki maviri muHavana uye mamwe maviri kuNew York, asati adzokera kunyika dzeGalician muna Zvita 1922.

Kurambana, kubhuroka uye ekupedzisira mabasa

Kutanga muna 1923, Valle-Inclán akagamuchira mitero yakawanda muzvinyorwa zvakasiyana siyana zvekuSpain neLatin America. Panguva iyoyo akatanga kunyora maviri eake ounyanzvi: Anodzvanya Mireza (yakapedzwa muna 1926) uye nhevedzano ye Iberian Wheel (1926-1931). Muna 1928 akasaina kondirakiti inoshamisira neIbero-American Publications Company (CIAP), iyo yakamupa runyararo rwemari.

Asi CIAP yakabhuroka muna 1931. Valle-Inclán aitova mumugwagwa, inenge iri mumamiriro ezvinhu ekushaiwa. Pakupedzisira akabvuma kushanda seyakajairika muchengeti weNational Artistic Treasure (ine mashoma mabasa). Kuwedzera kutuka mukukuvara, pakupera kwegore iro mhosva yekurambana yakamirirwa naJosefina Blanco yakabudirira (Akangochengeta mwanasikana mudiki pane vese, Ramón akachengeta vamwe vatatu).

Pakutanga kwa1933 yaifanira kuvhiyiwa zvakare muMadrid. Mwedzi mishoma gare gare akatanga kushanda semutungamiriri weChikemy of Fine Arts muRome, kunyangwe hazvo akakurumidza kuora moyo nekuda kwekusanzwisisika kwechivako chesangano pamwe nemurwi wehurongwa hwehutongi hunodiwa kuti uchinje mamiriro acho.

Muna 1935 matambudziko ake edundira akawedzera. Naizvozvo, akafunga kudzokera kuGalicia kunorapwa, pamwe nekuzvikomberedza nevanoyemura, mhuri uye shamwari. Akaedza kunyora zvakare (anga asina kuburitsa chero chinhu chitsva kwemakore maviri), asi anga atopera simba. Ramón Valle-Inclán akafa musi waNdira 5, 1936, Akasiya nhaka hombe yakamuita kuti akodzere nemitero isingaverengeke yakaitwa kusvika nhasi


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