Mufananidzo waDorian Grey

Bhuku reMufananidzo weDorian Grey.

Bhuku reMufananidzo weDorian Grey.

El Dorian Grey mufananidzo ndiyo yega rondedzero yakaburitswa naOscar Wilde. Inofungidzirwa seimwe yemabhuku anonyanya kukakavara ezana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Iko kuvandudzwa kwenyaya yayo kunotenderedza vatambi vatatu vanomiririra hondo pakati pezvakanaka nezvakaipa zviripo mumunhu wega wega, gakava remukati kusununguka kusarudza. Iri bhuku rinorondedzera rwendo rwemweya rwaDorian Grey, murume wechidiki anokwezva anoedzwa nepfungwa yevechidiki husingaperi uye runako.

Oscar Wilde aigara ari shasha, uye akashandisa ruzivo rwake uye akabatanidza akasiyana masitaira ekunyora kugadzira ino novel. Sekureva kwaSvanhvít Helga Magnúsdótti anobva kuYunivhesiti yeIceland (2011), murondedzero mune zviwanikwa zveGothic fikisheni, aestheticism uye zvinhu zvakafanana neizvo zve Kubwinya yeGoethe. Saizvozvowo, mareferenzi kuTestamente Yakare Bhuku raGenesisi rinoratidzika kunge rinowedzera kusimbisa mutsika pakurwisana kuri pakati pekutonga nechivi.

¿Mufananidzo waDorian Grey o Mufananidzo weDorian Grey?

Zvakajairika kuona zita risiri iro «Mufananidzo weDorian Grey ". Izvi ndezvechokwadi, nekuti vanhu vanoiperetera nenzira yavanodudza nayo. Nekudaro, kunyangwe kunzwa kwavo kusikundikana, izvo hazvisi zviperengo zvinoenderana muzita, asi "Grey."

Hupenyu hwaOscar Wilde

Kuberekwa uye mhuri

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde akaberekerwa muDublin, Ireland, musi waGumiguru 16, 1852. Baba vake vaive Sir William Wilde, chiremba ane mukurumbira; amai vake, munyori uye mudetembi Jane Francesca Elgee (uyo akasaina pasi pezita rekunyepedzera tariro). Akadzidza chikoro chepuraimari kuTrinity College mutaundi rekwavo uye mushure mekusvitsa makore makumi maviri akapinda muMagdalen College muOxford, England, kwaakasimudzira mamakisi ake epamusoro.

Vechidiki

Kubvira achiri mudiki kwazvo, akavaka mukurumbira wakasarudzika sekuda uye semunhu akangwara kutaura naye. Sekureva kwaEvvind Olsholt weyekunyora portal skoletorget.no (2003), Wilde akazvidza chisimba nemitambo. Aya aive mafungiro akanyatsoratidzwa mumutsara unotevera webasa rake Mukadzi asingakoshe (1893):

"Nyika yeChirungu varume vanomhanya vachitevera gava: zvisingataurike mukutsvaga zvisingadyiwi."

Kugara kweLondon

Akagara muLondon mushure mekupedza kudzidza kwake kuyunivhesiti. Kufuridzirwa nemitauro yakadai sanyanduri mukuru weIrish, WB Yeats, uye mukadzi wamambo wePrince of Wales, Lillie Langtry, Oscar Wilde akatanga kunyora nyaya pfupi, mitambo, uye nhetembo. Saizvozvo, akashanda mupepanhau uye akafamba padunhu rekuverenga kuenda kuAmerica (Douthat naHopson mu Mufananidzo waDorian Grey, 2002).

Kutanga kushanda

Zvinyorwa zvake zvekutanga zvaive nhetembo dzepakati. Nekudaro, akakurumidza kuwana kuzivikanwa nekuda kwemitambo yake yekomiki. Yokutanga, Vera; kana, the nihilists, yakatanga kuratidzwa muna 1880. Yakateverwa nezvakaratidzwa zve Iyo fan yeLady Windermere (1892), Mukadzi asingakoshe (1893), Murume akakodzera (1895) uye Kukosha kwekuita zviri pamutemo (1895), yake inozivikanwa yemitambo zvisikwa. Muna 1884, Oscar Wilde akaroora Constance Lloyd, waaive naye nevana vaviri.

Scandal yakatenderedza Mufananidzo weDorian Grey

Munguva yezhizha ra1890, yekutanga edition yenyorwa yega yakanyorwa naOscar Wilde yakabuda muLippincott's Monthly Magazine, Mufananidzo waDorian Grey. Bhuku rakagamuchira kushoropodzwa kwakasimba nekuda kwekunyadzisa neunzenza, iyo yakakurudzira kudzokororwa kwayo pamwe nekuwedzera kwesumo uye zvitsauko zvitsva zvitanhatu. Nechirevo ichi, Wilde akaedza kutarisira uye kupindura kune vatsoropodzi vakanyora basa rake se "ngano isina hunhu."

Zvimwechetezvo, chirevo chekutanga chinozivisa muchidimbu zvirevo zvemhando yehunyanzvi hwehunyanzvi: aestheticism, kuratidzwa - kwakasimbiswa naWilde - ine kukosha kwemukati Icho chinzvimbo chekuchinja mukati meVictorian England, yakavakirwa parunako rwehunyanzvi pasina chero imwe yetsika kana yezvematongerwo enyika chinangwa. Musumo, Wilde anorayirawo vaverengi kuti vasatsvage zvinoreva “pasi pechiso” cheunyanzvi.

Oscar Wilde.

Oscar Wilde.

Nhoroondo yakapfuma kwazvo ndeye mafomu ekunyora

Mufananidzo waDorian Grey musanganiswa weGothic novel zvikamu, tsika komedi zvikamu, uye yemitambo yekuratidzira zvidimbu zvine chekuita nehukama pakati peunyanzvi nekuvimbika. Nekudaro, zvaive zvisingadzivisike kumutsa - zvirinani - kusagadzikana pakati pevateereri veVictorian vakaomarara, nekuda kweichi chikonzero, sumo yaWilde inoyambira kuti "kusiyana kwemaonero maererano nebasa kunoratidza kuti basa iri idzva, rakaoma uye rakakosha."

Chechipiri edition uye chisimba chakatangisa

Kuvhurwa kweshanduro yechipiri (1891) ye Iyo ngano yaDorian Grey zvakabatana nemusangano wekutanga pakati paOscar Wilde naIshe Alfred Douglas (waakadaidza nerudo "Bosie"). Apo iyo Marquis yeQueensberry - baba vashe - vakatsoropodza pachena chiitiko ichi, Chinhu chakamonyoroka chakazopera nekutongwa muna 1895 kwe "kunyadzisa."

Dare rakashandisa Mufananidzo waDorian Grey sehuchapupu nekuda kwenzvimbo dzayo dzakawanda dzine hungochani. Wilde akanyadziswa pachena uye akatongerwa makore maviri echibharo. Munguva iyoyo, akanyorera Lord Alfred tsamba refu yekuora moyo yakanzi Ye profundis (Zvakadzika, MuchiLatin). Paakashanda mutongo wake, akabva kuEngland.

Makore ekupedzisira aWilde

Pakapedza makore ake ekupedzisira achirarama muhurombo pakati peItari neFrance. Muna 1898 akaita bhuku rake rekupedzisira rekunyora (pasi pezita rekunyepedzera), Bharadhi yekuverenga Jeri, nhetembo pamusoro pemanzwiro emusungwa kune mumwe anozourayiwa.

Pakupedzisira, Oscar Wilde akafa nemeningitis musi waNovember 30, 1900., muParis. Akashandurwa kuva Roma Katurike pamubhedha werufu.

Pfupiso yeiyo Mufananidzo waDorian Grey

Basil uye runako rusingagone rweDorian

Ndichiri kumba kwatete vake - Lady Brandon - muimbi ane mukurumbira Basil Hallward anosangana naDorian Grey. Uyu mukomana ane tsika uye akapfuma akapiwa "runako rusingagone" izvo zvinokwezva pakarepo fungidziro yehunyanzvi yemupendi. Neichi chikonzero, Dorian anogara pasi kuti aratidzwe kakawanda. Basil anoyemura iye sekunge aive mumwe wechiGreek wengano gamba kana chimiro.

Pakutanga kweruzivo, muimbi ari kupedzisa mufananidzo wekutanga waDorian sezvaari. Asi (anobvuma kushamwari yake Lord Henry Wotton) pendi haina kunyatsogutsa muimbi nekuti inoratidza zvakanyanya manzwiro aBasil kunaDorian. Lord Henry - anozivikanwa nekuvhundutsa shamwari dzake nekupemberera kwake kwakawanda kwevechidiki, runako, uye neudyire kutsvaga mafaro - haabvumirani, achitenda kuti mufananidzo uyu inyanzvi.

Ishe henry

When Dorian anoonekwa muchidzidzo, Basil anomupa chiratidzo chekurega basa kuna Lord Henry. Basil anotenda kuti Ishe Henry anogona kunge ari pesheni yakaipa pajaya iri Dorian. Kufungira kwakasimbiswa chete mukutanga kurukurirano, umo Ishe Henry vanotsamwisa Dorian nemafungiro ake ekunyepedzera nezve hunhu husingagumi hwerunako nehudiki.

Kutanga kwekutuka

Dorian anobva atuka mufananidzo wake nekunetsekana nechitarisiko chinopera nekufamba kwenguva. Mukutambudzika kwekushushikana, anovimbisa mweya wake kumufananidzo wega unogona kudzikisira mukurumbira wezera. uye izvo zvinokutendera kuti ugare uri mudiki nekusingaperi. Basil, mukuyedza kumufadza, anomutambidza iwo mufananidzo.

Kuonekwa kwehunhu hwenyama uye nechitarisiko cheSibyl

Mumasvondo maviri anotevera, simba raIshe Henry rinowedzera kusimba. Mujaya anozvipira ku "new hedonism" uye anotanga kurarama hupenyu hwakatsaurirwa kutsvaga kwekugutsikana kwenyama. Munguva idzodzo, Dorian anodanana naSibyl Vane, mutambi wechidiki uyo anoita mumitambo yenharaunda dzevarombo dzeLondon. Dorian anoda mitambo yake, iye, mukudzoka, anomuti "muchinda anodakadza."

Panguva iyoyo, James Vane - mukoma waSibyl - haabvumirani nehukama huri kuwedzera uye anoomerera kuti Dorian haana kumukodzera. Kunyange zvakadaro, Sibyl anotorwa nemanzwiro. Anofuratira zvisina kunaka kutaura pamusoro paDorian uye anosarudza kurega kuita nekuti haachadi kunyepedzera pachikuva, nekuti "ikozvino anonzwa chimwe chinhu chaicho."

Kuzorora uye kuyananisa kusingaiti

Nehurombo, kuita ndihwo hunhu hunodiwa naDorian nezvake, saka, inogumisa kubatanidzwa nenzira ine hutsinye. Mushure mekurambana, Dorian anodzokera kumba uye anoona shanduko mumufananidzo wakapendwa naBasil: ikozvino anonyemwerera nekuzvidza.

Kutya kusanzwisisika kwekupedzisira kwehurwere uye hunhu hwechitadzo hunoratidzwa nekanivhasi, anosarudza kuyanana naSibyl zuva rinotevera.

Asi kukuvara kwacho hakugadzirisike, masikati anotevera Ishe Henry vanozivisa Dorian kuti Sibyl azviuraya. Pakukurudzirwa kwaIshe Henry, Dorian akatsunga kuona rufu serudzi rwekukunda kwehunyanzvi, kwaanofananidza nhamo uye anosiya kumashure chero kushungurudzika. Ehe, Dorian anosarudza kuviga mufananidzo wake mune imwe kamuri kumusoro kweimba yake kuitira kuti avanze shanduko kubva kune vamwe.

"Bhaibheri idzva" raDorian

Gare gare, Lord Henry anotambidza Dorian kwaari bhuku rine tsananguro dzakamonyaniswa dzemapurazi eXNUMXth century mugari weFrance. Chinyorwa ichi chinova "bhaibheri idzva" raDorian. Nekudaro, iye anofunga kupinza muhupenyu hwakazara nechivi nehuwori, pasina kuzvidemba kunokonzerwa nemitemo yetsika kana mhedzisiro yezviito zvake. Iwo wega murairo ndewekusagutsikana kuunganidza zvinonakidza zviitiko.

Oscar Wilde akatorwa.

Oscar Wilde akatorwa.

Iyo isina tariro kufamba kwenguva uye mukurumbira wekuora kwaDorian

Makore gumi nemasere anopfuura. Mukurumbira waDorian uri kudzikira muLondon masekete enharaunda nekuda kwerunyerekupe rusingaperi maererano nehunhu hwake hwakashata nekusatendeseka. Kunyangwe zvese, vanokudzwa vanoramba vachimugamuchira nekuti anoramba ari mudiki uye akanaka. Kunyangwe kumeso kuri kupenda mumufananidzo kuchitaridzika kunge kwakasvava uye kwakashata.

Basil, iwo matsva maficha eDorian portrait uye kufa

Pahusiku hune rima uye husina kusimba, Basil Hallward anouya kumba kwaDorian kuzomupomera nezve runyerekupe nezve mukurumbira wake. Vanotanga kuitisana nharo. Munguva iyoyo, Basil anoona kuora kwemweya waDorian, uyo anomuratidza mufananidzo unotyisa.

Iyo pendi inomukumbira kuti afunge zvakare. Asi Dorian anochema achiti "nguva yapera kunonoka" uye, mukutsamwa, anouraya Basil. Kuti abvise chitunha, Dorian chiokomuhomwe uye anokumbira rubatsiro kubva kuna asinganzwisisike chiremba. Husiku hunotevera, Dorian anonanga kune opiamu cache, kwaanosangana naJames Vane, uyo anoedza kutsiva kufa kwehanzvadzi yake Sibyl. Dorian anokwanisa kutizira kuimba yake yenyika. Ikoko, anoona zvakare James akatarisa nepahwindo achishandira vamwe vaenzi.

Kuzvidemba kwaDorian uye "shanduko"

Dorian zvakare akazadzwa nekutya uye nemhosva. Kunyangwe kunzwa uku kuchinyangarika kana Vane achidonha nekuda kwepfuti netsaona yemuvhimi. Zviitiko zvechangobva kuitika zvinotyaira Dorian kutsvaga shanduko mumararamiro ake, haachagona kuramba achidzika munzira yekunyadzisa. Kunyangwe iye asingakwanise kureurura mhosva dzake ... izvozvi pendi inoratidzira kutaura kwakasiyana: unyengeri.

Rufu

Pakupedzisira, Dorian haakwanise kutakura kumeso kwekudhirowa kwake; Akatsamwa, anoshandisa banga rimwe chete raakauraya naro Hallward kuti aparadze mufananidzo. Varanda vake vanonzwa kuputsika. Kuenda kunotarisa, ivo vanogadzikana iwo mufananidzo wechidiki uye akanaka Dorian Grey. Padivi pekupenda, mutumbi weharahwa yakashatiswa zvine banga rakanamirwa muchipfuva chake.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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